Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, exclude the use of optics as in reflector sights, holographic sights, telescopic sights. Iron sights are composed of two component sights, formed by metal blades: a rear sight mounted perpendicular to the line of sight and a front sight, a post, ramp, or ring. Open sights use a notch of some sort as the rear sight, while aperture sights use some form of a circular hole. Civilian and police firearms feature open sights, while many military battle rifles employ aperture sights; the earliest and simplest iron sights are fixed and cannot be adjusted. Many iron sights are designed to be adjustable for sighting in firearms by adjusting the sights for elevation or windage. On many firearms it is the rear sight, adjustable. For precision applications such as hunting or sniping, the iron sights are replaced by a telescopic sight. Iron sights may still be fitted alongside other sighting devices for back-up usage.
In the case of firearms, where the projectile follows a Newtonian trajectory and rear sights must be aligned with the line of sight of the shooter to the target, known as the'Point of Aim', calibrated to the distance of the target and the trajectory of the bullet, so that the bullet hits the target at the'Point of Impact'. Iron sights provide horizontal and vertical reference points that allow the shooter to train the weapon. Rear sights are mounted in a dovetail on the barrel or receiver, closer to the eye of the shooter, allowing for easy visual pick-up of the notch. Front sights are mounted to the barrel by dovetailing, screwing, or staking close to the muzzle on a ramp; some front sight assemblies include a detachable hood intended to reduce glare, if the hood is circular this provides a reference where the eye will align one within the other. With typical blade or post iron sights, the shooter would center the front post in the notch of the rear sight and the tops of both sights should be level.
Since the eye is only capable of focusing on one plane, the rear sight, front sight, target are all in separate planes, only one of those three planes can be in focus. Which plane is in focus depends on the type of sight, one of the challenges to a shooter is to keep the focus on the correct plane to allow for best sight alignment. A tiny error in the angle of sight alignment results in a trajectory that diverges from the target on a trajectory directly relative to the distance from the target, causing the bullet to miss the target. At 1,000 m, that same misalignment would be magnified 100 times, giving an error of over 300 mm, 1,500 times the sight misalignment. Increasing the distance between the front and rear sights, called the sight radius or sighting line, helps to reduce eventual angle errors and will, in case the sight has an incremental adjustment mechanism, adjust in smaller increments when compared to a further identical shorter sighting line. With the front sight on the front end of the barrel, sight radius may be increased by moving the rear sight from the barrel onto the receiver or tang.
Sights for shotguns used for shooting small, moving targets work quite differently. The rear sight is discarded, the rear reference point is provided by the correct and consistent positioning of the shooter's head. A brightly colored round bead is placed at the end of the barrel; this bead will be placed along a raised, flat rib, ventilated to keep it cool and reduce mirage effects from a hot barrel. Rather than being aimed like a rifle or handgun, the shotgun is pointed with the focus always on the target, the unfocused image of the barrel and bead are placed below the target and ahead of the target if there is lateral movement; this method of aiming is not as precise as that of a front sight/rear sight combination, but it is much faster, the wide spread of shot allows a hit if there is some error in aim. Some shotguns provide a mid-bead, a smaller bead located halfway down the rib, which allows more feedback on barrel alignment. Open sights are used where the rear sight is at significant distance from the shooter's eye.
They at the expense of precision. Open sights use either a square post or a bead on a post for a front sight. To use the sight, the post or bead is positioned both vertically and horizontally in the center of the rear sight notch. For a center hold, the front sight is positioned on the center of the target, bisecting the target vertically and horizontally. For a 6 o'clock hold, the front sight is centered horizontally. A 6 o'clock hold is only good for a known target size at a known distance and will not hold zero without user adjustment if these factors are varied. From the shooter's point of view, there should be a noticeable space between each side of the front sight and the edges of the notch.
The Sako TRG is a bolt-action sniper rifle line designed and manufactured by the Finnish firearms manufacturer, SAKO of Riihimäki. The TRG-21 and TRG-22 are designed to fire standard.308 Winchester /7.62×51mm NATO sized cartridges, while the TRG-41 and TRG-42 are designed to fire more powerful and dimensionally larger.300 Winchester Magnum magnum and.338 Lapua Magnum super magnum cartridges. They are available with olive drab green, desert tan/coyote brown, dark earth or black stocks, are available with a folding stock; the sniper rifles are fitted with muzzle brakes to reduce recoil and flash. The Sako factory are detachable. TRGs are outfitted with a Zeiss or Schmidt & Bender PM II telescopic sight with fixed power of magnification or with variable magnification. Variable telescopic sights can be used if the operator wants more flexibility to shoot at varying ranges, or when a wide field of view is required. In October 2011, Sako introduced the Sako TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System, it was designed as a user configurable multi caliber modular system and does not share its receiver and other technical features with the rest of the TRG line.
