89th Airlift Wing
The 89th Airlift Wing of the United States Air Force is based at Joint Base Andrews and has an operational force of over 1,000 personnel. The 89th provides global Special Air Mission airlift, aerial port and communications for the President, Vice President, Combat Commanders, senior leaders and the global mobility system as tasked by the White House, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Air Mobility Command. 89th Operations Group1st Airlift Squadron – C-32, C-40 99th Airlift Squadron – C-20, C-37Presidential Airlift Group – VC-25Presidential Airlift Squadron89th Maintenance Group 89th Airlift Support Group The wing was first activated as the 89th Troop Carrier Wing at Hanscom Field, Massachusetts in June 1949, when Continental Air Command reorganized its reserve tactical units under the wing base organization. The wing drew its cadre from the 3d Air Division, inactivated; the wing trained at Hanscom under the supervision of the 2234th Air Force Reserve Training Center for troop carrier operations.
Although its 89th Troop Carrier Group was assigned four squadrons, rather than the three authorized for active duty groups, it was only manned at 25% of its authorized strength. The 89th, along with all reserve combat units, was mobilized for the Korean war, it was called to active duty on 1 May 1951 and its personnel and aircraft were distributed to other organizations to bring them to full strength. The wing was inactivated on 10 May 1951; the reserve mobilization for the Korean War left the reserve without aircraft, reserve units did not receive aircraft until July 1952. Continental Air Command redesignated the wing the 89th Fighter-Bomber Wing and activated it at Hanscom, where it drew its personnel from the 913th Reserve Training Wing, a non-flying training organization, activated at Hanscom in July 1951. Although titled a fighter bomber unit, the wing had an air defense role, only assuming a tactical fighter mission; the wing equipped with propeller-driven North American P-51 Mustangs, but in 1953 began to equip with Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars.
By 1957 it began to receive North American F-86 Sabres. In the mid-1950s, the Joint Chiefs of Staff were pressuring the Air Force to provide more wartime airlift. At the same time, about 150 Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars became available from the active force. In November 1956 the Air Force directed Continental Air Command to convert three reserve fighter bomber wings, including the 89th, to the troop carrier mission by September 1957. In addition, within the Air Staff was a recommendation that the reserve fighter mission given to the Air National Guard and replaced by the troop carrier mission. Although the wing began to receive Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars in 1957, it was inactivated in November and its personnel and equipment were transferred to the 94th Troop Carrier Wing, which moved on paper to Hanscom from Dobbins Air Force Base, Georgia. In January 1966, wing assumed the personnel and equipment of 1254th Air Transport Wing and served as a special mission airlift wing charged with providing worldwide airlift for the Executive Department and high-ranking dignitaries of the U.
S. Government and of foreign governments, as directed, it assumed an additional mission of controlling all T-39 administrative airlift within the United States from 1975 to 1978 and continued maintenance support to 1984. It added rescue and medical evacuation to its mission. In October 1976, the wing began training C-12 pilots for units in Alaska and Germany, for duty with defense attaché offices and military assistance units; the 89th was reduced in size in 1977 through transfer of many aircraft and inactivation of units, became a group on 30 September 1977. The 89th was redesignated in 1980 as a selectively manned wing. In addition to primary mission of airlifting the President, Vice-President, cabinet members, other high U. S. government officials, foreign dignitaries, the wing participated in humanitarian missions in the U. S. and abroad. It provided transport for personnel and supplies to Southwest Asia from 1990 to 1991. In 1991, the 89th airlifted home 20 former prisoners of war from Iraqi captivity.
It became host wing of Andrews Air Force Base in July 1991 and subsequently relinquished that responsibility to the 316th Wing in 2006. Established as the 89th Troop Carrier Wing, Medium on 10 May 1949Activated in the reserve on 27 June 1949 Ordered to active service on 1 May 1951 Inactivated on 10 May 1951Redesignated 89th Fighter-Bomber Wing on 26 May 1952Activated in the reserve on 14 June 1952 Inactivated on 16 November 1957Redesignated 89th Military Airlift Wing, Special Mission and activated on 27 December 1965 Organized on 8 January 1966 Redesignated 89th Military Airlift Group on 30 September 1977 Redesignated 89th Military Airlift Wing on 15 December 1980 Redesignated 89th Airlift Wing on 12 July 1991 First Air Force, 27 June 1949 – 10 May 1951 First Air Force, 14 June 1952 – 16 November 1957 Military Air Transport Service, 27 December 1965 76th Airlift Division, 1 July 1976 76th Military Airlift Wing, 30 September 1977 76th Airlift Division, 15 December 1980 Twenty-First Air Force, 1 October 1985 Eighteenth Air Force, 1 October 2003 – present Groups 89th Troop Carrier Group: 27 June 1949 – 10 May 1951.
