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PBA World Championship

The PBA World Championship is one of five major PBA bowling events. Prior to 2002, the tournament was called the PBA National Championship; the PBA National Championship was first contested on November 28, 1960 called the First Annual National Championship. Tournament champions win the Earl Anthony Trophy, named in honor of the late PBA legend who won this title a record six times; the World Championship has offered a $100,000 top prize, most in 2020. The National Championship and World Championship have been contested over the years using a variety of formats; the PBA World Championship format is different from normal PBA Tour events. Since the 2009–10 season, the initial qualifying scores for the World Championship have come from other stand-alone tournaments at the PBA World Series of Bowling. Thus, the current tournament is open to any PBA member who enters the World Series of Bowling. For the 2009–10 season, the PBA World Championship was part of the World Series of Bowling held in Allen Park and was contested in a split format.

The qualifying rounds of the tournament were contested August 31 – September 4, with the televised finals being broadcast live on ESPN December 13, 2009. The PBA again held the World Series of Bowling in 2010, moving it to Las Vegas and again used it as qualifying for the 2010–11 PBA World Championship; this time, the 60-game qualifying scores for the five "animal pattern" championships held at the World Series were used to determine the 8-bowler TV field for the PBA World Championship finals. The World Championship finals were televised live over a PBA first. Combined scores from the 30 games of qualifying on the Cheetah 33, Chameleon 39 and Scorpion 42 oil patterns determine the top 45 for the cashers round of the PBA World Championship; these 45 players bowl ten more games on the Earl Anthony 43 oil pattern, named after the six-time winner of this event. The cashers field is subsequently cut to 16 players for two eight-game, roundrobin match play rounds. Total pinfall from all 56 qualifying games, including 30 bonus pins for head-to-head match play wins, determines the five players that advance to the televised finals.

A five-player stepladder format was used in the 2019 PBA World Championship finals, contested March 21 in Allen Park, Michigan. The tournament had 135 entries and a total prize fund of $332,450. One-third of the field cashed, with the champion earning $60,000. Number 1 seed Jason Belmonte defended his 2017 PBA World Championship title, defeating Jakob Butturff 236–227 in the final match for his record-setting 11th career major championship. Prize Pool:1. Jason Belmonte – $60,000 2. Jakob Butturff, – $30,000 3. Matt McNeil, – $25,000 4. Bill O'Neill, – $20,000 5. BJ Moore, – $15,000 + Due to the 2012–13 "Super Season" running from November 2012 to December 2013, there were two PBA World Championship events: one in November 2012 and one in November 2013. PBA.com site

Irlen syndrome

Irlen syndrome referred to as scotopic sensitivity syndrome or Meares-Irlen syndrome rarely as asfedia, also as visual stress, is a proposed disorder of vision. In 1980 New Zealand teacher Olive Meares described the visual distortions some individuals reported when reading from white paper. In 1983, American psychologist Helen Irlen wrote a paper about the use of coloured overlays aiding the reading abilities of some people. Similar symptoms were separately described by Irlen -- each unaware of the other's work. Irlen, the first to systematically define the condition, named her findings "scotopic sensitivity", though in the discussions and debates over the following years some referred to it as Meares-Irlen syndrome, it remains controversial whether non-Irlen-certified Meares-Irlen syndrome and the original Irlen syndrome are the same condition. Irlen syndrome, for example, seems to include a broader array of symptoms, including severe variants of the core condition. Basic testing for scotopic sensitivity was tried by optometrists and orthoptists in UK hospitals, by optometrists and opticians in private practice employing a technique that used the Intuitive Colorimeter, developed under Medical Research Council license.

An alternative approach to correct Irlen syndrome was tried by Orthoscopics franchise in the UK, with wide colour coverage and tints manufactured by Hoyato match. Other commercial organisations have produced sets of therapeutic tints, although most have not received scientific evaluation; the disorders have been studied in several institutions, including the Psychology Department at Essex University, the former Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge University in England, in the case of Meares-Irlen syndrome, Visual Unit at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland. As of 2012 the Visual Stress Unit offered non-commercial diagnostic and therapeutic services to individuals, provided advice to the Scottish National Health Service. In Australia, Irlen syndrome was researched by Paul Whiting at the University of Sydney. Whiting set up the first Irlen Dyslexia Centre in Australia, which operated in the Children's Centre at Sydney University for more than 15 years. Irlen syndrome was studied in Australia by Greg Robinson at the University of Newcastle.

