Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
Richard Purdy Wilbur was an American poet and literary translator. One of the foremost poets of his generation, Wilbur's work, composed in traditional forms, was marked by its wit and gentlemanly elegance. In 1987 he was appointed the second Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress and he received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry twice, in 1957 and again in 1989. Wilbur was born in New York City March 1, 1921, grew up in North Caldwell, New Jersey. In 1938 he graduated from Montclair High School, he graduated from Amherst College in 1942 and served in the United States Army from 1943 to 1945 during World War II. He attended graduate school at Harvard University. Wilbur taught at Wellesley College Wesleyan University for two decades and at Smith College for another decade. At Wesleyan, he was instrumental in founding the award-winning poetry series of the University Press, he received two Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry and taught at Amherst College as late as 2009. He was on the editorial board of the literary magazine The Common, based at Amherst College.
When only 8 years old, Wilbur published his first poem in John Martin's Magazine. His first book, The Beautiful Changes and Other Poems, appeared in 1947. Henceforth he published several volumes of poetry, including New and Collected Poems. Wilbur was a translator, specializing in the 17th century French comedies of Molière and the dramas of Jean Racine, his translation of Tartuffe has become the standard English version of the play, has been presented on television twice In addition to publishing poetry and translations, he published several children's books including Opposites, More Opposites, The Disappearing Alphabet. Continuing the tradition of Robert Frost and W. H. Auden, Wilbur's poetry finds illumination in everyday experiences. Less well-known is Wilbur's foray into lyric writing, he provided lyrics to several songs in Leonard Bernstein's 1956 musical, including the famous "Glitter and Be Gay" and "Make Our Garden Grow." He produced several unpublished works including "The Wing" and "To Beatrice".
His honors included the 1983 Drama Desk Special Award and the PEN Translation Prize for his translation of The Misanthrope, both the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry and the National Book Award for Things of This World, the Edna St Vincent Millay award, the Bollingen Prize, the Chevalier, Ordre des Palmes Académiques. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959. In 1987 Wilbur became the second poet, after Robert Penn Warren, to be named U. S. Poet Laureate after the position's title was changed from Poetry Consultant. In 1988, he won the Aiken Taylor Award for Modern American Poetry and in 1989 he won a second Pulitzer, this one for his New and Collected Poems. On October 14, 1994, he received the National Medal of Arts from President Bill Clinton, he received the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation in 1994. In 2003, Wilbur was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. In 2006, Wilbur won the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize. In 2010 he won the National Translation Award for the translation of The Theatre of Illusion by Pierre Corneille.
In 2012, Yale conferred Doctor of Letters, on Wilbur. Wilbur died on October 14, 2017, at a nursing home in Belmont, Massachusetts from natural causes aged 96. During his lifetime, Wilbur received numerous awards in recognition of his work, including: Guggenheim Fellowship for Creative Arts Poetry Society of America Millay Award National Book Award for Poetry for Things of This World Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Things of This World and Collected Poems Bollingen Prize for Poetry Shelley Memorial Award New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Musical for Candide Outer Critics Circle Award for Best Musical for Candide Drama Desk Special Award for translation of The Misanthrope United States Poet Laureate Laurence Olivier Award for Musical of the Year for Candide St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates American Academy of Arts and Letters Gold Medal in Poetry PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation Frost Medal Wallace Stevens Award Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize 1947: The Beautiful Changes, Other Poems 1950: Ceremony, Other Poems 1955: A Bestiary 1956: Things of This World – won Pulitzer Prize for Poetry and National Book Award, both in 1957 1961: Advice to a Prophet, Other Poems 1969: Walking to Sleep: New Poems and Translations 1976: The Mind-Reader: New Poems 1988: New and Collected Poems – won Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1989 2000: Mayflies: New Poems and Translations 2004: Collected Poems, 1943–2004 2010: Anterooms 1976: Responses: Prose Pieces, 1953–1976 1997: The Catbird's Song: Prose Pieces, 1963–1995 The Misanthrope Tartuffe The School for Wives The Learned Ladies The School for Husbands The Imaginary Cuckold, or Sganarelle Amphitryon The Bungler Don Juan Lovers' Quarrels Andromache Phaedra The Suitors The Theatre of Illusion Le Cid The Liar President and first Lady honor Artists and Scholars, The White House – Office of the Press Secretary, October 13, 1994.
