PCBoard was a bulletin board system application first introduced for DOS in 1983 by Clark Development Company. Clark Development was founded by Fred Clark. PCBoard was one of the first commercial BBS packages for DOS systems, was considered one of the "high end" packages during the rapid expansion of BBS systems in the early 1990s. Like many BBS companies, the rise of the Internet starting around 1994 led to serious downturns in fortunes, Clark Development went bankrupt in 1997. Most PCB sales were of two-line licenses. A native 32-bit IBM OS/2 version became available with PCB V15.22 and higher. There were a few tools available for PCBoard, which were developed for the OS/2 2.0 and OS/2 Warp operating system. PCBoard supported the 16C550 UARTs, such as 16550 UART, 16554 UART and 16650 UART, which made it possible to run multiple nodes of the BBS on a single computer using either using IBM OS/2 or the DOS multitasking tool DESQview in combination with the memory manager QEMM; some sysops tried to run PCBoard on the new Windows 95 operating system by Microsoft and reported mixed results.
Stability was critical for a BBS, running 24/7, the early version of the Microsoft 32-bit operating system lacked it. Windows 95 was never supported by CDC. Standard PCs and today have only one or two serial ports, which are needed to connect an external modem to a computer; this made multiport cards like the G-Tek "BlackBoard", "BBS550" or "SmartCard" and the "DigiCard" by Digi International popular among sysops. Other options were internal multi-modem cards and multiple computers connected by local area network. PCBoard supports ISDN and Telnet access via the Internet; the open source terminal emulator SyncTERM, available for Win32, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris and Mac OS X can be used for example to connect to the few remaining PCBoard BBS installations that are connected to the Internet. Starting in 1988, the RelayNet known as RIME for RelayNet International Mail Exchange, allowed BBS's running PCBoard to join a network that exchanged messages with other BBS's in a system similar to the older FidoNet.
The first version of PCBoard was released in 1983. Clark Development Company pioneered the FILE ID. DIZ format as well as a powerful scripting language, which supported modifications and to a large degree replacement of most standard commands and processes. A compiled interpreter script written in PPL was called PPE. PPEs were generated by the PCBoard Programming Language Compiler, an optional tool provided by Clark Development Company and was available for purchase as stand alone tool, it was less than $50 in combination with any BBS license. This allowed programmers to develop PPEs for PCBoard without having to purchase a PCBoard BBS license. Optional and available by itself were the printed PCBoard manual and the printed PPLC reference handbook; the script language was introduced with version 15.0 and made this version of PCBoard more successful than PCBoard V14.5. Various door programs were in use, including Sam Smith's Prodoor, which added a full screen editor and other features which were included in PCBoard itself.
The script language PPL and PPE's which became more and more available, increased the popularity of PCBoard and emerged by the mid nineties as the de facto-standard BBS system for warez BBS on the IBM PC. The warez BBS's used pirated versions of the BBS software and thus did not appear in any official sales or usage statistic for the software. What PCBoard was for warez BBSes on the IBM PC, was Amiexpress for BBSes running on Commodore Amiga computers. Despite the high price tag Clark Development Company sold more than 50,000 PCBoard licenses by 1995; the last full release of PCBoard by Clark Development Company was version 15.3 in September 1996. Clark Technologies, a division of Clark Development Company announced on July 29, 1996 the availability of source code and OEM licenses for the PCBoard BBS software; the final release was 15.4 beta. The lead software engineer from Clark Development Company released information on how to bypass the trial period timeout. Clark Development Company went bankrupt in July 1997 and closed its offices without prior warning, leaving a great number of upset customers behind.
