Piping and instrumentation diagram
A piping and instrumentation diagram is a detailed diagram in the process industry which shows the piping and process equipment together with the instrumentation and control devices. Superordinate to the piping and instrumentation diagram is the process flow diagram which indicates the more general flow of plant processes and the relationship between major equipment of a plant facility. A piping and instrumentation diagram is defined by the Institute of Instrumentation and Control as follows: A diagram which shows the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process. In the process industry, a standard set of symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes; the instrument symbols used in these drawings are based on International Society of Automation Standard S5.1 The primary schematic drawing used for laying out a process control installation. They contain the following information: Mechanical equipment, including: Pressure vessels, tanks, compressors, heat exchangers, wellheads, cooling towers, turbo-expanders, pig traps Bursting discs, restriction orifices and filters, steam traps, moisture traps, sight-glasses, silencers and vents, flame arrestors, vortex breakers, eductorsProcess piping and identification, including: Pipe classes and piping line numbers Flow directions Interconnections references Permanent start-up, flush and bypass lines Pipelines and flowlines Blinds and spectacle blinds Insulation and heat tracing Process control instrumentation and designation, including: Valves and their types and identifications Control inputs and outputs Miscellaneous - vents, flanges, special fittings, sampling lines and swages Interfaces for class changes Computer control system Identification of components and subsystems delivered by othersP&IDs are drawn up at the design stage from a combination of process flow sheet data, the mechanical process equipment design, the instrumentation engineering design.
During the design stage, the diagram provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as a Hazard and operability study. To do this, it is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect. P&IDs play a significant role in the maintenance and modification of the process after initial build. Modifications are vital records of the current plant design, they are vital in enabling development of. P&IDs form the basis for the live mimic diagrams displayed on graphical user interfaces of large industrial control systems such as SCADA and distributed control systems. Based on STANDARD ANSI/ISA S5.1 and ISO 14617-6, the P&ID is used for the identification of measurements within the process. The identifications consist of up to 5 letters; the first identification letter is for the measured value, the second is a modifier, 3rd indicates passive/readout function, 4th - active/output function, the 5th is the function modifier.
This is followed by loop number, unique to that loop. For instance FIC045 means it is the Flow Indicating Controller in control loop 045; this is known as the "tag" identifier of the field device, given to the location and function of the instrument. The same loop may have FT045 -, the flow transmitter in the same loop. For reference designation of any equipment in industrial systems the standard IEC 61346 can be applied. For the function Measurement the reference designator B is used, followed by the above listed letter for the measured variable. For reference designation of any equipment in a power station the KKS Power Plant Classification System can be applied. Below are listed some symbols of chemical apparatus and equipment used in a P&ID, according to ISO 10628 and ISO 14617. Process flow diagram Instrumentation in petrochemical industries Commons:Category:Chemical engineering symbols - A list of P&ID symbols in SVG format Learn How to Read P&ID Drawings – A Complete Guide Interpreting Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams-Symbology
Passive infrared sensor
A passive infrared sensor is an electronic sensor that measures infrared light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most used in PIR-based motion detectors. PIR sensors are used in security alarms and automatic lighting applications. PIR sensors do not give information on who or what moved. For that purpose, an active IR sensor is required. PIR sensors are called "PIR", or sometimes "PID", for "passive infrared detector"; the term passive refers to the fact. They work by detecting infrared radiation emitted by or reflected from objects. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation; this radiation isn't visible to the human eye because it radiates at infrared wavelengths, but it can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. Infrared radiation enters through the front of the sensor, known as the'sensor face'. At the core of a PIR sensor is a solid state sensor or set of sensors, made from pyroelectric materials—materials which generate energy when exposed to heat.