Let Us Watch Richard Wilbur: A Biographical Study by Robert Bagg and Mary Bagg, 2017, University of Massachusetts Press Richard Wilbur and the Things of This World, a documentary film by Ralph Hammann, 2017, Film Odysseys, Ltd. To be released. Richard Wilbur at the Internet Bro
PEN America, founded in 1922 and headquartered in New York City, is a nonprofit organization that works to defend and celebrate free expression in the United States and worldwide through the advancement of literature and human rights. With more than 7,200 members—including novelists, nonfiction writers, poets, playwrights, translators and other writing professionals—PEN America is the largest of the more than 100 PEN centers worldwide that together compose PEN International. PEN America has offices in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C. PEN America’s advocacy includes work on press freedom and the safety of journalists, campus free speech, online harassment, artistic freedom, support to regions of the world with acute free expression challenges, including Eurasia and China. PEN America campaigns for individual writers and journalists who have been imprisoned or come under threat for their work, annually presents the PEN/Barbey Freedom to Write Award. PEN America hosts public programming and events on literature and human rights, including the PEN World Voices Festival of International Literature and the annual PEN America Literary Awards.
PEN America works to amplify underrepresented voices, including emerging authors and writers who are undocumented, incarcerated, or face obstacles in reaching audiences. PEN America was formed on April 19, 1922, in New York City, included among its initial members writers such as Willa Cather, Eugene O’Neill, Robert Frost, Ellen Glasgow, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Robert Benchley. Booth Tarkington served as the organization’s first president. PEN America’s founding came a year after the launch of PEN International in London by Catherine Amy Dawson-Scott, a British poet and peace activist, who enlisted John Galsworthy as PEN International's first president; the intent of PEN International was to foster international literary fellowship among writers that would transcend national and ethnic divides in the wake of World War I. PEN America subscribes to the principles outlined in the PEN International Charter; the organization’s name was conceived as an acronym: Poets, Novelists. As membership expanded to include a more diverse range of people involved in literature and freedom of expression, the name ceased to be an acronym.
Full membership in PEN America requires being a published writer with at least one work professionally published, or being a translator, editor, or other publishing professional. There is a "reader" tier of membership open to supporters from the general public, as well as a "student" membership. Notable members of PEN America past and present include Chinua Achebe, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Edward Albee, Maya Angelou, Paul Auster, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Teju Cole, Don DeLillo, E. L. Doctorow, Roxane Gay, Langston Hughes, Barbara Kingsolver, Norman Mailer, Thomas Mann, Arthur Miller, Marianne Moore, Toni Morrison, Viet Thanh Nguyen, Lynn Nottage, Grace Paley, Philip Roth, Salman Rushdie, Richard Russo, Sam Shepard, Susan Sontag, John Steinbeck, Elizabeth Strout, Anne Tyler, Colson Whitehead; the PEN America Board of Trustees is composed of writers and leaders in the fields of publishing, technology, finance, human rights, philanthropy. Jennifer Egan, a recipient of the Pulitzer Prize and the 2018 Carnegie Medal for literary excellence, became president of PEN America in 2018.
Other members of the Board of Trustees Executive Committee are Executive Vice President Markus Dohle, Vice President Masha Gessen, Vice President Tracy Higgins, Treasurer Yvonne Marsh, Secretary Ayad Akhtar. Additional trustees are Jennifer Finney Boylan, Gabriella De Ferrari, Roxanne Donovan, Lauren Embrey, Nathan Englander, Jeanmarie Fenrich, Tom Healy, Elizabeth Hemmerdinger, Saeed Jones, Zachary Karabell, Sean Kelly, Franklin Leonard, Margaret Munzer Loeb, Erroll McDonald, Dinaw Mengestu, Sevil Miyhandar, Paul Muldoon, Alexandra Munroe, Christian Oberbeck, Michael Pietsch, Marvin S. Putnam, Theresa Rebeck, Laura Baudo Sillerman, Andrew Solomon, Jacob Weisberg, Jamie Wolf, Hanya Yanagihara; the Chief Executive Officer of PEN America is Suzanne Nossel. PEN America celebrates the written word with a nationwide series of events throughout the year. Many feature prominent authors who appear at festivals and on panel discussions, give lectures, are featured at PEN America's Authors’ Evenings.