In 1989 Sako Ltd. introduced the TRG-21 precision rifle as a sniper rifle model chambered in.308 Winchester cartridge. A more hunting oriented variation of the TRG was introduced as the TRG-S M995, which uses the same receiver and bolt as the TRG-21 with the exception that the receiver is open at the top rather than possessing a cartridge ejection port on the right side as found with the TRG-21. Subsequently, a second sniper rifle with a 20 mm longer scaled up magnum action emerged as the TRG-41 in order to take advantage of the.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge. A hunting variant of this model, again using the same bolt and with the receiver open at the top was introduced as the TRG-S M995 Mag in magnum calibers up to.338 Lapua Magnum. Though the TRG-21 obtained its origins from the successful Sako TR-6 target rifle, the 4.7 kg TRG-21 was designed as a result of a thorough study of sniper requirements. With the introduction of the TRG bolt-action, Sako moved away from the modified two-lug Mauser bolt-actions, favoured during the past, to an action with a symmetrical three-lug bolt of 19 mm diameter, displaying a locking surface of 75 mm2.
The evolution of this design continues to the present and can be found in Sako's hunting rifle offerings, the Sako 75 and the Sako 85. To make the TRG system more suitable for military use, Sako upgraded and improved the TRG-21/41 design in the late 1990s; some TRG accessories like the muzzle brake and bipod were improved. This resulted in the TRG-22/42 rifle system. Around 2011 an American Sako vendor commissioned a special limited production run of TRG-22 sniper rifles chambered in.260 Remington cartridge and started offering them as of May 2011. In 2013 the TRG system was further improved based on customer requirements; the upgrades consist of mounting improved recoil pads to reduce felt recoil, a newly constructed bolt release and a new adjustable two-stage trigger mechanism that features a new more ergonomic ambidextrous safety lever, a trigger guard milled from aluminum for more positive magazine attachment. Further the bolt handle and its attachment to the bolt body were ruggedized; these general 2013 upgrades are backwards compatible with older TRG sniper rifles.
Exclusive for the.338 Lapua Magnum chambered TRG-42 model a new bolt featuring double plunger ejectors was introduced in 2013 to improve the ejection reliability of dimensionally large and heavy.338 Lapua Magnum rifle cases. In 2018 Sako introduced the TRG-22 TRG-42 A1 models; the TRG A1 models have a Sako TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System alike stock, featuring an aluminum middle chassis frame, side-folding buttstock, a fore-end with the M-LOK rail interface system that allows for direct accessory attachment onto "negative space" mounting points. The TRG A1 models do not offer the user configurable multi caliber modular system of the Sako TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System; the bolts of the TRG A1 models all feature double plunger ejectors introduced earlier for the.338 Lapua Magnum TRG-42 and the TRG-22 A1 model expands the chambering palette with 6.5 Creedmoor. Sako never forgot the target rifle origins of the TRG system; the necessary accessories to attach sighting components such as match grade peep sights or target aperture sights and a mirage strap are all available.
Equipped with these accessories the TRG can be used for non military or law enforcement tasks such as 300 m UIT standard rifle competition, CISM competition or other kinds of full bore target shooting. The rifle is seen in long-range competition where it has done well. Besides civilian target shooting the TRG system is sometimes used for hunting; the TRG system’s purposive design features, reliability in adverse conditions and consistent accuracy performance have made it a popular, though expensive, sniper rifle system. The TRG system is unique in being a purpose-designed sniper rifle, rather than an accurised version of an existing, general-purpose rifle; the sniper rifles can have a manganese phosphatised finish. The heart of the TRG system is a cold-hammer forged barrel. Both provide maximum strength for minimum weight as well as excellent resistance to wear; the action has a hex style profile on top with a small
JW GROM is Poland's premier special forces unit. The unit's other name is Jednostka Wojskowa 2305. GROM operators gained the nickname of The Surgeons due to their extensive medical training and knowledge and their surgical ability to coordinate and execute Special Operations. GROM was modeled on NATO's tier one special operations units such as the US Army's 1st SFOD-D, the US Navy's SEAL Team Six and the British Army's SAS. GROM, which stands for Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego, which means "thunder", is one of the five special operation forces units of the Polish Armed Forces, it was activated on July 13, 1990. It is deployed in a variety of special operations and unconventional warfare roles, including anti-terrorist operations and projection of force behind enemy lines; the unit was named after the Silent Unseen – Poland's elite World War II special-operations unit. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were several formations of special forces units within Poland, but these were either trained in purely military tasks or in purely counter-terrorist roles.
