Progressive Citizens of America
Progressive Citizens of America was a left-liberal American political organization formed in December 1946 that advocated progressive policies, which worked with the Congress of Industrial Organizations and also the Communist Party USA, as a precursor to the Progressive Party. It led to formation of a counter group called Americans for Democratic Action, formed in January 1947, that split Liberals and nearly cost Harry S. Truman the 1948 US Presidential Election. In 1940, Elinor S. Gimbel founded a Popular Front group called the Non-Partisan Committee to support Franklin Delano Roosevelt's 1940 presidential campaign; that committee folded into the National Citizens Political Action Committee, an arm of the Congress of Industrial Organizations - Political Action Committee or CIO-PAC). Anita McCormick Blaine was a major supporter of the NC-PAC. Meanwhile, in 1946 the Communist Party USA under Eugene Dennis had decided to create a third party for the 1948 presidential election. Bella Dodd described some of those CPUSA decisions in her 1954 memoir.
Guided by Herbert Croly, founder of The New Republic magazine, the PCA formed from the NC-PAC and the Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts and Professions. The primary driver for their merger was funding: rather than compete for the same pool, they would merge. Former US Vice President Henry A. Wallace and former New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia spoke at the PCA's founding convention in December 1946; the Montana Farmers Union and the Montana Council for Progressive Political Action were some of the first organizations to endorse the PCA. Within six months of operations, the PCA had gained some 25,000 members; the PCA opposed the Truman Doctrine and Loyalty Boards. The ADA supported the Marshall Plan. Otherwise, "ADA and PCA were in substantial agreement on domestic issues."By Summer 1947, the PCA had decided to make Henry A. Wallace its candidate for US president. By June 21, 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee held its first hearing about the PCA. From July 9 to July 13, 1947, the Southern California Chapter of the PCA held a Thought Control Conference at the Beverly Hills Hotel, sponsored by the Arts and Professions Council of the PCA.
The conference was in response to what the Chapter saw as "an alarming trend to control the cultural life of the American people." Among the known attendees and participants were people considered to be professionals and experts in their fields at the time. Many were well-known and included several Hollywood stars. On October 15, 1947, Eleanor Roosevelt attacked the PCA in her "My Day" column: It is a strange thing that groups of our own citizens liberals, the new Information Bureau of the Communist Parties of Europe, which we ordinarily allude to as the Comintern, are condemning with one voice the Marshall proposals!... Our own section of liberals who, with the Progressive Citizens of America, follow so the arguments put out by the Comintern do themselves harm, for they offer nothing constructive and this increases in many less radical but liberal groups the sense of suspicion and uncertainty regarding the influences under which they operate. In 1948, the PCA backed Henry A. Wallace as candidate for US President of a new, third iteration of an American Progressive Party.
By January 1948, with Wallace as its candidate, the PCA claimed to have some 100,000 members. During Summer 1948, William Z. Foster, head of the CPUSA, came out in favor of Wallace; the PCA was unwillingly responsible in part for the final downfall of Popular Front organizations, as its counterpart ADA "attracted liberal intellectuals who wanted to purge the left of all Communist Party influences. Its militant opposition to the PCA deliver the coup de grace." The ADA did so by characterizing the PCA as an "unholy alliance of Communists and reactionaries."In February 1948, the PCA merged with the "Independent Progressive Party". At its formation, the PCA comprised: Co-chairs: Jo Davidson, Frank Kingdon Co-vice chairs: Philip Murray, Alexander F. Whitney Co-executive vice presidents: Hannah Dorner, C. B. "Beanie" Baldwin Youth Division head: Gene Kelly Legal advisors: John Abt, Lee PressmanBy May 1947, C. B. "Beanie" Baldwin ran the PCA's daily operations. Hugh De Lacy headed the PCA in the state of Washington at some time.