Customers were never notified by the company, customers who had just purchased licences for the software were not notified, refunded or provided access to the software they had paid for. Sysops continued to use PCBoard around the world after support by CDC stopped when the company went out of business. Help was available from many individuals; the company did not exist anymore when the Year 2000 problem known as the Y2K problem or millennium bug, made headline news. However, PCBoard only had a few minor problems with the year 2000 and fixes were made available by several individuals; the last full release version of PCBoard, version 15.3, never caught on and most systems that were online after 1997 continued to use the previous 15.2x versions of the software. PCBoard is still in use today by nostalgic BBS fans. There is a freeware FOSSIL driver called NetFoss which allows PCBoard to be accessible via telnet under Windows. There was a DOS based PCBoard add-on "PCB Internet Collection" which allowed
Panama City Beach, Florida
Panama City Beach is a resort city in Bay County, United States, on the Gulf of Mexico coast. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 12,018; the city is referred to under the umbrella term of "Panama City". Panama City Beach's slogan is "The World's Most Beautiful Beaches" due to the unique, sugar-white sandy beaches of northwest Florida. Panama City Beach has been a popular vacation destination among people in the Southern United States; the city is a popular spring break destination, due to the popularity of the beach and its close proximity to most of the Southern United States, relative proximity as a drive destination for the Midwest. The MTV show Floribama Shore was set in the city – Filming took place over the Summer of 2017. A construction boom in the early to mid 2000s changed the image of the area due to the older homes and motels being replaced with high-rise condominiums and more expansive homes. However, this is turning unobstructed, low-rise beach views and affordable waterfront property into rarities.
At the peak of the real estate boom, many beachfront properties had quadrupled or more in value since 2000. In November 2006 CNN/Money named Panama City Beach the No. 1 real estate market in America for the next five years in. Beachfront property has sold for upwards of $60,000 per "front foot" at the top of the market; the downturn in the U. S. real estate market in 2007, combined with a surge of new condo construction, brought spiraling prices somewhat under control. With the real estate boom, Panama City Beach became a well known destination for spring break. Hurricane Michael made landfall near Mexico Beach in Bay County on October 10, 2018, as one of the strongest and most-destructive hurricanes in American history and destroyed a large part of the county including many structures in Mexico Beach and Panama City. Panama City Beach is located at 30°12′27″N 85°51′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.6 square miles — 18.4 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water.
There are 9 miles of shoreline in Panama City Beach fronting the Gulf of Mexico. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,018 people, 5,417 households, 3,068 families residing in the city; the population density was 653.2 persons per square mile. There were 17,141 housing units at an average density of 931.6 houses per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.5% White, 2.3% African American, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.7% Asian and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population. There were 5,417 households, out of which 21.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were headed by married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.4% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.5% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22, the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 29.0% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. Ancestries: English, Irish, United States, French. At the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the city was $41,198, the median income for a family was $49,127. Males had a median income of $32,459 versus $22,358 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,734. About 2.2% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. The City of Panama City Beach has a council–manager government; the Mayor presides over City Council meetings. In the event that the Mayor cannot preside over a City Council meeting, the Mayor Pro-Tem is the presiding officer of the meeting until such time as the Mayor returns to his seat; the City Manager is responsible for the administration and the day-to-day operation of all of the municipal services and city departments. The City Manager maintains intergovernmental relationships with federal, state and other local governments.