The sensors are 1/4 inch square, take the form of a thin film. Materials used in PIR sensors include gallium nitride, caesium nitrate, polyvinyl fluorides, derivatives of phenylpyridine, cobalt phthalocyanine; the sensor is manufactured as part of an integrated circuit. A PIR-based motion detector is used to sense movement of animals, or other objects, they are used in burglar alarms and automatically-activated lighting systems. A PIR sensor can detect changes in the amount of infrared radiation impinging upon it, which varies depending on the temperature and surface characteristics of the objects in front of the sensor; when an object, such as a person, passes in front of the background, such as a wall, the temperature at that point in the sensor's field of view will rise from room temperature to body temperature, back again. The sensor converts the resulting change in the incoming infrared radiation into a change in the output voltage, this triggers the detection. Objects of similar temperature but different surface characteristics may have a different infrared emission pattern, thus moving them with respect to the background may trigger the detector as well.
PIRs come in many configurations for a wide variety of applications. The most common models have numerous Fresnel lenses or mirror segments, an effective range of about 10 meters, a field of view less than 180°. Models with wider fields of view, including 360°, are available designed to mount on a ceiling; some larger PIRs are made with single segment mirrors and can sense changes in infrared energy over 30 meters from the PIR. There are PIRs designed with reversible orientation mirrors which allow either broad coverage or narrow "curtain" coverage, or with individually selectable segments to "shape" the coverage. Pairs of sensor elements may be wired as opposite inputs to a differential amplifier. In such a configuration, the PIR measurements cancel each other so that the average temperature of the field of view is removed from the electrical signal; this allows the device to resist false indications of change in the event of being exposed to brief flashes of light or field-wide illumination.
At the same time, this differential arrangement minimizes common-mode interference, allowing the device to resist triggering due to nearby electric fields. However, a differential pair of sensors cannot measure temperature in this configuration, therefore is only useful for motion detection; when a PIR sensor is configured in a differential mode, it becomes applicable as a motion detector device. In this mode when a movement is detected within the "line of sight" of the sensor, a pair of complementary pulses are processed at the output pin of the sensor. In order to implement this output signal for a practical triggering of a load such as a relay or a data logger, or an alarm, the differential signal is rectified using a bridge rectifier and fed to a transistorized relay driver circuit; the contacts of this relay close and open in response to the signals from the PIR, activating the attached load across its contacts, acknowledging the detection of a person within the predetermined restricted area.
The PIR sensor is mounted on a printed circuit board containing the necessary electronics required to interpret the signals from the sensor itself. The complete assembly is contained within a housing, mounted in a location where the sensor can cover the area to be monitored; the housing will have a plastic "window" through which the infrared energy can enter. Despite being only translucent to visible light, infrared energy is able to reach the sensor through the window because the plastic used is transparent to infrared radiation; the plastic window reduces the chance of foreign objects from obscuring the sensor's field of view, damaging the mechanism, and/or causing false alarms. The window may be used as a filter, to limit the wavelengths to 8-14 micrometres, closest to the infrared radiation emitted by humans, it may serve as a focusing mechanism. Different mechanisms can be used to focus the distant infrared energy onto the sensor surface; the plastic window covering may have multiple facets molded into it, to focus the infrare
Paul is dead
"Paul is dead" is an urban legend and conspiracy theory alleging that Paul McCartney, of the English rock band the Beatles, died in November 1966 and was secretly replaced by a look-alike. In September 1969, a rumour of McCartney's supposed death began spreading across college campuses in the United States; the rumour was based on perceived clues found in Beatles songs and album covers. Clue-hunting proved infectious, within a few weeks, had become an international phenomenon. Rumours declined after a contemporary interview with McCartney, secluded with his family in Scotland, was published in Life magazine in November 1969. During the 1970s, the phenomenon was the subject of analysis in the fields of sociology and communications. References to the legend are still made in popular culture. McCartney himself poked fun at it with his 1993 live album, titling it Paul Is Live, with cover art parodying clues placed on the cover of the Beatles' album Abbey Road. In 2009, Time magazine included "Paul is dead" in its feature on ten of "the world's most enduring conspiracy theories".