PCA members included Dalton Trumbo, Charlotta Bass, Edward Biberman, Philip N. Connelly, Earl Robinson, Charles Katz, Robert W. Kenny, John Howard Lawson, Harold Orr, Dr. Linus Pauling, Frank Tuttle. Actor Edward G. Robinson was a vocal PCA member. Lillian Hellman, Dashiell Hammett, Elinor S. Gimbel were members and at some point vice chairs. James Cagney, Frank Sinatra, Bette Davis, Olivia de Havilland, Agnes de Mille, Paul Robeson, Lena Horne, Canada Lee were members. Southern California attorney Edward Mosk was an active member. Mrs. S. Glidden Loomis was a member of the Legislative Committee in New York City for the PCA. Chester Kinsey of the Montana PCA led the Wallace campaign in that state. In 1947-1948, Robert M. Lindner served as the Maryland state chairman of the PCA, which became the state organization for Henry A. Wallace's quixotic 1948 third-party presidential campaign. In 1948 he was added to the national board of the PCA. On February 21, 1950, actor Gregory Peck testified that he had been a PCA member and had resigned when offer
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands. The PCA is not a court in the traditional sense but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties; the cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, human rights, international investment, international and regional trade. The PCA is constituted through two separate multilateral conventions with a combined membership of 121 states; the organization is not a United Nations agency. The Peace Palace was built from 1907 to 1913 for the PCA in The Hague. In addition, the building houses the Hague Academy of International Law, Peace Palace Library and the International Court of Justice; the PCA is not a court in the conventional understanding of that term but an administrative organization with the object of having permanent and available means to serve as the registry for purposes of international arbitration and other related procedures, including commissions of enquiry and conciliation.
The Administrative Council is a body composed of all diplomatic representatives of Member States accredited to the Netherlands. It is presided by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, a member, it is responsible for "direction and control" of the International Bureau, directs the organisation's budget and reports on its activities. The International Bureau is headed by the Secretary-General, it provides linguistic, administrative support to PCA arbitration tribunals. The judges or arbitrators that hear cases are called Members of the Court; each member state may appoint up to four "of known competency in questions of international law, of the highest moral reputation and disposed to accept the duties of arbitrators" for a renewable 6-year term. Members of each member state together form a "national group". Members may be selected in arbitration cases. National Groups may propose candidates for International Court of Justice members; the PCA sometimes gets confused with the International Court of Justice, which has its seat in the same building.
The PCA is however not part of the UN system, although it does have observer status in the UN General Assembly since 1993. In the Articles 30-57 of the Hague Convention of 1899 the rules of arbitration procedure are outlined; these rules are an adapted version of pre-existing treaties among the states. They were amended in 1907, the creation of a summary procedure for simple cases being the most conspicuous change, were relevant in the 1920s development of rules for the Court of International Justice; the first act of parties before the PCA is the submission of the so-called "compromisis", stating the issue and the competence of the arbitrator. Proceedings are conducted in two phases: written pleadings and oral discussion; the Court retires once the debate is over to deliberate and conclude the case by a simple majority of votes. The decision is published as a writ, along with any dissenting opinions. Early Court decisions were countersigned by the arbitrators themselves, but in 1907, that responsibility was passed to the president and secretary.
The writ is read to a public session in the presence of the agents and lawyers of the parties to the case. The decision is binding on the parties, there is no mechanism for appeal. Between 2007 and 2008, the budget was 1.8 million Euro. The budget of PCA comes from the contributions of its members and income through arbitration cases; the distribution of the amounts to be paid by the individual member states is based on the system in use by the Universal Postal Union. Parties to arbitration have to pay the expenses of the arbitral tribunal set up to hear the case, including the salary of the arbitrators and administrative functions, but not including overhead of the organization); the costs of arbitration vary from case to case and discussions may be held between the PCA and the parties over fee arrangements. The fixed costs for action as an appointing authority are €2000. Parties to the Convention on the Pacific Settlement of disputes of 1899 and 1907 are automatically parties to the PCA; as 51 are parties to both conventions, the PCA has 121 member states: 119 members of the United Nations, as well as Kosovo and Palestine.
PCA is one of the oldest institutions for international dispute resolutions. It was established in 1899 by the first Hague Peace Conference under Articles 20 to 29 of the 1899 Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. At the second Hague Peace Conference, the earlier Convention was revised by the 1907 Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes; the Conference was convened at the initiative of Czar Nicholas II of Russia "with the object of seeking the most objective means of ensuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and lasting peace, above all, of limiting the progressive development of existing armaments." PCA tribunals have jurisdiction for disputes based on the PCA founding documents, or based on bilateral and multilateral treaties. Its Secretary General furthermore acts as an appointing authority for arbitration; when problems arise in designating arbitrators for an arbitration under UNCITRAL arbitration rules, the PCA Secretary-General may be re
Presbyterian Church of Australia
The Presbyterian Church of Australia is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia. When captain James Cook landed in Australia in 1776 he was sure to have had some Presbyterians in his crew. John Hunter the captain of HMS Sirius was a former Church of Scotland minister. Presbyterian Christianity came to Australia with the arrival of members from a number of Presbyterian denominations in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century; the Presbyterian missionaries played an important role to spread the faith in Australia. Since Presbyterianism grew to the fourth largest Christian faith in the country; the Presbyterian Church of Australia was formed when Presbyterian churches from various Australian states federated in 1901. The churches that formed the Presbyterian Church of Australia were the Presbyterian Churches of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia; these state churches were incorporated by separate Acts of Parliament for property holding purposes.. In 1977 two-thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia together with nearly all the membership of the Congregational Union of Australia and the Methodist Church of Australasia, joined to form the Uniting Church in Australia.