Professional agrologist in Canada called Certified professional agronomist in the United States or agronome in Québec is a certification for the agrology profession in North America. There are 10,000 professional agrologists and agronomes in Canada registered in 10 provincial institutes of agrology as well as 13,000 Certified professional agronomists in the United States. Agrologists act as consultants to the agricultural sector, using fields such as animal science, food science, genetic engineering, soil science and environmental sciences. Professional agrologists are found providing advice directly to farmers, in communications and financial roles, in the fertilizer and seed business, food processing plants, in turf management and golf course operations as well as in agricultural organizations and corporations. Agrologists are engaged in a wide variety of agricultural operations as advisors to crop or livestock production. Much of their work is involved in troubleshooting pests or disease in farming operations and determining cultivar choice and pesticide application.
Agrologists are employed by supply companies in order to advise them of the most up to date research and what it means for their products. In Canada, professional agrologists are certified through a Self-regulatory organization or SRO. There are 10 such SROs in one in every province; the requirements for certification differ in every province, but a prospective is required to have a 4-year Honours degree related to the agricultural sciences and to have completed a 2-year mentorship program, an apprenticeship with a certified professional agrologist. An agrologist undergoing their apprenticeship is referred to as either Agrologist-in-training or an Articling Agrologist depending on the province. In the United States, the American Society of Agronomy is the SRO responsible for certification; the American Society of Agronomy uses a sliding scale of education and experience to determine certification - it is required to have either a bachelor's degree and 5 years work experience, a master's degree and 3 years work experience, or a Doctorate and a single year of work experience.
CPAgs are required to complete at least 50 hours of continuing education through the American Society of Agronomy every 2 years in order to retain their certification. Certification is a voluntary quality standard everywhere except in the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Québec and Nova Scotia, where certification with the provincial agrology institute is mandatory in order to practice agrology in that province. In Manitoba and Ontario, a lesser certification called Technical Agrologist is available, requiring a two-year college or university education in the agricultural sciences instead of a 4-year honours degree. Certified technical agrologists take the title T. Ag. and require the same mentorship process as a professional agrologist. Alberta has a similar regulated member designation titled "Registered Technologist in Agrology". In the United States, the American society of agronomy provides certifications for "Certified crop advisors", nearly identical to their CPAg designation except that it requires only 2 years experience with a bachelor's degree, instead of the regular 5 years.
In Canada, "certified crop advisor" is an available certification in the prairie provinces through the Prairie Certified Crop Adviser Board. Unlike P. Ags, Canadian certified crop advisors do not require a university degree. Instead they are required to pass standardized exams and complete continuing education courses to keep their credentials up to date. Agronomy Agricultural Science Agricultural engineering Horticulture Animal Science Botany American Society of Agronomy American Society of Agronomy Agricultural Institute of Canada Alberta Institute of Agrologists British Columbia Institute of Agrologists Manitoba Institute of Agrologists New Brunswick Institute of Agrologists Newfoundland and Labrador Institutes of Agrologists Nova Scotia Institute of Agrologists Ontario Institute of Agrologists Prince Edward Island Institute of Agrologists Saskatchewan Institute of Agrologists l'Ordre des Agronomes du Québec
Perimeter Aviation is an airline with its head office on the property of Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport in Winnipeg, Canada. Perimeter Aviation operates 32 aircraft on scheduled and medevac service, it was established and started operations in 1960. It operates scheduled passenger services from Winnipeg to 23 destinations, freight and MEDEVAC services, its main base is Winnipeg International Airport. Perimeter is the largest carrier in Manitoba, in terms of number of number of flights; as of January 2017, Perimeter provides scheduled passenger service to the following destinations: Manitoba Berens River Brochet Cross Lake Gods Lake Narrows Gods River Island Lake/Garden Hill Lac Brochet Norway House Oxford House Red Sucker Lake St. Theresa Point/Wasagamack Shamattawa South Indian Lake Tadoule Lake Thompson Winnipeg York Factory First Nation Ontario Bearskin Lake First Nation Deer Lake First Nation North Caribou Lake First Nation or Weagamow First Nation North Spirit Lake First Nation Pikangikum First Nation Sachigo Lake First Nation Sandy Lake First Nation Sioux Lookout Perimeter Aviation operates more than 30 aircraft and as of July 2018 there were 46 aircraft registered to Perimeter Aviation with Transport Canada: In addition Transport Canada lists a Beechcraft Travel Air but with a cancelled certificate.