In early 1967, a rumour circulated in London that Paul McCartney had been killed in a traffic accident while driving along the M1 motorway on 7 January. The rumour was rebutted in the February issue of The Beatles Book, a fanzine. According to a lecture titled "Who Buried Paul?", presented by Brian Moriarty at the 1999 Game Developers Conference, it is not known whether the rumour of 1969 is related to this earlier episode. In late September 1969, the Beatles released the album Abbey Road as they were in the process of disbanding. Isolated from his bandmates in his opposition to their choice of business manager, Allen Klein, distraught at John Lennon's private announcement that he was leaving the group, McCartney retreated to his farm near Campbeltown in Scotland with his wife Linda and their daughters. On 17 September 1969, Tim Harper, an editor of the Drake Times-Delphic, the student newspaper of Drake University in Des Moines, published an article titled "Is Beatle Paul McCartney Dead?" The article addressed a rumour being circulated on campus that cited clues from recent Beatles albums, including a message interpreted as "Turn me on, dead man", heard when "Revolution 9" is played backwards.
According to music journalist Merrell Noden, this was the first published article on the "Paul is dead" theory. Harper said that it had become the subject of discussion among students at the start of the new academic year, he added: "A lot of us, because of Vietnam and the so-called Establishment, were ready and able to believe just about any sort of conspiracy."On 10 October the Beatles' press officer, Derek Taylor, responded to the rumour, saying: "Recently we've been getting a flood of inquiries asking about reports that Paul is dead. We've been getting questions like that for years, of course, but in the past few weeks we've been getting them at the office and home night and day. I'm getting telephone calls from disc jockeys and others in the United States." On 12 October 1969, a caller to Detroit radio station WKNR-FM told disc jockey Russ Gibb about the rumour and its clues. Gibb and other callers discussed the rumour on air for the next hour, during which Gibb offered further potential clues.
Two days The Michigan Daily published a satirical review of Abbey Road by University of Michigan student Fred LaBour, who had listened to the exchange on Gibb's show, under the headline "McCartney Dead. It identified various clues to McCartney's death on Beatles album covers on the Abbey Road sleeve. LaBour had invented many of the clues and was astonished when the story was picked up by newspapers across the United States. Noden writes that "Very soon, every college campus, every radio station, had a resident expert." WKNR fuelled the rumour further with its two-hour programme The Beatle Plot, which first aired on 19 October. The story was soon taken up by more mainstream radio stations in the New York area, WMCA and WABC. In the early hours of 21 October, WABC disc jockey Roby Yonge discussed the rumour on-air for over an hour before being pulled off the air for breaking format. At that time of night, WABC's signal covered a wide listening area and could be heard in 38 US states and, at times, in other countries.
Although the Beatles' press office denied the rumour, McCartney's atypical withdrawal from public life contributed to its escalation. Vin Scelsa, a student broadcaster in 1969 said that the escalation was indicative of the countercultural influence of Bob Dylan, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, since: "Every song from them – starting about late 1966 – became a personal message, worthy of endless scrutiny... they were guidelines on how to live your life."WMCA despatched Alex Bennett to the Beatles' Apple Corps headquarters in London on 23 October, further to his extended coverage of the "Paul is dead" theory. There, Ringo Starr told Bennett: ``, they're gon na believe it. I can only say it's not true." In another interview at this time, Lennon said that the rumour was "insane" but good publicity for Abbey Road. Before the end of October 1969, several record releases had exploited the phenomenon of McCartney's alleged demise; these included "The Ballad of Paul" by the Mystery Tour, "Brother Paul" by Billy Shears and the All Americans, "So Long Paul" by Werbley Finster, a pseudonym for José Feliciano.
Another song was Terry Knight's "Saint Paul", a minor hit in June that year and was subsequently adopted by radio stations as a tribute to "the late Paul McCartney". In Canada, Polydor Records exploited the rumour in their artwork for Very Together, a repackaging of the Beatles' pre-fame rec
USB is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and protocols for connection and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum. There have been three generations of USB specifications: USB 2.0 and USB 3.x. USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing devices, digital still and video cameras, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power, it has replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, has become commonplace on a wide range of devices. USB connectors have been replacing other types for battery chargers of portable devices; this section is intended to allow fast identification of USB receptacles on equipment. Further diagrams and discussion of plugs and receptacles can be found in the main article above; the Universal Serial Bus was developed to simplify and improve the interface between personal computers and peripheral devices, when compared with existing standard or ad-hoc proprietary interfaces.