As a part of its work, PEN America celebrates emerging writers, recognizing them through PEN America’s Literary Awards or bringing them to new audiences at public events. Among them are Hermione Hoby, Morgan Jerkins, Crystal Hana Kim, Alice Sola Kim, Lisa Ko, Layli Long Soldier, Carmen Maria Machado, Darnell L. Moore, Alexis Okeowo, Helen Oyeyemi, Tommy Pico, Jenny Zhang, Ibi Zoboi; the PEN World Voices Festival is a week-long series of events in New York City hosted by PEN America each spring. It is the largest international literary festival in the United States, the only one with a human rights focus; the festival was founded by Salman Rushdie in the aftermath of September 11, 2011, with the aim of broadening channels of dialogue between the United States and the world. Notable guests have included Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Margaret Atwood, Paul Auster, Samantha Bee, Carrie Brownstein, Ron Chernow, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Teju Cole, E. L. Doctorow, Dave Eggers, Roxane Gay, Masha Gessen, Saeed Jones, Jhumpa Lahiri, Hasan Minaj, Sean Penn, Cecile Richards, Salman Rushdie, Gabourey Sidibe, Patti Smith, Zadie Smith, Andrew Solomon, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Colm Toibin, Colson Whitehead.
Main articles: List of PEN literary awards and PEN American Center inactive awards The PEN
Donald Lawrence Keene was an American-born Japanese scholar, teacher and translator of Japanese literature. Keene was University Professor Emeritus and Shincho Professor Emeritus of Japanese Literature at Columbia University, where he taught for over fifty years. Soon after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, he retired from Columbia, moved to Japan permanently, acquired citizenship under the name Kīn Donarudo, his poetic nom de plume is Kīn Donarudo, which he also used as a nickname. Keene received a Bachelor's degree from Columbia University in 1942, he studied the Japanese language at the U. S. Navy Japanese Language School in Boulder, Colorado and in Berkeley and served as an intelligence officer in the Pacific region during World War II. Upon his discharge from the US Navy, he returned to Columbia where he earned a master's degree in 1947. Keene studied for a year at Harvard University before transferring to Cambridge University where he earned a second master's and became a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge from 1948–1954, a University Lecturer from 1949–1955.
In the interim, in 1953, he studied at Kyoto University, earned a Ph. D. from Columbia in 1949. Keene credits Ryūsaku Tsunoda as a mentor during this period. While studying in the East Asian library at Columbia, a man whom Keene did not know invited him to dinner at the Chinese restaurant where Keene and Lee, a Chinese-American Columbia graduate student, ate every day; the man's name was Jack Kerr, he had lived in Japan for several years and taught English in Taiwan. Kerr invited Keene to study Japanese in the summer to learn Japanese from a student he taught in Taiwan, for Kerr to have competition when learning Japanese, their tutor was Inomata Tadashi, they were taught elementary spoken Japanese and kanji. While staying at Cambridge, after winning a fellowship for Americans to study in England, Keene went to meet Arthur Waley, best known for his translation work in classical Chinese and Japanese literature. For Keene, Waley's translation of Chinese and Japanese literature was inspiring arousing in Keene the thought of becoming a second Waley.
Keene was a Japanologist who published about 25 books in English on Japanese topics, including both studies of Japanese literature and culture and translations of Japanese classical and modern literature, including a four-volume history of Japanese literature which has become the standard work. Keene published about 30 books in Japanese, some of which have been translated from English, he was president of the Donald Keene Foundation for Japanese Culture. Soon after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Keene retired from Columbia and moved to Japan with the intention of living out the remainder of his life there, he acquired Japanese citizenship, adopting the legal name キーン ドナルド. This required him to relinquish his American citizenship. Keene was well known and respected in Japan and his relocation there following the earthquake was lauded. On February 24, 2019, Keene died in Tokyo, aged 96. Although Keene was not married, in 2013 he adopted shamisen player Seiki Uehara as a son. In an overview of writings by and about Keene, OCLC/WorldCat lists 600+ works in 1,400+ publications in 16 languages and 39,000+ library holdings.
