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PGA European Tour

The PGA European Tour is an organisation which operates the three leading men's professional golf tours in Europe: the elite European Tour, the principal golf tour in Europe. Its headquarters are at Wentworth Club in Virginia Water, England; the European Tour was established by the British-based Professional Golfers' Association through the 1970s, responsibility was transferred to an independent PGA European Tour organisation in 1984. Most tournaments on the PGA European Tour's three tours are held in Europe, but starting in the 1980s an increasing number have been held in other parts of the world. Europe-based events are nearly all played in Western Europe, with the most lucrative of them taking place in the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain; the PGA European Tour is a golfer-controlled organisation whose primary purpose is to maximise the income of tournament golfers. It is a company limited by guarantee and is run by a professional staff but controlled by its playing members via a board of directors composed of 12 elected past and present tour players and a tournament committee of 14 current players.

The chairman of the board is David Williams who replaced Neil Coles who had held the post for 38 years. The chairman of the tournament committee is Thomas Bjørn; the PGA European Tour is the lead partner in Ryder Cup Europe, a joint venture including the PGA of Great Britain and Ireland and PGA of Europe that operates the Ryder Cup Matches in cooperation with the PGA of America. The PGA European Tour has a 60% interest in Ryder Cup Europe, with each of its junior partners holding 20%. Professional golf began in Europe in Scotland; the first professionals were clubmakers and greenkeepers who taught golf to the wealthy men who could afford to play the game and played "challenge matches" against one another for purses put up by wealthy backers. The first multi-competitor stroke play tournament was The Open Championship, introduced in 1860. Over the following decades, the number of golf tournaments offering prize money increased but steadily. Most were in the United Kingdom, but there were several "national opens" in various countries of Continental Europe.

In 1901 the The Professional Golfers' Association was founded to represent the interests of professional golfers throughout Great Britain and Ireland, it was this body that created the European Tour. As the tournament circuit grew, in 1937 the Harry Vardon Trophy was created to be awarded to the member of the PGA with the best stroke average in select major stroke play tournaments of the season; this would become known as the Order of Merit, at different times has been calculated using stroke average, a points system and money earned. Each year the PGA would determine. By the post-World War II period prize money was becoming more significant, with sponsors being attracted by the introduction of television coverage, as such it was becoming more feasible for professional golfers to make a living by playing alone. In the United States a formal organised tour, which became known as the PGA Tour, had been administered by the PGA of America since the 1930s; however into the 1960s and 1970s, the majority of tournaments in Europe were still organised separately by the host golf club or association, or a commercial promoter.

In 1972 The Professional Golfers' Association created an integrated "European tour" with the inclusion of eight major tournaments in Continental Europe on their Order of Merit schedule. These tournaments were the French Open, first included in 1970; as such the 1972 season is now recognised as the first season of the PGA European Tour. For several years, the British PGA and continental circuits continued to run separately, each with their own Order of Merit. Following the example set in the United States, having been threatened with a breakaway, in 1975 the PGA agreed to amend their constitution giving the tournament side more autonomy with the formation of the Tournament Players Division. In 1977 the Tournament Players Division joined with the Continental Tournament Players Association to become the European Tournament Players Division, the following year it was agreed with the European Golf Association that the Continental Order of Merit would be discontinued. In its early years the season ran for six months from April to October, was based in Europe in Great Britain and Ireland.

Over the next three decades the tour lengthened and globalised. The first event held outside Europe was the 1982 Tunisian Open; that year, there were the season stretched into November for the first time. In 1984, the PGA European Tour became independent of The Professional Golfers' Association; the following year, the tour became "all-exempt" with the end of pre-qualifying for tournaments. The European Tour has always been sensitive to the risk that its best players will leave to play on the PGA Tour for many reasons; the PGA Tour offers higher purses and European players want to increase their chances of glory in the three majors played in the U. S. by playing on more U. S.-style courses to acclimate themselves. In an attempt to counter this phenomenon, the European Tour i

Switch (band)

Switch is an R&B/funk band that found fame recording for the Gordy label in the late 1970s, releasing hit songs such as "There'll Never Be", "I Call Your Name", "Love Over & Over Again". Switch influenced bands such as DeBarge, which featured the siblings of Switch band members Bobby and Tommy DeBarge; the group was formed in Ohio, in December 1976 by Gregory Williams. They recorded a demo tape in Ohio with the financial assistance of Bernd Lichters. Switch included Gregory Williams, brothers Tommy DeBarge and Bobby DeBarge, all from Grand Rapids, along with Akron, Ohio natives Phillip Ingram, Eddie Fluellen, Jody Sims. Williams, Bobby DeBarge, Sims had been members of White Heat, which released a self-titled album on RCA in 1975, but the band's producer, Barry White, soon shuttered his Soul Unlimited production company and dropped all the acts on the roster. Williams living in Akron OH, decided to form his own band; the new group would become Switch due to their ability to switch to different lead vocalist and instruments during a song.

After a demo was recorded by the newly formed, unnamed band and Sims flew to LA and by sheer coincidence got the attention of Jermaine Jackson, former member of the Jackson 5, Hazel Gordy Jackson, who heard the group's demo tape. Within weeks, the group was signed to the Motown Records Gordy subsidiary label, they recorded and released their self titled debut album some 18 months in 1978, which featured their first Top 10 R&B hit single, entitled "There'll Never Be". The song proved to be their biggest success on the Billboard Hot 100, where it was a Top 40 hit, peaking at #36, their songs were written by Williams, Bobby DeBarge and Sims, sometimes in collaboration with Jermaine Jackson. Though they never managed to achieve significant crossover success into the pop singles chart, they were a consistent presence on the R&B charts through the late 1970s with albums such as Switch II from 1979, This Is My Dream and Reaching For Tomorrow in 1980, their final release on Gordy was Switch V, released in 1981.

Songs such as "I Wanna Be Closer", "We Like to Party", "I Call Your Name", "Best Beat in Town", "Love Over and Over Again" became hits for the group. Shortly after the DeBarge brothers left Switch to mentor their younger siblings in the group DeBarge, lead singer Ingram left to pursue a solo career, Switch took on new vocalists and musicians: singer Renard Gallo, Gonzales Ozen, bassist Phil Upchurch Jr; this configuration of Switch signed with Total Experience and recorded a final album Am I Still Your Boyfriend in 1984, breaking up that year. In 1991, Motown released. A similar version on the 20th Century Masters series released more is all that remains in print of this band. Former lead singer Bobby DeBarge died of AIDS-related complications in Grand Rapids, Michigan on August 16, 1995 at age 39. Switch has since reunited, featuring original members founder/leader Williams, Ingram, original sessions/on stage guitarist Michael McGloiry, new lead vocalist Akili Nickson. Gregory Williams: vocals, trumpet Eddie Fluellen: keyboards, vocals Phillip Ingram: vocals, percussion Bobby DeBarge: vocals, piano/keyboards, drums Tommy DeBarge: vocals, bass guitar Jody Sims: vocals, drums Michael McGloiry: guitar Attala Giles: guitar, keyboards Renard Gallo: vocals, percussion Gonzales Ozen: vocals, percussion Akili Nickson: lead vocals A Credited to White Heat.

B Credited to Hot-Ice. The Best of Switch 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Switch Gonzales, Michael A.. "Broken Dreams". Vibe. pp. 108–115. Bogdanov, Vladimir. All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-744-8. Official website Switch at AllMusic Switch on ReverbNation

Hartwig, Count of Stade

Hartwig, Count of Stade and Archbishop of Bremen, son of Rudolf I, Margrave of the Nordmark, Richardis, daughter of Hermann von Sponheim, Burgrave of Magdeburg. Hartwig became the last Count of Stade belonging to the House of Udonids in 1144 when his brother Rudolf died, he succeeded Adalbero as Archbishop of Bremen in August 1148. He is regarded as the most politically significant Archbishop of Bremen of the 12th century. Hartwig was first canon of Magdeburg Cathedral. In 1143, he became Provost of Bremen Cathedral and was from 1148 until his death, archbishop of the diocese. Hartwig contracted to marry his sister Lutgard of Salzwedel to King Eric III of Denmark in 1143 or 1144. With the death of her elder brother Count Rudolf II of Stade and Freckleben in 1144, without heir and her children became the eventual heirs of the County of Stade, since her younger, inheriting brother, was childless. However, in 1148, Hartwig stipulated with the cathedral chapter his election as Archbishop of Bremen in return for his bequest of the county to the archdiocese on his death, thus disinheriting Lutgard's children.

He participated in the Diet of Roncaglia in 1158 in which Emperor Frederick Barbarossa attempted to establish his rights as feudal sovereign, but Hartwig returned home prior to the resulting Italian Campaign by the Emperor. After the death of Rudolf II in 1144, Hartwig transferred his inheritance to the archbishopric of Bremen in return for a regrant of a life interest to obtain a powerful protector against the aggression of Henry the Lion; the move was ineffective, as Henry took possession of the lands and captured both Hartwig and the archbishop Adelbero, releasing them only after they agreed to recognize his claim. In 1890, the Hartwigstraße in Bremen-Schwachhausen was named after him. Krause, Karl Ernst Hermann, Lothar Udo II. Und das Stader Grafenhaus. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 19, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig, 1884 Medieval Lands Project, Grafen von Stade Dehio, Hartwig I, Erzbischof von Bremen. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig, 1879 Glaeske, Günter, Hartwig I..

In: Neue Deutsche Biographie, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 1969 Schwarzwälder, Die Bischöfe und Erzbischöfe von Bremen, Ihre Herkunft und Amtszeit - ihr Tod und ihre Gräber, in: Die Gräber im Bremer St. Petri Dom, Blätter der "Maus", Gesellschaft für Familienforschung, Bremen, 1996