The primary law enforcement agency in the city is the Panama City Beach Police Department. The city and the rest of Bay County are under the jurisdiction of the Bay County Sheriff's Office. Mike Thomas – Mayor Paul Casto – Ward 1 Council member Phil Chester – Ward 2 Council member Geoff McConnell – Ward 3 Council member Hector Solis – Ward 4 Council member Mario Gisbert – City Manager Richard Jackson – City Manager Holly J. White – City Clerk Bill Kinsaul – Bay County Clerk of Courts Panama City Beach Police Department Panama City Beach Fire Rescue Dan Rowe; the Gulf Coast State College is located in Panama City, just across the Hathaway Bridge from Panama City Beach. The Florida State University Panama City branch campus is located in Panama City, just across the Hathaway Bridge from Panama City Beach; the new Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport provides commercial flights into the area. The airport serves private aircraft, domestic passenger flights, freight/cargo flights, it is the fi
Perfect Cherry Blossom
Touhou Youyoumu ~ Perfect Cherry Blossom is a vertical-scrolling manic shooter made by Team Shanghai Alice, is the seventh official game of the Touhou Project. The full game was first released on August 2003, in the 64th Comiket in Japan. Perfect Cherry Blossom features three different playable characters to choose from, with two different attack types each. Reimu Hakurei can weave through the smallest gaps with ease, her attacks deal low to decent damage, depending on which type is used. Marisa Kirisame relies on her speed and power to compensate for her thin attack area, but the amount of power she wields is considerable. Sakuya Izayoi has wider and more versatile attacks than Reimu, but can be quite tricky to use and maneuver; the largest change Perfect Cherry Blossom introduces over its predecessor Embodiment of Scarlet Devil is the addition of the "Cherry" scoring system. Every part of the game is linked with the "Cherry Meter": shooting enemies increases Cherry points, bombing or dying decreases Cherry points, reaching 50,000 Cherry+ points gives a temporary shield.
The higher the Cherry Gauge becomes, the more points the player can gain from Point Items. Other important gameplay changes introduced in Perfect Cherry Blossom are the appearance of the player character's hitbox while being focused, a change in the properties of the player's attacks depending on whether the player is normal or focused, a helpful cursor on the bottom margin during a boss battle which tells the player where the boss is located. Only in Perfect Cherry Blossom is there a "Phantasm Stage" after the "Extra Stage", a harder version of the Extra Stage and contains the final conclusion to the story of Perfect Cherry Blossom. In the spring of the 119th season, there occurred. In the hidden realm of Gensokyo, people bask in the calm of a winter without end. Spring showed no sign of arriving though it is May, in fact the snowstorms were continually getting worse; the three heroines, each for their own reasons, set out to do something about the extended winter. Depending on who the player chooses, only one of these three heroines goes out and investigates.
Canonically, Reimu is the one. Reaching above the clouds, from where the cherry blossoms fall, the heroine enter the gate of the Netherworld. There she is confronted by human-ghost gardener Youmu Konpaku. Youmu explains that she had been stealing the essence of "spring" throughout Gensokyo in order to make the Saigyō Ayakashi, a youkai cherry tree, bloom as per her master's orders; the heroine defeats Youmu and hurries to Hakugyokurō, where the tree is, to get Gensokyo's spring back. There the ghost princess of Hakugyokurō, Yuyuko Saigyouji reveals that she had an interest in a corpse sleeping beneath the Saigyou Ayakashi from before her existence. In order to break the seal, the youkai cherry blossom tree needed to bloom and completely. Yuyuko and the heroine wage a fierce battle, to get the last "spring" contained in the heroine needed for the Perfect Cherry Blossom, to reclaim Gensokyo's spring, respectively. After the heroine defeats Yuyuko, the Saigyou Ayakashi starts to lose its health. However, the seal has been weakened from the near-complete bloom, the sealed soul is temporarily unleashed.
The soul is revealed to be Yuyuko's, the heroine dodges attack after attack until Yuyuko's soul is sealed once more. As a result of the Spring Snow Incident, since the arrival of spring was late, the hanami season became short, was the trigger for Suika Ibuki to an incident in a game. A few days Yuyuko asks the heroine for a favour; the magic boundary between Gensokyo and the Netherworld was weakened by Yukari Yakumo, one of Yuyuko's friends, to make stealing Gensokyo's spring easier, which resulted in many yuurei being seen in Gensokyo. Yuyuko asks the heroine to find her friend, who would be preparing for the flower-viewing event during this time, remind her to repair the boundary; the Extra Mode tells of the heroine's effort in trying to find Yukari. Instead, the heroine meets the stage 2 boss, again, it turns out that Chen was the shikigami of Ran Yakumo, an angry Ran comes to fight the heroine after Chen is defeated again. Ran reveals that she is a shikigami, that she will not let any troublemakers disturb her master.
