PCM, Inc. is a direct marketing company that offers technology products and services. The company is based in California. PCM started in 1987 as a direct market catalog via telemarketing, the Internet, direct marketing, print catalogs, three retail showrooms; the company has an annual total revenue of US$2.25 billion and has over 40 locations in the United States, Canada and the Philippines. It employs around 3,400 people worldwide as of 2016; the company now known as PCM was founded by two brothers and Frank Khulusi, in 1987 under the name of “Creative Computers”. Creative Computers was launched from the founders’ residence in Marina Del Rey, CA; the company was set up as a mail order catalog company whereby products are advertised through paper flyers/catalogs. Interested customers called in their orders through the provided toll-free "1-800" phone number; the founders took the order and placed purchase orders to acquire sold products, bill the customers’ credit card and ship the products to the customers.
At startup, the company's catalog consisted of only Amiga computers made by Commodore International. The company became the number one mail order reseller of Amiga computers. In 1993/1994 Commodore went through financial difficulties, which caused it to close its operation in April 1994. In early 1994, PC Mall obtained authorization to sell Apple computers through its mail order catalog model; the authorization came at an opportune time. With the Apple authorization and the anticipated growth, PC Mall moved its operation from the back of a retail store to a call center with over 100 seats, a 35,000-square-foot distribution center, over 15,000-square-foot of corporate office space. In first quarter of 1995, the company filed for its initial public offering and went public in April 1995. In January 2000, Creative Computers change its name to Inc.. The following year, the company changed its name again to Inc.. In early 1995, the company expanded its catalog to include PC Wintel products as well. To support the growth, the company moved its distribution center to a 212,000-square-foot facility next to the FedEx hub in Memphis, TN in the third quarter of 1995.
In addition to the millions of catalogs mailed monthly, the company launched its first web sites macmall.com and pcmall.com in 1996. In 1996/1997, the company acquired Computability, a Milwaukee-based company, Elek-Tek, a Chicago-based company, both dealing with PC Wintel products. In 2001, the company acquired a southern California-based company. In 2002, the company acquired Club Mac, another southern California-based operation. In 2011, the company launched its website onSale.com, which focuses on daily deals and electronic products, via the Internet. In third quarter of 2006, PC Mall Gov, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of PC Mall, Inc. acquired the product business of GMRI, a Virginia-based company. GMRI provides IT technology solutions for Federal agencies. In the third quarter of 2007, the company acquired SARCOM, based in Lewis Center, into which Wareforce's operations were subsequently folded. Focusing on enterprise-level businesses, SARCOM offers technology services. Abreon Inc, a division of SARCOM that provides consulting and training operation for mid-market and enterprise businesses, continues to operate as Abreon.
In December 2009, the company acquired the assets of Data Systems Worldwide, a converged networking company, in June 2010, they acquired NSPI, a managed services company. Both DSW and NSPI's operations are now secured under the SARCOM subsidiary. Venturing into the realm of social networking for the first time, the company launched their Small Business Network, or SBN, in 2009. SBN is an online meeting place catering to the needs of small business owners; the company started HealthDynamix, based in Manassas, Virginia, in early 2010. This division provides information services for healthcare and medical industries. In December 2012, the company changed its corporate name to PCM, Inc. from PC Mall, Inc. in connection with the rebranding, effective January 2, 2013, PCM Common Stock commenced trading on NASDAQ under the ticker PCMI and no longer trades under the prior ticker of MALL. In December 2012, PCM completed the purchase of 7.9 acres of land towards the construction of a new cloud data center that it opened in late June 2014.