From the computer user's perspective, the USB interface improved ease of use in several ways. The USB interface is self-configuring, so the user need not adjust settings on the device and interface for speed or data format, or configure interrupts, input/output addresses, or direct memory access channels. USB connectors are standardized at the host, so any peripheral can use any available receptacle. USB takes full advantage of the additional processing power that can be economically put into peripheral devices so that they can manage themselves; the USB interface is "hot pluggable", meaning devices can be exchanged without rebooting the host computer. Small devices can be powered directly from displacing extra power supply cables; because use of the USB logos is only permitted after compliance testing, the user can have confidence that a USB device will work as expected without extensive interaction with settings and configuration. Installation of a device relying on the USB standard requires minimal operator action.
When a device is plugged into a port on a running personal computer system, it is either automatically configured using existing device drivers, or the system prompts the user to locate a driver, installed and configured automatically. For hardware manufacturers and software developers, the USB standard eliminates the requirement to develop proprietary interfaces to new peripherals; the wide range of transfer speeds available from a USB interface suits devices ranging from keyboards and mice up to streaming video interfaces. A USB interface can be designed to provide the best available latency for time-critical functions, or can be set up to do background transfers of bulk data with little impact on system resources; the USB interface is generalized with no signal lines dedicated to only one function of one device. USB cables are limited in length, as the standard was meant to connect to peripherals on the same table-top, not between rooms or between buildings. However, a USB port can be connected to a gateway.
USB has "master-slave" protocol for addressing peripheral devices. Some extension to this limitation is possible through USB On-The-Go. A host cannot "broadcast" signals to all peripherals at once, each must be addressed individually; some high speed peripheral devices require sustained speeds not available in the USB standard. While converters exist between certain "legacy" interfaces and USB, they may not provide full implementation of the legacy hardware. For a product developer, use of USB requires implementation of a complex protocol and implies an "intelligent" controller in the peripheral device. Developers of USB devices intended for public sale must obtain a USB ID which requires a fee paid to the Implementers' Forum. Developers of products that use the USB specification must sign an agreement with Implementer's Forum. Use of the USB logos on the product require annual fees and membership in the organization. A group of seven companies began the development of USB in 1994: Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, Nortel.
The goal was to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs by replacing the multitude of connectors at the back of PCs, addressing the usability issues of existing interfaces, simplifying software configuration of all devices connected to USB, as well as permitting greater data rates for external devices. Ajay Bhatt and his team worked on the standard at Intel; the original USB 1.0 specification, introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed. Microsoft Windows 95, OSR 2.1 provided OEM support for the devices. The first used version of USB was 1.1, released in September 1998. The 12 Mbit/s data rate was intended for higher-speed devices such as disk drives, the lower 1.5 Mbit/s rate for low data
Project Initiation Documentation
The Project Initiation Documentation - one of the most significant artifacts in project management, which provides the foundation for the business project. PID bundles the information, acquired through the Starting up a project and Initiating a Project processes in a PRINCE2 controlled project environment. PRINCE2's 2009 renaming Document to Documentation indicates a collection of documentation, collected up creating a project rather than all the information in the system; the Project Initiation Document provides a reference point throughout the project for both the customer and the Project Team. A Project Initiation Document contains the following: Project Goals Scope Project Organization Business Case Constraints Stakeholders Risks Project Controls Reporting frameworks PID Sign Off SummaryA Project Charter could be created instead of a PID, but a Project Charter is less detailed, which makes it more suitable for cases in which content producers are less available. The Project Initiation Documentation is a PRINCE2 term representing the plan of approach in project management.
It is assembled from a series of other documents, including the business case, the Terms of Reference, the communication plan, the risk register, the Project Tolerances, the project plan, any specific project controls or inspections as part of a departmental quality plan or common project approach. The PID represents a detailed version of the basic project start-up document called the Project Brief; the PID bundles together documentation to form the logical document that brings together all of the key information needed to start and run the project on a sound basis. It should be agreed and signed off by the business sponsors. In short, this is the, "who and what", part of the project, it defines all major aspects of a project and forms the basis for its management and the assessment of overall success. The project initiation document builds upon the business case using the information and analysis data produced during initiation activities. A common part of formal project methodologies such as PRINCE2 the document is a major milestone in the Initiating a Project process.