Much of the third who did not join the Uniting Church did not agree with its liberal views, although a number remained because of cultural connections. Before the union the Presbyterian Church of Australia was liberal, but the continuing Presbyterian Church became conservative. A resurgence of traditional Reformed theology took place. In 1982 the denomination withdrew from the World Communion of Reformed Churches. In 1987 a new hymnbook was introduced. In 1991 the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Australia repealed the approval of the ordination of women. Women elders continue in some states; the church is active in missions with about 130 missionaries working around the world, including Korea, the Pacific and Myanmar. The Presbyterian Church of Australia’s official website has stated that the church has over 50,000 adults and children within 740 congregations with more than 600 ministers and theological students. At the last Commonwealth Census nearly 540,000 people identified as Presbyterian/Reformed, representing 2.3% of the population.
This makes Presbyterianism Australia’s fifth largest Christian denomination, although not all Presbyterians are members of the Presbyterian Church of Australia. See List of Presbyterian Denominations in Australia; the Presbyterian Church of Australia’s missionary organisation is the Australia Presbyterian World Mission. The organisation has more than 170 cross-cultural missionaries; the Presbyterian Church of Australia has established Arabic, Cook Islands, Japanese, Korean and Sudanese congregations, as well as a deaf Presbyterian Church. The Presbyterian Inland Mission continues the work of the Australian Inland Mission founded by John Flynn in 1912. Padres patrol outback Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia, hopes to expand into the Northern Territory and Tasmania when resources become available; the Presbyterian Church of Australia publishes the monthly Australian Presbyterian magazine and provides social and educational services. The following schools are run by the Presbyterian Church of Australia.
The closeness and formality of association varies. Covenant College, Tuggeranong Cooerwull Academy, Lithgow Presbyterian Ladies' College, Armidale Presbyterian Ladies' College, Croydon The Scots College, Sydney The Scots School, Bathurst St Andrew's Christian School, Grafton Nambucca Valley Christian Community School, Nambucca Heads Fairholme College, ToowoombaThe following schools in Queensland are conducted by the Presbyterian and Methodist Schools Association. Brisbane Boys' College, Toowong Clayfield College, Clayfield Somerville House, South Brisbane Sunshine Coast Grammar School, Sunshine Coast Belgrave Heights Christian School, Belgrave Heights King's College, Warrnambool Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne St Andrew's Christian College, Wantirna Scotch College, Melbourne The PCA has three colleges, based in Australia's three largest cities; these include: the Queensland Theological College in Brisbane, Christ College in Sydney and the Presbyterian Theological College in Melbourne.
The Presbyterian Church operates the Reformers Bookshop in Sydney and the PTC Media Centre - part of the Presbyterian Theological College in Melbourne. Ministers and elders of the Presbyterian Church of Australia are required to agree to the Westminster Confession of Faith as their subordinate authority under the Bible. "Along with other true Christian churches, the Presbyterian Church believes that the Bible is the infallible Word of God. As a result of this commitment to the Bible, we uphold the historic Christian faith. We believe in one God in the Trinity of the three persons of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. We affirm the real historical events of Christ’s birth, death and future return. We look to Him for the forgiveness of eternal life. We submit to the Scriptures as the final authority in all matters of conduct. We seek to live in obedience to the Great Commandment of the Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and soul and mind and strength, love your neighbour as yourself’.
Printed circuit board
A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products, they are used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation. Large numbers of PCBs can be fabricated at the same time, the layout only has to be done once.
PCBs can be made manually in small quantities, with reduced benefits. PCBs can be double-sided, or multi-layer. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density, because circuit traces on the inner layers would otherwise take up surface space between components; the rise in popularity of multilayer PCBs with more than two, with more than four, copper planes was concurrent with the adoption of surface mount technology. However, multilayer PCBs make repair and field modification of circuits much more difficult and impractical; the world market for bare PCBs exceeded $60.2 billion in 2014. In 2018, the Global Single Sided Printed Circuit Board Market Analysis Report estimated that the PCB market would reach $79 billion by 2024. Before the development of printed circuit boards electrical and electronic circuits were wired point-to-point on a chassis; the chassis was a sheet metal frame or pan, sometimes with a wooden bottom. Components were attached to the chassis by insulators when the connecting point on the chassis was metal, their leads were connected directly or with jumper wires by soldering, or sometimes using crimp connectors, wire connector lugs on screw terminals, or other methods.
Circuits were large, bulky and fragile, production was labor-intensive, so the products were expensive. Development of the methods used in modern printed circuit boards started early in the 20th century. In 1903, a German inventor, Albert Hanson, described flat foil conductors laminated to an insulating board, in multiple layers. Thomas Edison experimented with chemical methods of plating conductors onto linen paper in 1904. Arthur Berry in 1913 patented a print-and-etch method in the UK, in the United States Max Schoop obtained a patent to flame-spray metal onto a board through a patterned mask. Charles Ducas in 1927 patented a method of electroplating circuit patterns; the Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented the printed circuit as part of a radio set while working in the UK around 1936. In 1941 a multi-layer printed circuit was used in German magnetic influence naval mines. Around 1943 the USA began to use the technology on a large scale to make proximity fuses for use in World War II. After the war, in 1948, the USA released the invention for commercial use.
Printed circuits did not become commonplace in consumer electronics until the mid-1950s, after the Auto-Sembly process was developed by the United States Army. At around the same time in the UK work along similar lines was carried out by Geoffrey Dummer at the RRDE; as circuit boards became available, the point-to-point chassis construction method remained in common use in industry into at least the late 1960s. Printed circuit boards were introduced to reduce the size and cost of parts of the circuitry. In 1960, a small consumer radio receiver might be built with all its circuitry on one circuit board, but a TV set would contain one or more circuit boards. Predating the printed circuit invention, similar in spirit, was John Sargrove's 1936–1947 Electronic Circuit Making Equipment which sprayed metal onto a Bakelite plastic board; the ECME could produce three radio boards per minute. During World War II, the development of the anti-aircraft proximity fuse required an electronic circuit that could withstand being fired from a gun, could be produced in quantity.
The Centralab Division of Globe Union submitted a proposal which met the requirements: a ceramic plate would be screenprinted with metallic paint for conductors and carbon material for resistors, with ceramic disc capacitors and subminiature vacuum tubes soldered in place. The technique proved viable, the resulting patent on the process, classified by the U. S. Army, was assigned to Globe Union, it was not until 1984 that the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Harry W. Rubinstein the Cledo Brunetti Award for early key contributions to the development of printed components and conductors on a common insulating substrate. Rubinstein was honored in 1984 by his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for his innovations in the technology of printed electronic circuits and the fabrication of capacitors; this invention represents a step in the development of integrated circuit technology, as not only wiring but passive components were fabricated on the ceramic substrate.
Every electronic component had
Presbyterian Church in America
The Presbyterian Church in America is the second largest Presbyterian church body and the largest conservative Reformed denomination in the United States. The PCA is Reformed in theology, Presbyterian in government, active in missions, it is characterized by a blend of broad evangelicalism. The PCA has its roots in theological controversies over liberalism in Christianity and neo-orthodoxy, a point of contention in the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. which had split from the mainline Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A along regional lines at the beginning of the Civil War. While the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy had led to a split in the PC-USA in the mid 1930s, leading to the formation of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and Bible Presbyterian Church, the PCUS remained intact. However, beginning in 1942, as the PCUS began to experiment with confessional revision, when neo-orthodoxy and liberalism began to become influential in the PCUS' seminaries, attempts were made to merge with the more liberal PC-USA and its successor, the United Presbyterian Church in the U.
S. A. renewal groups began to be formed, including the Presbyterian Churchmen United, formed by more than 500 ministers and ran 3/4 page statements of their beliefs in 30 newspapers, the Presbyterian Evangelistic Fellowship, conducted revivals in PCUS churches, the Concerned Presbyterians, the Presbyterian Churchmen United, an organization of conservative pastors in the Southern Presbyterian Church. They sought to reaffirm the Westminster Confession of Faith as the fullest and clearest exposition of biblical faith, which many conservatives felt that presbyteries had been violating by receiving ministers who refused to affirm the virgin birth and bodily resurrection, to expect all pastors and leaders to affirm the inerrancy of scripture. Opponents of the merger took specific issue with the United Presbyterian Church's adherence to the Auburn Affirmation and the Confession of 1967, it remains controversial as to whether racial tensions may have contributed to the formation of the PCA. Many in the PCA have adamantly maintained that race played little role in the genesis of the new denomination, but many outside the PCA have a historical memory of racial animus irrefutably contributing to the desire for exodus from the Southern Presbyterian denomination, the PCUS.