The heroine figures that defeating Ran will get the attention of Yuyuko's friend, after a fierce battle, Ran is defeated. Ran's master, does not appear, Ran tells the heroine that she should try coming back at night, since her master sleeps less during the night. In the Phantasm Mode, the heroine returns that night and defeats a weakened Ran again, after which Yukari emerges to greet the heroine. Yukari decides to continue where Ran left off. After a vicious fight, Yukari is defeated, uses her abilities to do the heroine's request. However, as this was not resolved and continue for a time, Youmu went to Gensokyo with and gathered back the yuurei with a hitodama light. Playable charactersReimu Hakurei – A shrine maiden of the Hakurei Shrine, she is tired of being cold day in and day out and wants to find the source of this unnatural weather, she attacks with homing needles. Marisa Kirisame – A black-clothed magician, she sees a cherry blossom petal float down outside her warm house and wonders if spring is happening somewhere else.
She attacks with magic lasers. Sakuya Izayoi – The head maid of the Scarlet Devil Mansion, she kn
An afterburner is a component present on some jet engines those used on military supersonic aircraft. Its purpose is to provide an increase in thrust for supersonic flight and combat situations. Afterburning is achieved by injecting additional fuel into the jet pipe downstream of the turbine. Afterburning increases thrust without the weight of an additional engine, but at the cost of high fuel consumption and decreased fuel efficiency, limiting its practical use to short bursts. Pilots can activate and deactivate afterburners in-flight, jet engines are referred to as operating wet when afterburning is being used and dry when not. An engine producing maximum thrust wet is at maximum power, while an engine producing maximum thrust dry is at military power. Jet-engine thrust is governed by the general principle of mass flow rate. Thrust depends on two things: the mass of that gas. A jet engine can produce more thrust by either accelerating the gas to a higher velocity or by having a greater mass of gas exit the engine.
Designing a basic turbojet engine around the second principle produces the turbofan engine, which creates slower gas but more of it. Turbofans are fuel efficient and can deliver high thrust for long periods, but the design trade-off is a large size relative to the power output. Generating increased power with a more compact engine for short periods can be achieved using an afterburner; the afterburner increases thrust by accelerating the exhaust gas to a higher velocity. The temperature of the gas in the engine is highest just before the turbine, the ability for the turbine to withstand these temperatures is one of the primary restrictions on total dry engine thrust; this temperature is known as the Turbine Entry Temperature, one of the critical engine operating parameters. Because a combustion rate high enough to consume all the intake oxygen would create temperatures high enough to overheat the turbine, the flow of fuel must be restricted to an extent that fuel rather than oxygen becomes the limiting factor in the reaction, leaving some oxygen to flow past the turbine.
After passing the turbine, the gas expands at a near constant entropy, thus losing temperature. The afterburner injects fuel downstream of the turbine and reheats the gas; as a result of the temperature rise in the tailpipe, the gas is ejected through the nozzle at a higher velocity. The mass flow is slightly increased by the addition of the fuel. Afterburners produce markedly enhanced thrust as well as a visible flame at the back of the engine; this exhaust flame may show shock diamonds, which are caused by shock waves formed due to slight differences between ambient pressure and the exhaust pressure. These imbalances cause oscillations in the exhaust jet diameter over a short distance and cause visible banding where the pressure and temperature is highest. A similar type of thrust augmentation but using additional fuel burnt in a turbofan's cold bypass air only, instead of the combined cold and hot gas flows as in a conventional afterburning engine, is Plenum chamber burning, developed for the vectored thrust Bristol Siddeley BS100 engine for the Hawker Siddeley P.1154.