It is the document - off to commence a project. The Project Initiation Document provides a reference point throughout the project for both the customer and the Project Team; the purpose of the Project Initiation Document is to capture and record basic information needed to define and plan the project. The PID should expand upon the Project Mandate and state what the project is aiming and planning to achieve and the reason for the importance of meeting these aims, it contains the list of people who are participating in the project development from the beginning until project closure, along with their roles and responsibilities. The PID includes the date when the PID was approved by the Project Board; the PID is not updated during project stages. Any revisions or updates which are needed are to be done at the end of the each stage in order to incorporate detailed milestones for the next steps; the Project Initiation Document is the basis of decisions taken for the project and there is nothing worse than the PID being queried at a stage when PID changes have been made with no reference to why or by whom or when.
One of the most important sections of the PID. Project Scope Statement is divided into three parts: Project Scope Statement, Proposed Solution and In Scope for Project Example; that part of PID explaining in depth what the project is delivering for Stakeholders and customers. Proposed Solution explains what innovations and aspects the project will bring within the environment and the society and which changes and renewals it will cause; the Project Scope Statement should include as much detail as possible, as it helps to avoid proliferating problems and questions in the project lifecycle. In Scope phase helps the Project Manager to make decisions of financial aspects and projects' expenses. Project Background establish how the project was created. Phase 1 of the project will deliver the online functionality required together with the changes to the necessary Business Systems impacted, whilst Phase 2 will deliver the Digital Rights Management and real-time advert insertion; the person, who has played a pivotal role in project participation should be mentioned in the section of PID.
It is rational way of make the specific project above others emphasizing the attention of participation of most active candidate of a team. It is; the result should be that the resources and equipment are made available to you to ensure your project happens. Assumptions and Constraints detail the Project Initiation Document; those details are assumed ahead of the Project Management Requirements and Business Requirements Specification being documented. Project Constraints in the PID identifies the outer impact, such as unavailability of resources or competitor. In order to complete the organization stage, the team needs to complete the Organization Chart; the project will be achieved by a cross-functional team with experienced representatives from multiple departments including Development, Test, Networking and Business Systems and Marketing. The involvement of the different areas will vary; the SMG will be notified of key developments. During the whole process of creating the Project Initiation Document the Project manager is aware that he or she
A proportional–integral–derivative controller is a control loop feedback mechanism used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control. A PID controller continuously calculates an error value e as the difference between a desired setpoint and a measured process variable and applies a correction based on proportional and derivative terms, hence the name. In practical terms it automatically applies accurate and responsive correction to a control function. An everyday example is the cruise control on a car, where ascending a hill would lower speed if only constant engine power is applied; the controller's PID algorithm restores the measured speed to the desired speed with minimal delay and overshoot, by increasing the power output of the engine. The first theoretical analysis and practical application was in the field of automatic steering systems for ships, developed from the early 1920s onwards, it was used for automatic process control in manufacturing industry, where it was implemented in pneumatic, electronic, controllers.
Today there is universal use of the PID concept in applications requiring accurate and optimised automatic control. The distinguishing feature of the PID controller is the ability to use the three control terms of proportional and derivative influence on the controller output to apply accurate and optimal control; the block diagram on the right shows the principles of how these terms are applied. It shows a PID controller, which continuously calculates an error value e as the difference between a desired setpoint SP = r and a measured process variable PV = y, applies a correction based on proportional and derivative terms; the controller attempts to minimize the error over time by adjustment of a control variable u, such as the opening of a control valve, to a new value determined by a weighted sum of the control terms. In this model: Term P is proportional to the current value of the SP − PV error e. For example, if the error is large and positive, the control output will be proportionately large and positive, taking into account the gain factor "K".