However, on June 23, 2016 the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in America voted to approve a statement on racial reconciliation that recognized “corporate and historical sins, including those committed during the Civil Rights era, continuing racial sins of ourselves and our fathers such as the segregation of worshipers by race. This admission of "historical sins" during the Civil Rights era has helped to ameliorate the conflict that some black members of the PCA may have felt about the denomination's failure to embrace and protect the rights of African Americans both within and outside of the church during the PCA's formative years. Conservatives felt the church should disavow the ordination of women, they criticized the PCUS Board of Christian Education's published literature and believed that the denomination's Board of World Missions no longer placed its primary emphasis on carrying out the Great Commission. In 1966, conservatives within the PCUS, concerned about the denominational seminaries founded Reformed Theological Seminary.
When word came out that a planned Plan of Union between the UPCUSA and PCUS lacked an "escape clause" which would have allowed for PCUS congregations that wanted no part in the planned union to leave without forfeiture of property, the steering committee of several of the renewal groups called for conservative PCUS congregations to leave. In December 1973, representing some 260 congregations with a combined communicant membership of over 41,000 that had left the PCUS, gathered at Briarwood Presbyterian Church in Birmingham and organized the National Presbyterian Church, which became the Presbyterian Church in America. After protests from a UPCUSA congregation of the same name in Washington, D. C. the denomination at its Second General Assembly renamed itself the National Reformed Presbyterian Church adopted its present name the next day. At its founding, the PCA consisted of 16 presbyteries. Within a few years the church grew to include 80,000 members. During the 1970s, the denomination added a significant number of congregations outside the South when several UPCUSA churches in Ohio and Pennsylvania joined.
This move was precipitated by a case regarding an ordination candidate, Wynn Kenyon, denied by the Pittsburgh Presbytery because he refused to support women's ordination. The seceder churches formed the Ascension Presbytery organised on July 29, 1975; that year, a minister of that presbytery described its history as follows: The constitu
Para-Chloroamphetamine known as 4-chloroamphetamine, is a substituted amphetamine and monoamine releaser similar to MDMA, but with higher neurotoxicity, thought to be due to the unrestrained release of both serotonin and dopamine by a metabolite. It is used as a neurotoxin by neurobiologists to selectively kill serotonergic neurons for research purposes, in the same way that 6-hydroxydopamine is used to kill dopaminergic neurons. However, the effects of the compound on experimental animals appear less encouraging, it has been detected as an apparent designer drug, along with the related 3-chloroamphetamine, more potent as a releaser of dopamine and serotonin but less neurotoxic. The related N-methylated derivative, para-Chloromethamphetamine, metabolised to para-chloroamphetamine in vivo, has neurotoxic properties as well. Benzmalecene –Although dated 1960, this compound is based on a PCA structural motif. Bruce Horrom from Abbott made the N-cyclopropylmethyl analogs. U. S. Patent 3,689,504 Sibutramine is based on the PCA core.
Chlorphentermine 6-CAT para-Chloromethamphetamine Fenclonine As of October 2015 4-CA is a controlled substance in China. Substituted amphetamines 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine 4-Fluoroamphetamine 4-Methylamphetamine 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine para-Bromoamphetamine para-Iodoamphetamine
PokerStars Caribbean Adventure
The PokerStars Caribbean Adventure is an annual televised poker tournament. The event was first held in 2004 and was co-sponsored by PokerStars and the World Poker Tour. In 2008, the event moved from the WPT to the European Poker Tour. In 2010, the event was moved again and served as the inauagural event of the North American Poker Tour. In 2017 the tournament was the inaugural event of the new PokerStars Championship tour and renamed PokerStars Championship Bahamas; the name was changed back to the PCA for 2018 and the buy-in restored to $10,000. In 2004, the event took place on the Royal Caribbean Voyager of the Seas cruise ship. Since 2005 the event has taken place at Resort on Atlantis Paradise Island; the 2011 PCA commenced on January 4, 2011. Over fifty events took place over ten days, including the main event with an estimated prize pool of $20 million. Players either buy into the main event directly for $10,300, or they may win their way into the event via satellites running on PokerStars and at the event.
The main event final table was aired live on ESPN2, featuring commentary by James Hartigan and Daniel Negreanu. John Dibella, a 43-year-old stock trader from New York, won the 2012 PCA for $1,775,000. Dibella won a live $1,000 satellite into the $10,000 Main Event and is the first amateur player to win the tournament. Official site Official FAQ Page