In this engine, where the cold bypass and hot core turbine airflows are split between two sets of nozzles and rear, in the same manner as the Rolls-Royce Pegasus, additional fuel and afterburning was applied to the front cold air nozzles only. This technique was developed to give greater thrust for take-off and supersonic performance in an aircraft similar to, but of higher weight, than the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. A jet engine afterburner is an extended exhaust section containing extra fuel injectors. Since the jet engine upstream will use little of the oxygen it ingests, additional fuel can be burned after the gas flow has left the turbines; when the afterburner is turned on, fuel is injected and igniters are fired. The resulting combustion process increases the afterburner exit temperature resulting in a steep increase in engine net thrust. In addition to the increase in afterburner exit stagnation temperature, there is an increase in nozzle mass flow, but a decrease in afterburner exit stagnation pressure.
The resulting increase in afterburner exit volume flow is accommodated by increasing the throat area of the propulsion nozzle. Otherwise, the upstream turbomachinery rematches; the first designs, e.g. Solar afterburners used on the F7U Cutlass, F-94 Starfire and F-89 Scorpion, had 2-position eyelid nozzles. Modern designs incorporate not only VG nozzles but multiple stages of augmentation via separate spray bars. To a first order, the gross thrust ratio is directly proportional to the root of the stagnation temperature ratio across the afterburner. Due to their high fuel consumption, afterburners are used as little as possible, they are used only when it is important to have as much thrust as possible. This includes during takeoff from short runways, assisting catapult launches from aircraft carriers, during air combat situations. A notable exception is the Whitney J58 engine used in the SR-71 Blackbird. In heat engines such as jet engines, efficiency is best when combustion is done at the highest pressure and temperature possible, expanded down to ambient pressure.
Since the exhaust gas has reduced oxygen due to previous combustion, since the fuel is not burning in a com
Pablo Carreño Busta
Pablo Carreño Busta is a Spanish professional tennis player, ranked world No. 28 in men's singles by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Carreño Busta reached as high as No. 6 in the combined junior world rankings in February 2009. He cracked the sads at the Australian Open, although his first appearance in an ATP tour tournament was in Barcelona in 2011, where he lost in the first round to Benoît Paire, he has reached 18 singles finals competing in ITF Futures tournaments. He won two challenger titles from two finals in 2011, at this point reached a career high singles ranking of no. 133. He missed the majority of the 2012 season due to injury, underwent surgery on his back that year. Carreño returned to action towards the latter stages of 2012, after five months of recovery, played in four Futures tournaments to end the year, all of which were in Morocco, although he did not progress past the semi-final stage in any of the four, he ended the year with a singles ranking of No. 715. After a strong start to the opening three months of 2013, winning 42 out of 43 matches on the ITF Circuit, Carreño Busta entered the qualification stage of the 2013 Grand Prix Hassan II in April, held in Casablanca, Morocco.
He won his three qualifying matches, proceeded to beat first seed and two-time Grand Prix Hassan II champion, Pablo Andújar, 6–4, 2–6, 6–3. He lost in the following round to Kevin Anderson. On that month, Carreño Busta reached the semi-final stage of the 2013 Portugal Open, again progressing through the qualification rounds, before losing to Stanislas Wawrinka in three sets. Carreño Busta participated in his first grand slam tournament when he was a qualifier at the 2013 French Open, he won his three qualification matches, before losing to Roger Federer in straight sets in the opening round. In April, Carreño Busta reached his second ATP final at ATP Estoril after defeating Benoît Paire, he was defeated in the finals by compatriot Nicolás Almagro. In August, he won his first ATP singles title at the Winston-Salem Open, defeating compatriot Roberto Bautista Agut in the final; this meant he entered the top 40 of the ATP Rankings for the first time at world No. 39. After a quarterfinal appearance in Sydney, Carreño Busta reached the third round of the Australian Open losing to Denis Istomin.