After the Polish embassy in Bern was taken over by a group of four Polish emigrants calling themselves Polish Revolutionary Home Army in 1982, General Edwin Rozłubirski proposed that a clandestine military unit be established to counter the threat from terrorism and other unconventional threats. This proposal, was rejected by the People's Army of Poland. In 1989, many Jews were allowed to emigrate from the Soviet Union to Israel. Poland was one of the handful of countries that provided aid in the form of organization for the operation dubbed Operation Bridge. After two Polish diplomats were shot in Beirut, Lt. Col. Sławomir Petelicki was sent to Lebanon to secure the transfer of civilians and the Polish diplomatic outposts. Upon his return to Poland, he presented his plan for the creation of a special military unit to the Ministry of Interior, a force that would be trained in special operations to be deployed in the defense of Polish citizens in situations similar to the one in Lebanon. Petelicki's ideas were well received, on June 13, 1990, GROM was formally established as JW 2305.
Sławomir Petelicki was chosen as the first commander of the newly formed unit. As a Polish intelligence officer from Służba Bezpieczeństwa specializing in sabotage and subversion, he seemed suited to oversee the unit's initial formation, he gathered around himself a group of like-minded and professional soldiers and set about choosing soldiers that would be fit for special operations. Due to the high risks involved in special service, it was decided that all men should be from professional service; the first batch of recruits all came from a variety of already-existing special units within the Polish Armed Forces. Among these were: 1 Batalion Szturmowy from Lubliniec 48, 56 and 62 Kompania Specjalna 6 Brygada Desantowo-Szturmowa Polish Navy divers Anti-terrorist units of the Policja Mechanised Warfare Officer School in Wrocław Reconnaissance units of PAFOut of the possible recruits, only a small group passed the training. Many of these initial instructors were trained by the Special Forces of the United States and the United Kingdom.
Jednostka Wojskowa GROM is co-operating with similar units of other NATO countries. During its formative first few years, JW 2305 remained secret and hidden from the public, it was first reported to the press in 1992 and became known to the public in 1994, after their first major military operation in Haiti. Before October 1, 1999, JW 2305 was subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, after which time command was transferred to the Minister of National Defence, until 2007. Since 2007 JW GROM is under the command of Dowódca Wojsk Specjalnych. Candidates applying to serve in JW GROM have to pass psychological and durability tests, along with the so-called truth test, a physically and psychologically exhausting field test designed to filter out the weaker applicants. GROM soldiers train with the best special operation units in the world; the training of GROM soldiers includes a variety of disciplines. All of them undergo the same specialized training in anti-terrorism and special operations, as well as frogman and parachuting.
In four-man teams, each soldier must be prepared to assume the respective responsibilities of his colleagues, should it become necessary. JW GROM receives basic special operations training from the Swedish Navy's Special Command for Tactical Operations based in Karlskrona, Sweden's primary Naval Base. 75% of GROM personnel are trained as medics or paramedics. In addition, each group is supported by several professional physicians. GROM soldiers are trained in kill methods. Command and support staff in Warsaw A Squadron – Land Element located in Warsaw B Squadron – Maritime Element located in Gdansk C Squadron – Specialty unknown located in Warsaw Logistic and security unit located in Warsaw Most of unit's operations remain classified, the known ones are listed below. 1990 – 1992 Operacja Most 1992 – "Antoni Macierewicz briefcases" affair. 1992 – Assault on residence and arrest of one of the bosses of Art B. 1994 – Operation Uphold De
.338 Lapua Magnum
The.338 Lapua Magnum is a rimless, centerfire rifle cartridge. It was developed during the 1980s as a long-range cartridge for military snipers, it was used in the Iraq War. As a result of this, it became more available; the loaded cartridge is 14.93 mm in 93.5 mm long. It can penetrate better-than-standard military body armor at ranges up to 1,000 metres and has a maximum effective range of about 1,750 metres. Muzzle velocity is dependent on barrel length, seating depth, powder charge, varies from 880 to 915 m/s for commercial loads with 16.2-gram bullets, which corresponds to about 6,525 J of muzzle energy. British military issue overpressure.338 Lapua Magnum cartridges with a 91.4 mm overall length, loaded with 16.2-gram LockBase B408 very-low-drag bullets fired at 936 m/s muzzle velocity. This round, fired from a L115A3 Long Range Rifle, was used in November 2009 by British sniper Corporal of Horse Craig Harrison to establish the then-new record for the longest confirmed sniper kill in combat, at a range of 2,475 m.