Perimeter operates more than 30 aircraft on scheduled, MEDEVAC service with all aircraft having two engines for safety reasons. These include 10 Metros variants, 5 Dash-8's; the Metros can be configured from straight freighter configuration to 19-seat commuter interior. The Dash-8s can be configured to 37 seats, 29 seats, 21 seats, for the 100 series or 45 and 50 seat configuration for the 300 series. Straight freighter configuration can accommodate up to 12,000 lb of cargo. Perimeter Airlines has had five reported accidents. 1 November 1996, a Swearingen SA.226TC Metro II aircraft was on a scheduled flight to Gods River from Gods Lake Narrows. With about 345 ft to the threshold of runway 27 the right hand main gear touched the ground and collapsed. After travelling about 20 ft they hit a ridge of snow; the left gear touched down about 326 ft ahead of the threshold and the aircraft went off the right side of the runway. The aircraft had two pilots and five passengers on board and there were no fatalities or injuries but the aircraft was a write off.
11 or 12 October 2001, a Swearingen SA.226TC Metro II Perimeter Flight 962 arrived at Shamattawa on a MEDIVAC flight to pick up a patient. It was night and the aircraft was coming into runway 01 too fast and too high so the crew performed a missed approach. Flying to the left of the runway centreline the aircraft hit some trees and came to rest in some muskeg. There were three people on board, both pilots were killed and the third person required hospitalization. 8 November 2006, a Swearingen SA.226TC Metro II was touching down at Norway House. The crew selected propeller reverse and the aircraft turned to the left with the main tire making contact with some loose snow; the aircraft climbed an embankment where the landing gear collapsed. The seven passengers and two crew evacuated the plane safely but it was a write off. On 23 December 2012, a Swearingen SA227-AC Metro III passenger plane with nine people aboard, operated by Perimeter on behalf of Kivalliq Air crashed at Sanikiluaq Airport in Sanikiluaq, killing an infant boy and injuring all the others.
The aircraft was on a second approach at the time. Perimeter Aviation
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a technique used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules proteins or nucleic acids, according to their electrophoretic mobility. Electrophoretic mobility is a function of the length and charge of the molecule. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool used to analyze RNA samples; when polyacrylamide gel is denatured after electrophoresis, it provides information on the sample composition of the RNA species. Hydration of acrylonitrile results in formation of acrylamide molecules by nitrile hydratase. Acrylamide monomer is in a powder state before addition of water. Acrylamide is toxic to the human nervous system, therefore all safety measures must be followed when working with it. Acrylamide is soluble in water and upon addition of water it polymerizes resulting in formation of polyacrylamide, it is useful to make polyacrylamide gel via acrylmide hydration. Increased concentrations of acrylamide result in decreased pore size after polymerization.
Polyacrylamide gel with small pores helps to examine smaller molecules better since the small molecules can enter the pores and travel through the gel while large molecules get trapped at the pore openings. As with all forms of gel electrophoresis, molecules may be run in their native state, preserving the molecules' higher-order structure; this method is called native-PAGE. Alternatively, a chemical denaturant may be added to remove this structure and turn the molecule into an unstructured molecule whose mobility depends only on its length; this procedure is called SDS-PAGE. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a method of separating molecules based on the difference of their molecular weight. At the pH at which gel electrophoresis is carried out the SDS molecules are negatively charged and bind to proteins in a set ratio one molecule of SDS for every 2 amino acids. In this way, the detergent provides all proteins with a uniform charge-to-mass ratio. By binding to the proteins the detergent destroys their secondary, tertiary and/or quaternary structure denaturing them and turning them into negatively charged linear polypeptide chains.