He made the semifinals of the doubles alongside Guillermo García López. In Buenos Aires, he lost to the eventual champion Alexandr Dolgopolov in straight sets in the semifinals; the following week, Carreño Busta reached his first ATP 500 final at the Rio Open, saving a match point against rising teen Casper Ruud en route before losing to Dominic Thiem. However, he won the doubles title with Pablo Cuevas. In Brasil, he fell to Cuevas, his doubles partner, the two-time defending and eventual champion in the semifinals. At the BNP Paribas Open in March, Carreño Busta avenged his defeat to Cuevas, saving two match points in the process to advance to his first ATP Masters 1000 semifinal where he lost to world No. 3 Stan Wawrinka in straight sets. As a result, he rose to a new career high of world No. 19. He was upset by Federico Delbonis in the second. In Spain's quarterfinal Davis Cup tie against Serbia, he lost both of his matches to Viktor Troicki in singles and to Troicki and Nenad Zimonjić in doubles.
Carreño Busta began his clay season at the Monte-Carlo Masters, where he lost to world No. 2 Novak Djokovic in three sets in the third round. He reached the same round in Barcelona, losing to lucky loser Yuichi Sugita who had defeated Tommy Robredo and Richard Gasquet in the first two rounds. After early losses in Madrid and Rome, Carreño Busta played his maiden grand slam quarterfinal at the French Open, upsetting eleventh seed Grigor Dimitrov in straight sets and fifth seed Milos Raonic in five sets en route. At the US Open he made his first grand slam semifinal without dropping a set, beating Diego Schwartzman at the quarterfinal stage.. He got a chance to serve as an Alternate for the 2017 ATP Finals, he played in replacement of Rafael Nadal. He went on lose to Dominic Thiem in 3 sets and to the eventual champion Grigor Dimitrov, his year end ranking was No.10. At the Australian Open, Busta defeated Jason Kubler, Gilles Simon, Gilles Müller to advance to the fourth round, where he lost in a close four set match to eventual finalist Marin Čilić.
At the Miami Masters, Busta was seeded 16th. He defeated Denis Istomin, Steve Johnson, 31st seed Fernando Verdasco, sixth seed Kevin Anderson, before losing to fourth seed Alexander Zverev in the semifinals. Busta the reached the semifinals of a second consecutive Masters at the Monte-Carlo Masters, he defeated Benoît Paire, Adrian Mannarino, upset second seed Grigor Dimitrov before losing to unseeded Stefanos Tsitsipas in the semifinals. He reached the semifinals of a third consecutive tournament at the Estoril Open before losing to Frances Tiafoe. After suffering an opening round loss at the Madrid Masters to Borna Ćorić, he followed this up with a quarterfinal appearance at the Rome Masters, losing to Marin Čilić. In the third round of the French Open, he was defeated by Macro Cecchinato. At Wimbledon, Busta was upset in the first round by unseeded Moldovan Radu Albot. At the Cincinnati Masters, Busta made the quarterfinals where he was defeated again by Marin Čilić, he reached the semifinals of the Winston-Salem Open, defeating 16th seed Peter Gojowczyk and sixth seed Chung Hyeon before losing to eighth seed Steve Johnson.
At the US Open, Busta was upset by João Sou
Pacific Coast Borax Company
The Pacific Coast Borax Company was a United States mining company founded in 1890 by the American borax magnate Francis "Borax" Smith, the "Borax King". The roots of the Pacific Coast Borax Company lie in Mineral County, east of Mono Lake, where Smith, while contracting to provide firewood to a small borax operation at nearby Columbus Marsh, spotted Teels Marsh while looking westward from the upper slopes of Miller Mountain where the only nearby trees were growing. To satisfy his curiosity and two assistants visited Teels Marsh and collected samples, that proved to assay higher than any known sources for borate. Returning to Teels Marsh and his helpers staked claims and laid the foundation for his career as a borax miner. With the help of his older brother, who came west from the family home in Wisconsin, financial support from the two Storey brothers, operations began in 1872 under the name and Storey Brothers Borax Co; when the Storey brothers' interests were subsequently acquired in 1873, the name was shortened to Smith Brothers Borax Co.
A few years it was changed again to Teel's Marsh Borax Co. In 1880, the separate and existing Pacific Borax Company was acquired by Smith. Frank Smith developed holdings with his business associate William Tell Coleman at the Harmony Borax Works as well as the Meridian Borax Company, which were subsequently combined to form the Pacific Borax, Salt & Soda Company in 1888; the Pacific Coast Borax Co. name was not adopted until Smith acquired all of Coleman's borax interests in central Nevada and California, after Coleman's bankruptcy, incorporated them all under the new company name in 1890. The Harmony Borax Works were part of what was acquired from Coleman by Smith in 1890; the borax was shipped via the Death Valley Railroad that the company built to the east, from Ryan, California to Death Valley Junction, California. It transferred to the narrow gauge Death Valley Railroad to meet up with the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad which ran from the Amargosa Valley south to the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway railhead in Ludlow, California.
The Borax Museum, located in Death Valley National Park, has a locomotive on display from the Death Valley Railroad. As Death Valley mining ran down Smith developed new mines in the Calico Mountains near Yermo and built the Borate and Daggett Railroad to haul product to the railhead in Daggett, California; the company developed methods to process material from Searles Lake in the Searles Valley, building the company town of Westend and a siding on the Trona Railway for shipping to the railhead at Searles, California. One of the earliest reinforced concrete buildings constructed in the United States was the Pacific Coast Borax Company's refinery in Alameda, designed by Ernest L. Ransome and built in 1893, it was the first to use ribbed floor construction as well as concrete columns. Christian Brevoort Zabriskie joined the company in 1885, became its vice president and stayed until 1933. Zabriskie Point above Death Valley is named in his honor. In 1926, the Pacific Coast Borax Company created a subsidiary called the Death Valley Hotel Company to construct a Mission Revival style luxury hotel near the Furnace Creek springs in the foothills of the Funeral Mountains overlooking Death Valley.
The Furnace Creek Inn opened in February 1927, with transport via the motor-coach from the Ryan station of the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. The company established and aggressively developed and marketed the 20 Mule Team Borax trademark in order to promote the sale of its product; the name derived from the Twenty Mule teams that were used to transport borax out of Death Valley in the 1880s from Harmony Borax Works near Furnace Creek Ranch owned by William Tell Coleman at that time and sold to Smith in 1890. They produced Boraxo hand soap; the radio version of Death Valley Days ran from 1930 to 1951. The TV series Death Valley Days was hosted at one point by "Borateem-pitchman" and future president Ronald Reagan. In Death Valley Junction, California in 1923-24, the Pacific Coast Borax Company constructed their Civic Center at a cost of $300,000. Designed by architect Alexander Hamilton McCulloh, the U-shaped complex of Spanish Colonial Style adobe buildings included company offices, a store, an employee dorm, a 23-room hotel, dining room, gymnasium, billiard room and ice cream parlor.
At the northeast end of the complex was Corkhill Hall, a recreation hall used as a community center for dances, church services, movies and town meetings. Remodeled in 1927, the Civic Center became the Amargosa Hotel. In 1967, Corkhill Hall became Marta Becket's renowned Amargosa Opera House. In 1956, the Pacific Coast Borax Company merged with United States Potash Corporation to form U. S. Borax, which itself was acquired by Rio Tinto Minerals in 1967; as a wholly owned subsidiary, the company now is called Rio Tinto Borax and continues to supply nearly half the world's borates. It operates Rio Tinto Borax Mine, the largest open-pit mine in California next to the company town of Boron, in the Mojave Desert east of Mojave, California; the Trona operation became part of Searles Valley Minerals. George Herbert Hildebrand. Borax Pioneer Francis Marion Smith. Darwin Publications. ISBN 978-0-8310-7148-6. Http://www.boraxminers.com - ILWU - Borax Miners. Views of the Borax Industry, ca. 1898-ca. 1915, The Bancroft Library
A telephone booth, telephone kiosk, telephone call box, telephone box or public call box is a small structure furnished with a payphone and designed for a telephone user's convenience. In the United States and in some parts of Canada, "telephone booth" is the used term for the structure, while in the Commonwealth of Nations, it is a "telephone box"; such a booth has lighting, a door to provide privacy, windows to let others know if the booth is in use. The booth may be furnished with a printed directory of local telephone numbers, a booth in a formal setting, such as a hotel, may be furnished with paper and pen and a seat. An outdoor booth may be made of metal and plastic to withstand the elements and heavy use, while an indoor booth may have more elaborate architecture and furnishings. Most outdoor booths feature the logo of the telephone service provider; the world's first telephone box called "Fernsprechkiosk", was opened on 12 January 1881 at Potsdamer Platz, Berlin. To use it, one had to buy paper tickets called Telefonbillet which allowed for a few minutes of talking time.