In addition to its military role, it is used by hunters and civilian long-range shooting enthusiasts. The.338 Lapua Magnum is capable of taking down any game animal, though its suitability for some dangerous game is arguable, unless accompanied by a larger "backup" calibre: "There is a huge difference between calibres that will kill an elephant and those that can be relied upon to stop one." In Namibia the.338 Lapua Magnum is legal for hunting Africa's Big five game if the loads have ≥ 5,400 J muzzle energy. In 1983, Research Armament Industries in the United States began development of a new, long-range sniper cartridge capable of firing a 16.2-gram, 0.338-inch diameter bullet at 914 metres per second that could lethally penetrate five layers of military body armour at 1,000 m. After preliminary experiments, a.416 Rigby case necked down to take a 0.338-inch bullet. It was selected since this diameter presents an optimum of sectional density and penetrating capability for practical spin-stabilized rifle bullets.
The.416 Rigby is an English big game cartridge, designed to accommodate 325 MPa pressures. One of the disadvantages of these old cartridge cases, which were intended for firing cordite charges instead of modern smokeless powder, is the thickness of the sidewall just forward of the web. During ignition, the cartridge's base, just forward of the bolt face, is not supported. During the process RAI employed Brass Extrusion Labs Ltd. of Bensenville, Illinois, to make the.338/416 or 8.58×71mm cartridge cases, Hornady produced bullets, RAI built a sniper rifle under contract for the U. S. Navy. RAI found. Pressed by military deadlines RAI looked for another case producer and contacted Lapua of Finland in 1984. RAI was forced to drop out of the program due to financial difficulties. Subsequently, Lapua of Finland put this cartridge into limited production. The.338/416 rifle program was canceled when the contractors were unable to make the cartridge meet the project's velocity target of 914 m/s for a 16.2 g bullet, due to excessive pressures rupturing cartridge cases.
The current.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge was developed as a joint venture between the Finnish rifle manufacturer SAKO and the British rifle manufacturer Accuracy International along with the Finnish ammunition manufacturer Lapua, or more Nammo Lapua Oy, which since 1998 is part of the Nordic Ammunition Group. Lapua opted to redesign the.338/416 cartridge. In the new case design, particular attention was directed toward thickening and metallurgically strengthening the case's web and sidewall forward of the web. In modern solid head cases, the hardness of the brass is the major factor that determines a case's pressure limit before undergoing plastic deformation. Lapua tackled this problem by creating a hardness distribution ranging from the head and web to the mouth as well as a strengthened case web and sidewall forward of the web; this resulted in a pressure resistant case, allowing it to operate at high pressure and come within 15 m/s of the original velocity goal. Lapua designed a 16.2-gram.338 calibre Lock Base B408 full metal jacket bullet, modeled after its.30 calibre Lock Base bullet configuration.