When subjected to an electric field in PAGE, the negatively charged polypeptide chains travel toward the anode with different mobility. Their mobility, or the distance traveled by molecules, is inversely proportional to the logarithm of their molecular weight. By comparing the relative ratio of the distance traveled by each protein to the length of the gel one can make conclusions about the relative molecular weight of the proteins, where the length of the gel is determined by the distance traveled by a small molecule like a tracking dye. For nucleic acids, urea is the most used denaturant. For proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate is an anionic detergent applied to protein samples to coat proteins in order to impart two negative charges to every two amino acids of the denatured protein. 2-Mercaptoethanol may be used to disrupt the disulfide bonds found between the protein complexes, which helps further denature the protein. In most proteins, the binding of SDS to the polypeptide chains impart an distribution of charge per unit mass, thereby resulting in a fractionation by approximate size during electrophoresis.
Proteins that have a greater hydrophobic content — for instance, many membrane proteins, those that interact with surfactants in their native environment — are intrinsically harder to treat using this method, due to the greater variability in the ratio of bound SDS. Procedurally, using both Native and SDS-PAGE together can be used to purify and to separate the various subunits of the protein. Native-PAGE keeps the oligomeric form intact and will show a band on the gel, representative of the level of activity. SDS-PAGE will denature and separate the oligomeric form into its monomers, showing bands that are representative of their molecular weights; these bands can be used to assess the purity of the protein. Samples may be any material containing nucleic acids; these may be biologically derived, for example from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, viruses, environmental samples, or purified proteins. In the case of solid tissues or cells, these are first broken down mechanically using a blender, using a homogenizer, by sonicator or by using cycling of high pressure, a combination of biochemical and mechanical techniques – including various types of filtration and centrifugation – may be used to separate different cell compartments and organelles prior to electrophoresis.
Synthetic biomolecules such as oligonucleotides may be used as analytes. The sample to analyze is optionally mixed with a chemical denaturant if so desired SDS for proteins or urea for nucleic acids. SDS is an anionic detergent that denatures secondary and non–disulfide–linked tertiary structures, additionally applies a negative charge to each protein in proportion to its mass. Urea breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs of the nucleic acid, causing the constituent strands to anneal. Heating the samples to at least 60 °C further promotes denaturation. In addition to SDS, proteins may optionally be heated to near boiling in the presence of a reducing agent, such as dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol, which further denatures the proteins by reducing disulfide linkages, thus overcoming some forms of tertiary protein folding, breaking up quaternary protein structure (oligomeric subun
Pagadian Airport, classified Principal Airport Class 1 or major domestic by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, is the airport serving the city of Pagadian, the rest of the province of Zamboanga del Sur, the province of Zamboanga Sibugay in the Philippines. The CAAP is the arm of the Department of Transportation and Communications which operates all the airports in the Philippines except the major international airports; the airport is located 5 kilometers from the city center and is situated in Barangays Muricay and Tiguma in Pagadian. In 2006, the airport underwent a PHP 379.46 million-worth rehabilitation and facility upgrade and was completed in December 2009. On October 9, 2009, Former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo inaugurated the renovated airport; the first aircraft to land on the rehabilitated runway was a Fokker 70 of the Philippine Air Force carrying the Presidential Security Group followed by a chartered Dornier 328 of the Royal Star Aviation with tail number RP-C8328 carrying the presidential entourage.
The chartered jet from San Miguel Corporation with tail number RP-C8576 which served as the presidential jet was last to land. The airport recommenced commercial operation on April 27, 2010 accommodating the first Cebu Pacific flight from Cebu City to Pagadian; the same airline sent a plane from Manila to Pagadian on June 9, 2010 which commenced the airline's Pagadian to/from Manila flight offering. Under Aquino's PPP program, the airport was entitled to a 42 million subsidy for upgrading of its facilities; this includes extension of runway, widening of taxiway and improvement of passenger terminal building and expansion of vehicular parking area, construction of drainage system, construction of perimeter fence. List of airports in the Philippines World Aero Data - Pagadian Airport Details Pagadian.org - Pagadian Airport Almost Done Pagadian Airport Re-opens
Propylene glycol is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2. It is a viscous, colorless liquid, nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Chemically it is classed as a diol and is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water and chloroform, it is produced on a large scale and is used in the production of polymers, but sees use in food processing, as a process fluid in low-temperature heat-exchange applications. In the European Union, it has the E-number E1520 for food applications. For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490. Propylene glycol is present in propylene glycol alginate which known as E405; the compound is sometimes called α-propylene glycol to distinguish it from the isomer propane-1,3-diol, known as β-propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a clear and hygroscopic liquid. Propylene glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two enantiomers; the commercial product is a racemic mixture. Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide.
The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol, owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent. In general, glycols are non-corrosive, have low volatility and low toxicity. Industrially, propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide, global capacity in 1990 was 900,000 tonnes per year. Different manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 °C to 220 °C, or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 °C to 180 °C in the presence of ion exchange resin or a small amount of sulfuric acid or alkali. Final products contain 20% propylene glycol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols. Further purification produces finished industrial grade or USP/JP/EP/BP grade propylene glycol, 99.5% or greater. Propylene glycol can be converted from glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct; this starting material is reserved for industrial use because of the noticeable odor and taste that accompanies the final product.
S-Propanediol may be synthesized from D-mannitol, through the following scheme: Forty-five percent of propylene glycol produced is used as chemical feedstock for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. In this regard, propylene glycol reacts with a mixture of unsaturated maleic anhydride and isophthalic acid to give a copolymer; this unsaturated polymer undergoes further crosslinking to yield thermoset plastics. Related to this application, propylene glycol reacts with propylene oxide to give oligomers and polymers that are used to produce polyurethanes. Propylene glycol is used in waterbased acrylic architectural paints to extend dry time which it accomplishes by preventing the surface from drying due to its slower evaporation rate compared to water. Propylene glycol is used as a humectant and preservative in food and for tobacco products, it is one of the major ingredients, along with Vegetable Glycerin, of the e-liquid and cartridges used in electronic cigarettes where it is aerosolized in the atomizer.
It is used in model railway and model boat applications to simulate steam or smoke, using a small heating element. Over time, there has been a reported increase in the use of PG in personal care products in the United States. In a 1994 safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review noted use of PG in 5676 products listed in the Voluntary Cosmetic Registry. Propylene glycol is used in various edible items such as coffee-based drinks, liquid sweeteners, ice cream, whipped dairy products and soda. Vaporizers used for delivery of pharmaceuticals or personal-care products include propylene glycol among the ingredients. In alcohol-based hand sanitizers, it is used as a humectant to prevent the skin from drying. Propylene glycol is used as a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral and topical formulations, such as for diazepam and lorazepam which are insoluble in water. Certain formulations of artificial tears, such as Systane, use proplyene glycol as an ingredient. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is able to lower the freezing point of water, so it is used as aircraft de-icing fluid.
Water-propylene glycol mixtures dyed pink to indicate the mixture is nontoxic are sold under the name of RV or marine antifreeze. Propylene glycol is used as a substitute for ethylene glycol in low toxicity, environmentally friendly automotive antifreeze, it is used to winterize the plumbing systems in vacant structures. The eutectic composition/temperature is 60:40 propylene glycol:water/-60 °C; the −50 °F/−45 °C commercial product is, water rich. Propylene glycol is used in veterinary medicine as an oral treatment for hyperketonaemia in ruminants. Glucose, which can be used in non-ruminants for this purpose, is not effective due to its consumption by the resident microbes of the rumen. Propylene glycol is metabolized in the rumen to propionate which can be used as an energy source; the remainder is used by the liver for gluconeogenesis. A study by Corrie Moreau and colleagues showed that propylene glycol was similar to 95% ethanol as a preservative for ant DNA, important because Propylene glycol is much less flammable, does not evaporate (so is