He was director of the Special Education Centre at the School of Education. In the US, peer-reviewed literature on the topic suggests that much is unknown about the cause of these disorders, ranging from the 2011 study in a journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, "Irlen Colored Overlays Do not Alleviate Reading Difficulties" and the 2012 study in the journal Brain Topography, "A Functional Neuroimaging Case Study of Meares–Irlen Syndrome"; the first, purely in relation to Meares-Irlen syndrome, finds that there is no evidence for one of the fundamental claims of therapeutic benefit. The second, which focused on Irlen syndrome, found compelling evidence of unique brain function linked to the syndrome; the College of Optometrists has specified guidelines for optometrists who use the colorimeter system. A society for coloured lens prescribers has been established to provide a list of eye-care practitioners with expertise in the provision of coloured lenses for the treatment of visual stress.

The Irlen Method uses coloured tinted lenses in the form of glass or contact lenses. The method is intended to eliminate perceptual processing errors. Skepticism relating to scotopic sensitivity syndrome's exact pathology has evolved on several fronts: Whether it exists as a distinct, predictably identifiable disease with a reasonable pathophysiological mechanism, or whether a range of symptoms from other conditions are being placed under this convenient heading. A 2009 report by the American Academy of Pediatrics does not believe that there is conclusive scientific evidence for the use of coloured lenses although it acknowledges anecdotal evidence to the contrary; when discussing its scientific basis, the AAP mentions that "he method used to select the lens or filter color has been variable, the color selection has shown considerable variability, the test-retest consistency has been poor". The association of scotopic sensitivity syndrome and dyslexia has been challenged by many authors in the optometric and ophthalmologic communities.

Furthermore, many special education departments at universities challenge the validity of coloured lenses as an effective treatment for the condition as outlined by the Macquarie University Special Education Centre. In a joint statement, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and American Association of Certified Orthoptists repudiated the use of lenses, stating that there was no scientific evidence supporting their use; the expense of such treatment may divert resources from evidence-based treatment. Critics claim that the symptoms of those with Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome are related to known visual perceptual and neurological disorders. According to a statement released by the American Optometric Association in 2004: There is evidence that the underlying symptoms associated with Meares Irlen Syndrome, are related to identifiable vision anomalies, e.g. accommodative and ocular motor d

Jim Lane (mayor)

W. J. "Jim" Lane is an American politician, the current mayor of Scottsdale, Arizona. He is a former Scottsdale, Arizona city councilman. Lane is a resident in the northern portion of Scottsdale. Lane has been a Scottsdale resident since 1973. Prior to entering politics, Lane was a businessman, he attended Seton Hall Preparatory School in New Jersey. Having graduated with a BS in accounting from Saint Joseph's University, Lane went on to work as a certified public accountant and financial statement auditor for KPMG for 20 years, between 1976 and 1996. Lane was elected president and chief operating officer of StatesWest Airlines on January 31, 1990. Shortly after, StatesWest Airlines discontinued all flying under its own name and entered into an agreement with USAir to operate as USAir Express, he is the owner of Scottsdale-based internet service provider, financial consulting, telecommunications company Chatham Hill Group LLC. Lane was an adjunct instructor of business and accounting at Scottsdale Community College.

Outside of business, Lane spent several years as an officer of the Board Of Management of the Scottsdale Paradise Valley YMCA. In the summer of 2001, Lane was appointed to the city of Scottsdale's Fire and Emergency medical services Advisory Committee, he came to prominence locally for leading opposition to the proposed termination of the city's fire protection contract with Rural/Metro, he co-chaired the Know Enough to Vote NO Committee, which advocated against Propositions 200 and 201. In April, 2003 Lane authored op-eds in the Phoenix Business Journal and the Scottsdale Republic in favor of retaining Rural/Metro, arguing that the existing private fire and EMS services were "excellent" and the measures would end up costing more while Scottsdale was experiencing a budget deficit, his effort was successful and the ballot measures were defeated by a wide margin, but Rural/Metro decided a few months to abandon its work in Scottsdale after its contract expired in 2005, leading to the establishment of Scottsdale's municipal fire department.