In 1899 it was replaced by a coin-operated telephone. William Gray is credited with inventing the coin payphone in the United States in 1889, George A. Long was its developer; the first telephone booth in London, was installed near the Staple Inn in High Holborn in May 1903. In the UK, the creation of a national network of telephone boxes commenced in 1920 starting with the K1, made of concrete, however the city of Kingston upon Hull is noted for having its individual payphone service, with cream coloured phone boxes, as opposed to classic royal red in the rest of Britain. Starting in the 1970s pay telephones were less and less placed in booths in the United States. In many cities where they were once common, telephone booths have now been completely replaced by non-enclosed pay phones. In the United States, this replacement was caused, at least in part, by an attempt to make the pay telephones more accessible to disabled people. However, in the United Kingdom, telephones remained in booths more than the non-enclosed setup.
Although still common, the number of phone boxes has declined in Britain since the late 1990s due to the boom of mobile phones. Many locations that provide pay-phones mount the phones on kiosks rather than in booths—this relative lack of privacy and comfort discourages lengthy calls in high-demand areas such as airports. Special equipment installed in some telephone booths allows a caller to use a computer, a portable fax machine, or a telecommunications device for the deaf; the user of the booth pays for the call by depositing coins into a slot on the telephone. With some telephones the deposit is made before making the call, the coins are returned if the call attempt is unsuccessful. With other types of telephone coins are not deposited until the call has been made and the caller hears their party answer; the deposit of coins permits two-way conversation to proceed. Calls may be paid for by entering a payment code on the telephone's keypad, by swipe-card or by using a telephone card; some pay phones are equipped with a card reader that allows a caller to make payment with a credit card.
A caller who possesses no means of payment may have the phone company's operator ask the call recipient if the recipient is willing to make payment for the call. It is sometimes possible to place a call to a phone booth if the intended recipient is known to be waiting at the booth, but not all phone booths allow such incoming calls. Long before "computer hacking" was a common phenomenon, creative mischief-makers devised tactics for obtaining free phone usage through a variety of techniques, including several for defeating the electro-mechanical payment mechanisms of telephone booths—early methods of phone phreaking; some jurisdictions require phone booths to provide dial-tone first services, allowing coinless access to the emergency telephone number and the switchboard operator, do not require any coins or credit card payments for dialing such calls. The increasing use of mobile phones has led to a decreased demand for pay telephones, but the increasing use of laptops is leading to a new kind of service.
In 2003, service provider Verizon announced that they would begin offering wireless computer connectivity in the vicinity of their phone booths in Manhattan. As of 2006 the Verizon wifi telephone booth service was discontinued in favor of the more expensive Verizon Wireless' EVDO system; this allows a computer user to connect with remote computer services by means of a short range device stationed within the booth. The caller pays for usage by means of a pre-arranged account code stored inside the caller's computer. Wireless access is motivating telephone companies to place wireless stations at locations that have traditionally hosted telephone booths, but stations are appearing in new kinds of locations such as libraries, cafés, trains. Phone booths have been disappearing since the advent of the mobile phone in 1973. A rise in vandalism in certain regions has prompted several companies to manufacture simpler booths with durable pay phones. Most telephone booths in Northern Ireland are able to accept two currencies.
They are able to accept both pound sterling and euro, due to the proximity to the Republic of Ireland. In large cities in Gr