Using proportional control alone will result in an error between the setpoint and the actual process value, because it requires an error to generate the proportional response. If there is no error, there is no corrective response. Term I accounts for past values of the SP − PV error and integrates them over time to produce the I term. For example, if there is a residual SP − PV error after the application of proportional control, the integral term seeks to eliminate the residual error by adding a control effect due to the historic cumulative value of the error; when the error is eliminated, the integral term will cease to grow. This will result in the proportional effect diminishing as the error decreases, but this is compensated for by the growing integral effect. Term D is a best estimate of the future trend of the SP − PV error, based on its current rate of change, it is sometimes called "anticipatory control", as it is seeking to reduce the effect of the SP − PV error by exerting a control influence generated by the rate of error change.
The more rapid the change, the greater the controlling or dampening effect. Tuning – The balance of these effects is achieved by loop tuning to produce the optimal control function; the tuning constants are shown below as "K" and must be derived for each control application, as they depend on the response characteristics of the complete loop external to the controller. These are dependent on the behaviour of the measuring sensor, the final control element, any control signal delays and the process itself. Approximate values of constants can be entered knowing the type of application, but they are refined, or tuned, by "bumping" the process in practice by introducing a setpoint change and observing the system response. Control action – The mathematical model and practical loop above both use a "direct" control action for all the terms, which means an increasing positive error results in an increasing positive control output for the summed terms to apply correction. However, the output is called "reverse" acting if it is necessary to apply negative corrective action.
For instance, if the valve in the flow loop was 100–0% valve opening for 0–100% control output – meaning that the controller action has to be reversed. Some process control schemes and final control elements require this reverse action. An example would be a valve for cooling water, where the fail-safe mode, in the case of loss of signal, would be 100% opening of the valve; the overall control function can be expressed mathematically as u = K p e + K i ∫ 0 t e d t ′ + K d d e d t, where
Pid (video game)
Pid is a puzzle-platformer video game developed by Might and Delight and published by D3 Publisher for Xbox 360 through the Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation 3 through PlayStation Network, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X. It was announced December 7, 2011 and released worldwide October 31, 2012; the game received average scores, with reviewers citing its presentation and soundtrack as favorable, but having problems with the game's repetitive gameplay and frustrating puzzle solutions. Pid was the recipient of the 2012 European Games Award in the Innovate Newcomer category. Pid begins; as he travels across the mysterious land, the boy must defeat terrifying robot enemies, as well as befriend unfamiliar allies in his quest to uncover an alien conspiracy and return home. The game takes place in a 2D side-scrolling perspective; the player must utilize a wide variety of different gameplay situations and mechanics to overcome and traverse the world's puzzle-like landscape. Kurt's primary tool is a white jewel that produces what the game calls "beams", which can be used to propel him in a manner of ways throughout the levels and solve various puzzles.
The beams are used to create gravity wells, which push Kurt outward into the air, with two allowed to be active at once in the environment. However, gravity manipulation is not the only way to interact with his surroundings, as Kurt comes across a variety of other tools which can be used at his disposal. Blue and red bombs can be detonated to either damage enemies or timed for strategical placement respectively. Burst beams will allow him to reach higher areas out of reach from the normal beams' gravity wells. Smoke bombs can obscure his location from enemy flashlights. Kurt may make use of a vest that allows him to withstand more damage. There is a co-operative mode where both players are dependent on each other to solve puzzles and eliminate enemies, while competing and testing their skills against one another; the music score was composed and recorded by a small group of studio musicians called Retro Family, based in Sweden. The soundtrack has notably been a large part of the game's praises.
Pid has received mixed reviews from critics, with a Metacritic and GameRankings average score of 72/100 and 73% respectively. Criticism was directed at the game's difficulty. GameSpot's Leif Johnson criticized the game's "excessively brutal difficulty in boss fights", while enjoying the gravity puzzles and presentation, giving the game a 7/10. IGN's Colin Moriarty gave Pid a 7.8/10, or a "good" score praising the game's unique gameplay and setting as well its soundtrack, while stating "occasionally wonky puzzles are bound to annoy" and puzzle solutions may be frustratingly obtuse. Other reviewers were much more positive, with Official Xbox Magazine's Chuck Osborn giving the game an 8.5 for its innovative gravity mechanic allowing "for more freedom in puzzle solving". Pid official website