In a subsequent op-ed, Lane placed blame for the development on the International Association of Firefighters labor union, who had backed the measures, were in failed contract negotiations with Rural/Metro. Lane's early political involvement established the fiscal conservatism and engagement in economic issues that he would run on. In 2004, Lane was a candidate for the Scottsdale City Council, he ran as a political outsider. Lane pledged to foster greater transparency and accountability, cut taxes, reduce spending by ending preferential treatment and subsidies for businesses, he supported all three measures on the ballot with the City Council vote, which would increase the sales tax to support the McDowell Sonoran Preserve purchases and increase police and fire funding. He campaigned on revitalization of south Scottsdale, noise reduction at the Scottsdale Airport, ensuring the smooth creation of Scottsdale's new fire department. Lane's candidacy for city council was endorsed by the Scottsdale Area Chamber of Commerce, the Arizona Republic, the Coalition of Pinnacle Peak, a local fiscal responsibility political action committee.

In a March primary election, all but one of the council candidates failed to secure the amount needed to avoid a runoff election. Lane places third in a field of nine candidates competing 4 open seats; the six candidates that moved on to the May 2004 general election placed in the same order as in the runoff. Lane was inaugurated to his first term on the city council on June 8, 2004. Soon after his election, Lane joined other new council members-elect in criticizing the outgoing council's decision to vote on a controversial new compensation plan for the city manager on their last meeting, calling provisions that restricted the city council's ability to remove the city manager a violation of the city charter. An opponent of the city's expenditures on the development of the Los Arcos Mall site, in July 2004 Lane opposed the proposed ASU Scottsdale Center for New Technology and Innovation on the same site, which he considered a risky investment not worth the city's subsidy. Lane expressed support for the banning of all subsidies and tax incentives for private businesses by the city government, supported state legislation making such practices illegal.

After Lane and fellow conservative Bob Littlefield were left out of the budget subcommittee's membership, Lane accused Mayor Mary Manross of politicizing the subcommittee appointments. In late 2005, Lane voted against the installation of photo radar speed enforcement on the Loop 101 freeway. Lane was critical of three fellow council members during the Scottsdale's city council 2006 election, after, in what became a minor scandal, secretly "having a shill, Karl J. Kulick, represent himself as an independent voter to challenge" a candidate, disqualified for coming just under the signature requirement; however and some other council members raised eyebrows by endorsing candidates for the first time, rather than remaining neutral as had been traditional for sitting city council members. In 2007, Lane voted against a proposed plan to extend protections against discriminatory hiring practices to gay and transgender employees. In December 2007 a similar measure was passed by the City Council, again with La

Take Me Away (Avril Lavigne song)

"Take Me Away" is a song by Canadian singer/songwriter Avril Lavigne, taken as a promotional single from her second studio album Under My Skin. It was written by herself and Evan Taubenfeld, whilst production was handled by Don Gilmore; the song has a metal sound and started playing on Canadian rock radio in March 2004, at around the same time that the album's lead single, "Don't Tell Me", was being promoted. The song was included as the B-side on the physical release of "Don't Tell Me" in many regions, re-released digitally as a promotional single from the album on May 24, 2004. "Take Me Away" received mixed reviews from music critics. Some critics complimented the composition and musical styles, whilst the rest criticized her songwriting and negatively compared it to the work of fellow Canadian artist Alanis Morissette. "Take Me Away" was written by Avril Lavigne and Evan Taubenfeld, was produced by Don Gilmore. It serves as the opening track to her second studio album Under My Skin and was first featured as a B-side of the album's lead single, "Don't Tell Me", CD Single in many regions, including Australia and Europe.

On May 24, 2004, the track was re-released as a digital download on the iTunes Store as the promotional single for Under My Skin, released on the next day. The tracks "I Always Get What I Want" and "He Wasn't", which appeared on the parent album, were released digitally on the same date. According to the Australasian Performing Right Association, Lavigne has recorded another song titled "Take Me Away", it was written by the music production team The Matrix. The Lavigne and Matrix track was meant to be on Lavigne's debut studio album, Let Go, but didn't make the final track listing. "Take Me Away" lasts for a duration of two minutes and fifty seven seconds. It is composed in the key of E minor and is set in time signature of common time, with a moderate tempo of 99 beats per minute; the song has a basic sequence of F♯m-C♯m-D–E as its chord progression, features a vocal range spanning from B3 to D♯5. "Take Me Away"'s lyrics are an outcry for her being unable to handle the confusion and hoping someone will take her out of the chaos.

Annabel Leathes of BBC Music compared the song to another ballad from Under My Skin, "My Happy Ending", since they both "pivot on the pain and despair of relationships going off the boil and, despite the stadium-rousing choruses." "Take Me Away" received mixed reviews by some critics. Annabel Leathes from BBC Music wrote that the song "pivot on the pain and despair of relationships going off the boil and, despite the stadium-rousing choruses Lavigne's whiney vocals and trite lyrics imply that madam is having a strop rather than wearing the hair shirt of Alanis Morissette-style suffering." Lance Fiasco from idobi Radio shared that "Take Me Away" and Lavigne's previous single, "Losing Grip", are the harder-edged hair-messers that showed her grrl badge, demonstrating the once-poisonous sting of Alanis. Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine labelled "Take Me Away" a "head-banging" opening track from the album which conjured'80s metal with heaps of guitars and vocal overdubs. Along with the release of Under My Skin, the musical style of "Take Me Away" was compared with American rock band Evanescence.

James R. Minchin III of Entertainment Weekly spoke out that Lavigne has transformed into a dour teen who seems to have spent way too much time listening to Evanescence. Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine noted that Lavigne's sound was now much heavier and darker and compared her to Amy Lee, the co-founder and lead vocalist of Evanescence. Lavigne performed the acoustic version of "Take Me Away" at 2004 Sessions@AOL on February 29, 2004; the audio performance of the song was included on Lavigne's fourth extended play, Avril Live Acoustic, which features other five audio performances at the concert and was released on July 1, 2004 by Arista Records. The song appeared on Lavigne's setlist for her worldwide tour, Bonez Tour; the performance of "Take Me Away" during the tour at Nippon Budokan in Tokyo, Japan is included on Lavigne's second full-length DVD Bonez Tour 2005: Live at Budokan. The DVD was released in Japan and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan. Digital downloadAvril Live Acoustic – Physical extended play Credits adapted from the liner notes of "Don't Tell Me" CD single.

Recording and management Recorded at NRG Studios Mixed at South Beach Studios Engineered at Ocean Way Recording Distributed by BMG Australia Limited Published by Almo Music Corp. and Avril Lavigne Publishing Ltd. All rights administered by Inc.. Personnel

Matrox G400

The G400 is a video card made by Matrox, released in September 1999. The graphics processor contains a 2D GUI, Direct3D 6.0 3D accelerator. Codenamed "Toucan", it was a more powerful and refined version of its predecessor, the G200; the Matrox G200 graphics processor had been a successful product, competing with the various 2D & 3D combination cards available in 1998. Matrox took the technology developed from the G200 project, refined it, doubled it up to form the G400 processor; the new chip featured several new and innovative additions, such as multiple monitor output support, an all-around 32-bit rendering pipeline with high performance, further improved 2D and video acceleration, a new 3D feature known as Environment Mapped Bump Mapping. Internally the G400 is a 256-bit processor; this is an evolution of G200's "DualBus", 128-bit. A Matrox "DualBus" chip consists of twin unidirectional buses internally, each moving data into or out of the chip; this increases the efficiency and bandwidth of data flow within the chip to each of its functional units.

G400's 3D engine consists of 2 parallel pixel pipelines with 1 texture unit each, providing single-pass dual-texturing capability. The Millennium G400 MAX is capable of 333 megapixels per second fillrate at its 166 MHz core clock speed, it is purely a Direct3D 6.0 accelerator and, as such, lacks support for the hardware transform and lighting acceleration of Direct3D 7.0 cards. The chip's external memory interface is 128-bit and is designed to use either SDRAM or SGRAM. Matrox released both 16 MiB and 32 MiB versions of the G400 boards, used both types of RAM; the slowest models are equipped with 166 MHz SDRAM, while the fastest uses 200 MHz SGRAM. G400MAX had the highest memory bandwidth of any card before the release of the DDR-equipped version of NVIDIA GeForce 256; the most notable feature of G400 is its ability to drive two separate monitors to display a single desktop. This feature is known as "DualHead" and was a decisive edge for Matrox over the card's competitors at the time; the DualHead capability not only offered desktop widening but desktop cloning and a special "DVDMAX" mode which outputs video overlays onto the second monitor.

Matrox's award-winning Powerdesk display drivers and control panel integrated Dualhead in a flexible and functional way that become world-renowned for its effectiveness. However, contrary to the video mode's name, G400 does not support full DVD decoding hardware acceleration. G400 does have partial support for the DVD video decoding process but it does not perform inverse discrete cosine transform IDCT or motion compensation in hardware; the G400 chip supports, in hardware, a texture-based surface detailing method called Environment Mapped Bump Mapping. EMBM was created by BitBoys Oy and licensed to Matrox. EMBM was not supported by several competitors such as NVIDIA's GeForce 256 through GeForce 2, which only supported the simpler Dot-3 BM, but was available on the ATI Radeon 7200. Due to this lack of industry-wide support, its toll on the limited graphics hardware of the time, EMBM only saw limited use during G400's time. Only a few games supported the feature, such as Millennium Soldier: Expendable.

EMBM requires either specialized hardware within the chip for its calculations or a more flexible and programmable graphics pipeline, such as DirectX 8.0 accelerators like the GeForce 3 and Radeon 8500. G400's rendering pipelined uses what Matrox called "Vibrant Color Quality 2", a functionality in which all internal 3D calculations are done with 32-bit precision; the goal was to prevent dithering and other artifacts caused by inadequate precision when performing calculations. The result was the best quality 32-bit color modes available at the time. Matrox was known for their quality analog display output on prior cards and the G400 is no exception. G400 was the benchmark for signal quality for several years outperforming some competitors. Where many cards were crippled by blurry output as the resolution and refresh rate increased, the Matrox cards delivered sharp and clear images. G400 is the first Matrox board compatible with AGP 4X. Most G400 boards only support 2X mode, but there are revisions, that are 4X compliant and run at the higher speed if the motherboard is capable as well.

G400 was known for being dependent on the host system's CPU for high 3D performance. This was attributed both to its architecture and to the poor drivers it relied on for much of its life. With regard to its hardware, G400's triangle setup engine, called the "Warp Engine" was somewhat slower than the counterparts aboard the competition's cards. However, the Warp engine was programmable. Matrox never described the functionality of this component in-depth so little is known about it; as said earlier, G400 suffered at launch from driver problems. While its Direct3D performance was admirable, its OpenGL installable client driver component was poor; the situation was eerily similar to what had happened with the older G200, with its near-total lack of credible OpenGL support. Matrox made it clear that they were committed to supporting OpenGL, development progressed. G400 launched with an OpenGL to Direct3D wrapper driver, like G200, that translated an application's OpenGL calls into Direct3D. A native OpenGL driver called "TurboGL" was released, but

Erna Low

Erna Low was an Austrian Jewish businesswoman who settled in England and is best known for her work in the ski travel industry. Low has been cited as a pioneer in the development of the package holiday and was the founder of Erna Low Travel Services Ltd, she worked in the holiday industry for over sixty years. She retired in 1995. Low was born in Vienna in 1909 as the only daughter of his wife Emma, she remained in the city throughout her education. She became the Austrian javelin champion before moving to England in 1931, with ten borrowed pounds in her pocket, to research a PhD thesis on Lord de Tabley, a Victorian poet and botanist. During her studies, Low traced the grandchildren of de Tabley and was invited to stay at the family home in Knutsford, Cheshire. While living in Bloomsbury, Low earned a basic living as a language tutor, but decided that she needed to earn more to finance trips back to Austria to visit her sick mother and fulfil her passion for skiing. Low's business career in the travel industry began in 1932 when she placed an advertisement in the Morning Post.

It read:'Winter Sports – Austria, fortnight, £15 only, including rail and hotel, arranged by young Viennese Graduette for young people leaving Christmas.'Low set up a permanent home in Britain and became a citizen in 1940, changing her name from Lӧwe to Low in the process. The outbreak of World War II made ski trips to Austria impossible, so Low planned alternative visits to Switzerland. For much of the war she worked for the BBC in Worcestershire where she would monitor German broadcasts for the Intelligence Service, but she disliked this role and chose to become a lecturer in the Army Education Corps, she developed the'house-party' concept. Low recognised that families were separated by war service and offered the opportunity for people to meet one another at Christmas, she invited paying guests to stay. This venture became a company in 1946 and was known as Enjoy Britain Ltd. In 1947, Low set up Erna Low Travel Service Ltd out of South Kensington, she worked with schools to run school courses and utilised the post-war demand for foreign travel to develop holidays for which the majority was paid before departure.

A foreign exchange allowance of £50 meant that travel experts were in demand and Low's company provided this. Low was adept at finding new resorts for her clients in both the summer and winter market. Erna Low's 1948 brochure said: “Winter sports are on the map again” and by 1950, it included 24 continental trips. Low placed emphasis on the personal touch and until the mid-1950s, she accompanied each group on their trip. An all-inclusive fortnight in a first-class hotel with Erna Low cost 38 guineas and after the introduction of charter flights in 1954, she reduced costs by advising her clients to travel in ski clothes to save on excess baggage expenses. Weekend train trips to Austria became a regular feature in this period of the company's development and customers were provided with a music carriage for entertainment during their 24-hour rail journey on the'snow train'. Low's business continued to grow and in 1972, with a staff of sixty and a turnover of £1.5 million, she opted to sell. She bought her name back in 1975 with the business struggling, but sold again in 1979 to become a consultant to the travel industry.

Low reinvented her company in 1981 under the name Erna Low Consultants Ltd. In this role, Low concentrated on developing the health spa market throughout Europe, she became the official representative in the UK of resorts at La Plagne, Les Arcs and Flaine, while she was decorated for her services to tourism by France and Austria. Low continued to work in the 1990s and gained membership of the Chartered Institute of Marketing for her feasibility study on Strathpeffer, she was the vice-president of both the Kensington Chamber of Commerce and Women of the Year Association, won a'Women Mean Business' award at the age of 83. Low handed control of the company to her successor and loyal employee, Joanna Yellowlees-Bound, in 1995. In May 2000, the company was entered into the British Travel Industry's'Hall of Fame'. Low was renowned for her formidable style, she was never known to avoid confrontation. On one occasion, a senior executive with a rival company won an award at a trade ceremony. Bitter at a setback earlier in his career, he said: “You once refused to employ me, look where I am now.”

Low's response provided an insight into the way. “I still wouldn't employ you,” she said. Low was a consummate networker and taught royalty and politicians to ski. Despite her intimidating façade, Low made many friends through business and while travelling, she was the godmother to a number of children, including the actress Emily Lloyd, following a friendship with her grandmother, Uli Lloyd-Pack who worked for Low for over 30 years, Uli Lloyd-Pack’s son, Roger Lloyd-Pack. Low never chose to live alone in South Kensington with her dog. Low died at the age of 92 on 12 February 2002 at her home in London; the company continues to operate in the ski industry with Low's principles forming an integral part of Erna Low's identity under the direction of Joanna Yellowlees-Bound. The company, still based in the mews house in South Kensington from where Miss Low lived and worked, has since branched out into real estate and has a successful property company, Erna Low Property, with an office in Arc 1950, in the French Alps.

Erna Low Ltd marked the 80th-year anniversary of Low's Morning Post advertisement in 2012 and Mark Frary's biography, Aiming High, was launched at the Coronet Cinema in London on 11 October 2012. In addition to this, Erna Low Ltd produced a short film of Low’s life from many thousands