The result was the.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge, registered with C. I. P. in 1989. With the procurement by the Dutch Army, the cartridge became. The.338 Lapua Magnum fills the gap between weapons chambered for standard military rounds such as the 7.62×51mm NATO and large, weighty rifles firing the.50 BMG cartridge. It offers a tolerable amount of barrel wear, important to military snipers who tend to fire thousands of rounds a year in practice; this was achieved by coupling a sensible case volume to bore area ratio with ample space for loading long slender projectiles that can provide good aerodynamic efficiency and external ballistic performance for the projectile diameter. Like every other comparable big magnum rifle cartridge the.338 Lapua Magnum presents a stout recoil. An appropriate fitting stock and an effective muzzle brake will help to reduce recoil induced problems, enabling the
A muzzle brake or recoil compensator is a device connected to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon that redirects propellant gases to counter recoil and unwanted muzzle rise. The concept was first introduced for artillery and was a common feature on many anti-tank guns those mounted on tanks, in order to reduce the area needed to take up the strokes of recoil and kickback, they have been used in various forms for rifles and pistols to help control recoil and the rising of the barrel that occurs after firing. They are used on pistols for practical pistol competitions, are called compensators in this context; the interchangeable terms muzzle rise, muzzle flip, or muzzle climb refer to the tendency of a handheld firearm's front end to rise after firing. Firearms with less height from the grip line to the barrel centerline tend to experience less muzzle rise; the muzzle rises because, for most firearms, the centerline of the barrel is above the center of contact between the shooter and the firearm's grip and stock.
The reactive forces from the fired bullet and propellant gases exiting the muzzle act directly down the centerline of the barrel. If that line of force is above the center of the contact points, this creates a moment or torque that causes the firearm to rotate and the muzzle to rise; the M1946 Sieg automatic rifle had an unusual muzzle brake that made the rifle climb downward, but enabled the user to fire it with one hand in full automatic. Muzzle brakes are simple in concept, such as the one employed on the 90 mm M3 gun used on the M47 Patton tank; this consists of a small length of tubing mounted at right angles to the end of the barrel. Brakes most utilize slots, holes and similar devices; the strategy of a muzzle brake is to redirect and control the burst of combustion gases that follows the departure of a projectile. All muzzle brake designs share a basic principle: they divert combustion gases from the muzzle end of the bore, at a perpendicular angle to the long axis of the barrel; the momentum of the diverted gases thus does not add to the recoil.
The angle toward which the gases are directed will fundamentally affect. If gases are directed upward, they will counteract muzzle rise. Any device, attached to the end of the muzzle will add mass, increasing its inertia and moving its center of mass forward. Construction of a muzzle brake or compensator can be as simple as a diagonal cut at the muzzle end of the barrel to direct some of the escaping gas upward. On the AKM assault rifle, the brake angles to the right to counteract the sideways movement of the rifle under recoil. Another simple method is porting, where holes or slots are machined into the barrel near the muzzle to allow the gas to escape. More advanced designs use baffles and expansion chambers to slow escaping gases; this is the basic principle behind a linear compensator. Ports are added to the expansion chambers, producing the long, multi-chambered recoil compensators seen on IPSC raceguns. Most linear compensators redirect the gases forward. Since, where the bullet is going, they work by allowing the gases to expand into the compensator, which surrounds the muzzle but only has holes facing forward.
They reduce muzzle rise to the mechanism by which a sideways brake does: since all the gas is escaping in the same direction, any muzzle rise would need to alter the velocity of the gas, which costs kinetic energy. When the brake redirects the gases directly backward, the effect is similar to the reverse thrust system on an aircraft jet engine. Of course, this means the gases are directed toward the shooter; when the gases are directed upward, the braking is referred to as porting. Porting involves precision-drilled ports or holes in the forward top part of the barrel and slide on pistols; these holes divert a portion of the gases expelled prior to the departure of the projectile in a direction that reduces the tendency of the firearm to rise. The concept is an application of Newton's third law; this is why firearms are never ported on the bottom of the barrel, as that would exacerbate muzzle rise, rather than mitigate it. Porting has the undesired consequences of shortening the effective barrel length and reducing muzzle velocity.
Porting has the advantage for faster follow-up shots for 3-round burst operation. Though there are numerous ways to measure the energy of a recoil impulse, in general, a 10% to 50% reduction can be measured; some muzzle brake manufacturers claim greater recoil reduction percentages. Muzzle brakes need sufficient propellant gas volume and high gas pressure at the muzzle of the firearm to achieve well-measured recoil reduction percentages; this means cartridges with a small bore area to case volume ratio combined with a high operating pressure benefit more from recoil reduction with muzzle brakes than smaller standard cartridges. Besides reducing felt recoil, one of the primary advantages of a muzzle brake is the reduction of muzzle rise; this lets a shooter realign a weapon's sights more quickly. This is relevant for automatic weapons. Muzzle rise can theoretically be eliminated by an efficien
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm. Magazines can be integral to the firearm; the magazine functions by moving the cartridges stored within it into a position where they may be loaded into the barrel chamber by the action of the firearm. The detachable magazine is colloquially referred to as a clip, although this is technically inaccurate. Magazines come in many shapes and sizes, from tubular magazines on lever-action rifles that hold only a few rounds, to detachable box and drum magazines for automatic rifles and machine guns that can hold more than one hundred rounds. Various jurisdictions ban what they define as "high-capacity magazines". With the increased use of semi-automatic and automatic firearms, the detachable magazine became common. Soon after the adoption of the M1911 pistol, the term "magazine" was settled on by the military and firearms experts, though the term "clip" is used in its place; the defining difference between clips and magazines is the presence of a feed mechanism in a magazine a spring-loaded follower, which a clip lacks.