The Tier III facility is strategically located in a data center-centric development in New Albany, Ohio. The new facility is said to complement its two existing data centers and a 24/7 Integrated Operations Center located in Atlanta, enhancing PCM managed service offerings, including cloud services, data center hosting and management, remote monitoring and disaster recovery. In April 2015, PCM completed its acquisition of IT solutions provider, En Pointe Technologies Sales, Inc. based in Gardena, California. The assets were acquired by an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of PCM, which now operates under the En Pointe brand. In November 2015, PCM acquired the North American business-to-business operations of Systemax, including TigerDirect, for $14 million. In January 2017, PCM acquired Canadian Microsoft Cloud solutions leader, Stratiform inc for C$2.1Million. In April, 2017, PCM announced it's entry into the United Kingdom and Europe through a wholly owned subsidiary, PCM Technology Solutions UK, LTD.
In September 2017, PCM UK acquired Stack Technology Holdings, Ltd, a leading provider of technologies and services across the UK. PCM, Inc. expansion has divided it into several divisions that cater to specific markets and functions. PCM Sales, Inc. PCM Sales Inc. is t
Central processing unit
A central processing unit called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more to its processing unit and control unit, distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry; the form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit chip. An IC that contains a CPU may contain memory, peripheral interfaces, other components of a computer; some computers employ a multi-core processor, a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources. Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is defined as a device for software execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer; the idea of a stored-program computer had been present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was omitted so that it could be finished sooner.
On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions of various types; the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, was not the first stored-program computer. Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a sometimes distinctive computer. However, this method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the development of multi-purpose processors produced in large quantities; this standardization began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit.
The IC has allowed complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles to cellphones, sometimes in toys. While von Neumann is most credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, the design became known as the von Neumann architecture, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas; the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, completed before EDVAC used a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory. The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
Most modern CPUs are von Neumann in design, but CPUs with the Harvard architecture are seen as well in embedded applications. Relays and vacuum tubes were used as switching elements; the overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the Harvard Mark I failed rarely. In the end, tube-based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded outweighed the reliability problems. Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were common at this time, limited by the speed of the switching de
Personal Computer Magazine
Personal Computer Magazine, PCMagazine or PCM is a Dutch monthly magazine about personal computers The first edition of PCM was issued in October 1983 by VNU Business Publications. Since November 2007 PCM is published by HUB Uitgevers; the magazine appears in a circulation of 50.000 copies per month. The magazine is aimed at the beginning hobbyist and home user as well as experienced and business users; the magazine covers Windows more than other platforms. Computer! Totaal Official website
Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization density P responds non-linearly to the electric field E of the light. The non-linearity is observed only at high light intensities such as those provided by lasers. Above the Schwinger limit, the vacuum itself is expected to become nonlinear. In nonlinear optics, the superposition principle no longer holds. Nonlinear optics remained unexplored until the discovery in 1961 of second-harmonic generation by Peter Franken et al. at University of Michigan, shortly after the construction of the first laser by Theodore Harold Maiman. However, some nonlinear effects were discovered before the development of the laser; the theoretical basis for many nonlinear processes were first described in Bloembergen's monograph "Nonlinear Optics". Nonlinear optics explains nonlinear response of properties such as frequency, phase or path of incident light; these nonlinear interactions give rise to a host of optical phenomena: Second-harmonic generation, or frequency doubling, generation of light with a doubled frequency, two photons are destroyed, creating a single photon at two times the frequency.
Third-harmonic generation, generation of light with a tripled frequency, three photons are destroyed, creating a single photon at three times the frequency. High-harmonic generation, generation of light with frequencies much greater than the original. Sum-frequency generation, generation of light with a frequency, the sum of two other frequencies. Difference-frequency generation, generation of light with a frequency, the difference between two other frequencies. Optical parametric amplification, amplification of a signal input in the presence of a higher-frequency pump wave, at the same time generating an idler wave. Optical parametric oscillation, generation of a signal and idler wave using a parametric amplifier in a resonator. Optical parametric generation, like parametric oscillation but without a resonator, using a high gain instead. Half-harmonic generation, the special case of OPO or OPG when the signal and idler degenerate in one single frequency, Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the amplification of the vacuum fluctuations in the low-gain regime.
Optical rectification, generation of quasi-static electric fields. Nonlinear light-matter interaction with free electrons and plasmas. Optical Kerr effect, intensity-dependent refractive index. Self-focusing, an effect due to the optical Kerr effect caused by the spatial variation in the intensity creating a spatial variation in the refractive index. Kerr-lens modelocking, the use of self-focusing as a mechanism to mode-lock laser. Self-phase modulation, an effect due to the optical Kerr effect caused by the temporal variation in the intensity creating a temporal variation in the refractive index. Optical solitons, an equilibrium solution for either an optical pulse or spatial mode that does not change during propagation due to a balance between dispersion and the Kerr effect. Cross-phase modulation, where one wavelength of light can affect the phase of another wavelength of light through the optical Kerr effect. Four-wave mixing, can arise from other nonlinearities. Cross-polarized wave generation, a χ effect in which a wave with polarization vector perpendicular to the input one is generated.
Modulational instability. Raman amplification Optical phase conjugation. Stimulated Brillouin scattering, interaction of photons with acoustic phonons Multi-photon absorption, simultaneous absorption of two or more photons, transferring the energy to a single electron. Multiple photoionisation, near-simultaneous removal of many bound electrons by one photon. Chaos in optical systems. In these processes, the medium has a linear response to the light, but the properties of the medium are affected by other causes: Pockels effect, the refractive index is affected by a static electric field. Acousto-optics, the refractive index is affected by acoustic waves. Raman scattering, interaction of photons with optical phonons. Nonlinear effects fall into two qualitatively different categories and non-parametric effects. A parametric non-linearity is an interaction in which the quantum state of the nonlinear material is not changed by the interaction with the optical field; as a consequence of this, the process is "instantaneous".
Energy and momentum are conserved in the optical field, making phase matching important and polarization-dependent. Parametric and "instantaneous" nonlinear optical phenomena, in which the optical fields are not too large, can be described by a Taylor series expansion of the dielectric polarization density P at time t in terms of the electrical field E: P = ε 0 ( χ E +
Powertrain control module
A power-train control module, abbreviated PCM, is an automotive component, a control unit, used on motor vehicles. It is a combined control unit, consisting of the engine control unit and the transmission control unit. On some cars, such as many Chryslers, there are multiple computers: the PCM, the Transmission Control Unit, the Body Control Module, for a total of three separate computers as an example; these automotive computers are very reliable. The PCM controls more than 100 factors in a car or truck. There are many hundreds of error codes that can occur, which indicates that some subsection of the car is experiencing a problem; when one of these errors occurs it will turn on the "check engine" light on the dashboard. The PCM is one of several on-board computers, or the "brain" of the engine control system; the primary inputs to the PCM come from many sensors, of different types, that are spread around the car. Most of them are oriented toward engine performance; these sensors fail at a much higher rate.
Early use of the powertrain control module dates back to the late 1970s - official phasing in of the PCM occurred during the early 1980s when used in conjunction with electronic controlled carburetors and lockup torque converters. Engine control unit is called: PCM: Power-train control module ECM: Engine control module Injection control unit DME/DDE: Digital Motor Electronics / Digital Diesel Electronics ECU: Electronic control unit / Engine control unit Duffy, James E.. Modern Automotive Technology. ISBN 1-59070-186-0. Ribbens, William B.. Understanding Automotive Electronics. ISBN 0-08-048149-3
Mexican Communist Party
The Mexican Communist Party was a communist party in Mexico. It was founded in 1917 as the Socialist Workers' Party by Manabendra Nath Roy, a left-wing Indian Bengali intellectual; the PSO changed its name to the Mexican Communist Party in November 1919, following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. It was outlawed in 1925 and remained illegal until 1935, during the presidency of the leftist Lázaro Cárdenas; the PCM saw in the left wing of the nationalist regime that emerged from the Mexican Revolution a progressive force to be supported –i.e. Cárdenas and his allies. In the end, the PCM disappeared after joining a split from the PRI led by the son of Lázaro Cárdenas, Cuauhtémoc; the PCM lost its registration in 1946 because it did not meet the new requirements of at least 30,000 registered members in at least 21 of Mexico's 31 states and the Federal District. It is not clear whether the party was unable to recruit enough members or whether, fearing repression, it refused to turn membership rolls over to the Secretary of the Interior in charge of elections.
Over the next 30 years, the party had some minor influence in the Confederation of Mexican Workers and among the intelligentsia of Mexico City. In the mid-1960s the U. S. State Department estimated the party membership to be 50,000. In 1976 the party nominated Valentín Campa as its presidential candidate, competing against José López Portillo. Following the electoral reform of 1977 that lowered the barrier for parties to get on the ballot, the PCM regained temporary registration for the 1979 mid-term elections. After its poor showing and a two decade-long period of moderation during which it adopted a "Eurocommunist" position, the PCM merged with three other far-left political parties in November 1981 and became the Unified Socialist Party of Mexico. Most members of the PSUM merged with somewhat more moderate left-wing groups to form the Mexican Socialist Party in 1987; the PMS never competed in national elections alone, having joined the National Democratic Front –a split from the ruling Revolutionary Institutional Party – to support the presidential bid of Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas in 1988.
What was the PMS was absorbed into the newly formed Party of the Democratic Revolution in 1989. 1959-1963 Collective Secretariat of the Mexican Communist Party 1963-1981 Arnoldo Martínez Verdugo Barry Carr, Marxism & Communism in Twentieth-Century Mexico ISBN 0-8032-1458-8 Bruhn, Kathleen Taking on Goliath: The Emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle for Democracy in Mexico
Psychological continuum model
The psychological continuum model is a framework to organise prior literature from various academic disciplines to explain sport and event consumer behaviour. The framework suggests four stages – awareness, attraction and allegiance to describe how sport and event involvement progressively develops with corresponding behaviours; the PCM uses a vertical framework to characterise various psychological connections that individuals form with objects to explain the role of attitude formation and change that directs behaviours across a variety of consumption activities. Explaining the how and why of sport and event consumer behaviour, it discusses how personal and environmental factors influence a wide range of sport consumption activities; the figure shows the four stages of the PCM - awareness, attraction and allegiance. On each stage, there is a horizontal decision making process. Inputs influence the internal processing; the outcomes are shown in the four different stages of the PCM. The unique decision making process is based upon the level of involvement of the consumer towards a sport/team/event.
The following sequence is shown in each stage: Inputs --> Internal Processing <--> Output The PCM framework states that, through the processing of internal and external inputs, individuals progress upward along the four psychological connection stages. The overall evaluation of an object at a specific stage is the product of the processing of personal and environmental factors. Awareness stands for the notion when an individual first learns that a certain sport, event or team exists. In this stage the individual has not formed a favourite; the PCM suggests that awareness of sport and events stems from formal and informal channels, for examples parents, friends and media. In most cases awareness begins during childhood, but can derive from other socializing agents; the value placed on the specific sport and event from a societal perspective is important in the awareness stage. The examples of I know about football and I know about Liverpool FC illustrate the awareness stage box. In the attraction stage, the individual has a favourite sport, team or leisure hobby.
Attraction is based upon a number of intrinsic motives. In other words, the sport, event, or leisure hobby provides the opportunity to satisfy needs and receive benefits; the motives stem from a combination of personal and environmental factors. The Attraction processing creates outcomes of positive affect and intentions, as well as engaging in consumption behaviour related to the sport and event; the examples of I like football and I like Liverpool FC illustrate the attraction stage box. In the attachment stage the benefits and the sport object are internalised taking on a collective emotional and symbolic meaning; the psychological connection towards a sport, team or leisure hobby strengthens. Internal processes become more important and the influence of socializing agents decreases. Examples for the attachment stage are I am a Liverpool Fan; as the attachment processing continues, the internal collective meaning becomes more durable in terms of persistence and resistance and has greater impact on activities and behaviour.
This is noted by the examples of I live for football and I live for Liverpool FC within the allegiance stage