These lists are not finished. Chikamatsu Monzaemon, The Battles of Coxinga: Chikamatsu's Puppet Play, Its Background and Importance Dazai Osamu, No Longer Human Chikamatsu Monzaemon, The Major Plays of Chikamatsu Includes critical commentary Yoshida Kenkō, Essays in Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenko Mishima Yukio, Five Modern Noh Plays - Including: Madame de Sade Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers, a Puppet Play Mishima Yukio, After the Banquet Abe Kobo The man who turned into a stick: three related plays. Original text published by Tokyo University Press. Dazai Osamu, The Setting Sun??, The tale of the shining Princess Abe Kobo, Friends: a play Abe Kobo, Three Plays Matsuo Bashō, The Narrow Road to Oku Kawabata Yasunari, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter Yamamoto Yuzo, One Hundred Sacks of Rice: A Stage Play Miyata Masayuki, Donald Keene, H. Mack Horton, 源氏物語 - The Tale of Genji. Bilingual illustrated text with essay. Donald Keene & Oda Makoto, The Breaking Jewel, Donald Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century The Old Woman, the Wife, the Archer: Three Modern Japanese Short Novels Anthology of Chinese Literature: From the 14th Century to the Present Day Love Songs from the Man'Yoshu Keene was awarded various honorary doctorates, from: University of Cambridge St. Andrews Presbyterian College Middlebury College Columbia University Tohoku University Waseda University Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Keiwa College K
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2012 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2012. January 1 – Copyright restrictions on James Joyce's major works are lifted on the first day of the year. January 20 – British novelist Salman Rushdie cancels an appearance at the Jaipur Literature Festival in India, four other writers leave the city after reading excerpts from The Satanic Verses, banned in the country. February – James Joyce's children's story The Cats of Copenhagen is published for the first time by Ithys Press in Dublin. March – The discovery is announced of a collection of fairy tales gathered by historian Franz Xaver von Schönwerth and locked away in a Regensburg archive for more than 150 years. April – While attending the London Book Fair, exiled Chinese writer Ma Jian uses red paint to smear a cross over his face and a copy of his banned book Beijing Coma and calls Chinese publishers a "mouthpiece of the Chinese communist party" after being "manhandled" while attempting to present the book to Liu Binjie at the fair.
July – Jaime García Márquez tells his students that his brother Gabriel García Márquez, the Colombian writer and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize for Literature, suffers from dementia that has ended his writing career. September 27 – 50th anniversary of the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson September 28 – Sue Limb's parody of the Bloomsbury Group, begins broadcasting on BBC Radio 4 in the U. K. October 24 – Boekenberg public library in Spijkenisse, designed by MVRDV, is opened. December – The discovery is announced of "The Tallow Candle", a unknown story by Hans Christian Andersen, it was found at the bottom of a box in Denmark in October. Saud Alsanousi – The Bamboo Stalk Carol Anshaw – Carry the One Jacob M. Appel – The Man Who Wouldn't Stand Up Hannah Barnaby – Wonder Show Filippo Bologna – I pappagalli Peter Carey – The Chemistry of Tears Dan Chaon – Stay Awake Emily Danforth – The Miseducation of Cameron Post Debra Dean - The Mirrored World Elena Ferrante – L'amica geniale Richard Ford – Canada Ben Fountain – Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk Alex George – A Good American Emily Giffin – Where We Belong Lauren Groff – Arcadia Mark Haddon – The Red House John Irving – In One Person Howard Jacobson – Zoo Time Rosemary Johns – Black Box 149 Adam Johnson – The Orphan Master's Son Christian Kracht – Imperium Adam Levin – Hot Pink Mario Vargas Llosa – The Dream of the Celt Ben Marcus – The Flame Alphabet Simon Mawer – Trapeze Toni Morrison – Home Alice Munro – Dear Life Chibundu Onuzo – The Spider King's Daughter Ron Rash – The Cove J. K. Rowling – The Casual Vacancy Benjamin Alire Sáenz – Everything Begins and Ends at the Kentucky Club Neeta Shah – Bollywood Striptease Helen Simpson – A Bunch of Fives Anne Tyler – The Beginner's Goodbye David Vann – Dirt Richard Wagamese – Indian Horse Edmund White – Jack Holmes and His Friend David Almond – The Boy Who Swam With Piranhas John Green – The Fault in Our Stars Jacqueline Harvey – Clementine Rose book series Jon Klassen – This is Not My Hat Josh Lacey – The Dragonsitter Rick Riordan – The Mark of Athena Maggie Stiefvater – The Raven Boys Jacqueline Wilson – The Worst Thing About My Sister Ayad Akhtar – Disgraced Alan Bennett Cocktail Sticks Hymn People Monica Byrne – What Every Girl Should Know Lolita Chakrabarti – Red Velvet James Graham – This House Miho Mosulishvili – My Redbreast Suman Mukhopadhyay – Bisarjan Theresa Rebeck – Dead Accounts Sam Shepard – Heartless Anne Washburn – Mr. Burns, a Post-Electric Play See 2012 in poetry Paige Ackerson-Kiely – My Love Is a Dead Arctic Explorer Marilyn Buck – Inside/Out: Selected Poems Mehr Lal Soni Zia Fatehabadi – The Qat'aat o Rubaiyat of Zia Fatehabadi Jack Gilbert – Collected Poems Paul Hoover – Desolation: Souvenir Liu Xiaobo – June Fourth Elegies Eileen Myles – Snow-Flake Lucia Perillo – On the Spectrum of Possible Deaths D. A. Powell – Useless Landscape, or A Guide for Boys W. G. Sebald – Across the Land and the Water: Selected Poems 1964–2001 David Wagoner – After the Point of No Return Lew Welch – Ring of Bone: Collected Poems Joe Abercrombie – Red Country Daniel Abraham The King's Blood – Caliban's War Saladin Ahmed – Throne of the Crescent Moon Aaron Allston – Mercy Kill John Barrowman and Carole Barrowman – Hollow Earth John Birmingham – Angels of Vengeance Alex Bledsoe – Wake of the Bloody Angel David Brin – Existence Tobias Buckell – Arctic Rising Orson Scott Card – Shadows in Flight Samuel R. Delany – Through the Valley of the Nest of Spiders Troy Denning – Fate of the Jedi: Apocalypse Steven Erikson – Forge of Darkness Ian C.
Esslemont – Orb Sceptre Throne Brian Evenson – Immobility Michael F. Flynn – In the Lion's Mouth Mira Grant – Blackout Jon Courtenay Grimwood – The Outcast Blade Robin Hobb – City of Dragons Douglas Hulick – Sworn in Steel N. K. Jemisin The Killing Moon The Shadowed Sun Stephen King – The Wind Through the Keyhole Mary Robinette Kowal – Glamour in Glass Jay Lake – Calamity of So Long a Life Paul Melko – Broken Universe China Miéville –
Burton Dewitt Watson was an American scholar best known for his numerous translations of Chinese and Japanese literature into English. Watson's translations received many awards, including the Gold Medal Award of the Translation Center at Columbia University in 1979, the PEN Translation Prize in 1982 for his translation with Hiroaki Sato of From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry, again in 1995 for Selected Poems of Su Tung-p'o. In 2015, at age 88, Watson was awarded the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation for his long and prolific translation career. Burton Watson was born on June 13, 1925, in New Rochelle, New York, where his father was a hotel manager. In 1943, at age 17, Watson dropped out of high school to join the U. S. Navy, was stationed on repair vessels in the South Pacific during the final years of the Pacific Theatre of World War II, his ship was in the Marshall Islands when the war ended in August 1945, on September 20, 1945 it sailed to Japan to anchor at the Yokosuka Naval Base, where Watson had his first direct experiences with Japan and East Asia.
As he recounts in Rainbow World, on his first shore leave, he and his shipmates encountered a stone in Tokyo with musical notation on it. Some months Watson realized that he had been in Hibiya Park and that the song was "Kimigayo". Watson left Japan in February 1946, was discharged from the Navy, was accepted into Columbia University on the G. I. Bill, where he majored in Chinese, his main Chinese teachers were the American Sinologist L. Carrington Goodrich and the Chinese scholar Wang Chi-chen. At that time, most of the Chinese curriculum focused on learning to read Chinese characters and Chinese literature, as it was assumed that any "serious students" could learn to speak Chinese by going to China, he took one year of Japanese. Watson spent five years studying at Columbia, earning a B. A. in 1949 and an M. A. in 1951. After receiving his master's degree, Watson hoped to move to China for further study, but the Communist Party of China—who had taken control of China in 1949 with their victory in the Chinese Civil War—had closed to the country to Americans.
He was unable to find any positions in Taiwan or Hong Kong, so moved to Japan using the last of his GI savings. Once there, he secured two positions in Kyoto: as an English teacher at Doshisha University, as graduate student and a research assistant to Professor Yoshikawa Kōjirō of the Chinese Language and Literature at Kyoto University, his combined salary, including tutoring English several evenings per week, was about $50 per month, so he lived much like other Japanese graduate students. In 1952, he was able to resign his position at Doshisha, thanks to Columbia University stipend for Sources in Chinese Tradition, in the year, a position as a Ford Foundation Overseas Fellow. Although he had long been interested in translating poetry, his first significant translations were of kanshi, made in 1954 for Donald Keene, compiling an anthology of Japanese literature. A few years he sent some translations of early Chinese poems from the Yutai Xinyong to Ezra Pound for comment. In subsequent years, Watson became friends with Gary Snyder, who lived in Kyoto in the 1950s, through him Cid Corman and Allen Ginsberg.
In 1956 he earned a Ph. D. from Columbia with a doctoral dissertation on 1st century BC historian Sima Qian entitled "Ssu-ma Ch'ien: The Historian and His Work". He worked as a member of Ruth Fuller Sasaki's team translating Buddhist texts into English, under the auspices of the Columbia University Committee on Oriental Studies. Returning to Columbia in August 1961, he subsequently taught at Columbia and Stanford as a professor of Chinese. He and colleague Professor Donald Keene participated in the seminars of William Theodore de Bary given to students at Columbia University. Watson moved to Japan in 1973, where he remained for the rest of his life, devoted much of his time to translation, both of literary works, of more routine texts such as advertisements, instruction manuals, so forth, he never married, but was in a long-term relationship with his partner Norio Hayashi. He stated, in an interview with John Balcom, that his translations of Chinese poetry were influenced by the translations of Pound and Arthur Waley Waley.
While in Japan, he took up kōan study. Although he worked as a translator for the Soka Gakkai, a Japanese Buddhist organization, he was not a follower of the Nichiren school of Buddhism or a member of the Soka Gakkai. Despite his extensive activity in translating ancient Chinese texts, his first time in China was a three-week trip in the summer of 1983, with expenses paid by the Soka Gakkai. Watson died on April 2017, aged 91, at the Hatsutomi Hospital in Kamagaya, Japan. Translations from Chinese include: The Lotus Sutra: and Its Opening and Closing Sutras, 2009 Late Poems of Lu You, Ahadada Books, 2007. Analects of Confucius, 2007 The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings, 2004 The Selected Poems of Du Fu, 2002 Vimalakirti Sutra, New York: Columbia University Press 1996 Selected Poems of Su Tung-P'o, The Lotus Sutra, 1993 Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty, Columbia University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-231-08164-1; the Tso Chuan: Selections from China’s Oldest Narrative History, 1989 Chinese Lyricism: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century, 1971 Cold Mountain: 100 Poems by the T’ang Poet Han-Shan, 1970 The Old Man Who Does As He Pleases: Selections from the Poetry and Prose of Lu Yu, 1973 Chinese Rhyme-Prose: Poems in the Fu Form from the Han and Six