A magazine has four parts as follows. A clip may have no moving parts. Examples of clips are moon clips for revolvers. Use of the term "clip" to refer to detachable magazines is a point of strong disagreement; the earliest firearms were loaded with loose powder and a lead ball, to fire more than a single shot without reloading required multiple barrels, such as pepper-box guns and double-barreled shotguns, or multiple chambers, such as in revolvers. Both of these add bulk and weight over a single barrel and a single chamber and many attempts were made to get multiple shots from a single loading of a single barrel through the use of superposed loads. While some early repeaters such as the Kalthoff repeater managed to operate using complex systems with multiple feed sources for ball and primer mass-produced repeating mechanisms did not appear until self-contained cartridges were developed; the first mass-produced repeater was the Volcanic Rifle which used a hollow bullet with the base filled with powder and primer fed into the chamber from a spring-loaded tube called a magazine.
It was named after a room used to store ammunition. The anemic power of the Rocket Ball ammunition used in the Volcanic doomed it to limited popularity.. The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action, breech-loading, tubular magazine fed rifle, was an improved version of the earlier Volcanic rifle. Designed by Benjamin Tyler Henry in 1860, it was one of the first firearms to use self-contained metallic cartridges; the Henry was introduced in the early 1860s and produced through 1866 in the United States by the New Haven Arms Company. It was adopted in small quantities by the Union in the Civil War and favored for its greater firepower than the standard issue carbine. Many found their way West and was famed both for its use at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, being the basis for the iconic Winchester rifle which are still made to this day; the Henry and Winchester rifles would go on to see service with a number of militaries including Turkey. Switzerland and Italy adopted similar designs; the first magazine-fed firearm to achieve widespread success was the Spencer repeating rifle, which saw service in the American Civil War.
The Spencer used a tubular magazine located in the butt of the gun instead of under the barrel and it used new rimfire metallic cartridges. The Spencer was successful, but the rimfire ammunition did ignite in the magazine tube and destroy the magazine, it could injure the user. The new bolt-action rifles began to gain favor with militaries in the 1880s and were equipped with tubular magazines; the Mauser Model 1871 was a single-shot action that added a tubular magazine in its 1884 update. The Norwegian Jarmann M1884 was adopted in 1884 and used a tubular magazine; the French Lebel Model 1886 rifle used 8-round tubular magazine. The military cartridge was evolving. Cartridges evolved from large-bore cartridges to smaller bores that fired lighter, higher-velocity bullets and incorporated new smokeless propellants; the Lebel Model 1886 rifle was the first rifle and cartridge to be designed for use with smokeless powder and used an 8 mm wadcutter-shaped bullet, drawn from a tubular magazine. This would become a problem when the Lebel's ammunition was updated to use a more aerodynamic pointed bullet.
Modifications had to be made to the centerfire case to prevent the spitzer point from igniting the primer of the next cartridge inline in the magazine through recoil or rough handling. This remains a concern with lever-action firearms today. Two early box magazine patents were the ones by Rollin White in 1855 and William Harding in 1859. A detachable box magazine was patented in 1864 by the American Robert Wilson. Unlike box magazines this magazine fed into a tube magazine and was located in the stock of the gun. Another box magazine, closer to the modern type, was patented in Britain by Mowbray Walker, George Henry Money and Francis Little in 1867. James Paris Lee patented a box magazine which held rounds stacked vertically in 1879 and 1882 and it was first adopted by Austria in the form of an 11mm straight-pull bolt-action rifle, the Mannlicher M1886, it used a cartridge clip which held 5 rounds ready to load into the ma
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize