PKP class SM30
SM30 is a Polish series of diesel shunting locomotives used by PKP and industry, built by Fablok, Chrzanów. They were used for a local traffic. SM30 locomotive is the first Polish diesel locomotive equipped with electrical transmission. A design was worked out by the Central Rolling Stock Industry Construction Bureau in Poznań; the prototype was constructed in Fablok, Chrzanów in 1957. 909 items were built in 1957-1970, 302 of them found place in the rest worked in the industry. The locomotive was known under its project designation 1D or early PKP designation Lwe55. In the 1970s, 109 items of SM30 locomotive were modified for heating passenger wagons with 500 V electric heaters, as a result their class designation was changed to SP30; those machines remained in regular service until the late 1980s. In 2000 all of them were again, after dismounting heating systems, returned to SM30 series. SM30 is a Bo ′ Bo ′ locomotive, what means it runs on each equipped with two axles; the general construction of this engine is simple.
Being the pioneer machine in the Polish railway industry, it incorporated many solutions from other branches of industry, i.e. the first engine to be mounted, Wola V-300, was taken from tank construction, main DC current generator was in fact stationery generator and traction motors were taken from trams. As the first Polish locomotive with diesel-electric transmission it proved the high efficiency of that solution and was quite successful; the locomotive frame is constructed of steel rolled formers. Ball stub-axles are mounted to strend girders. A power unit, composed of a diesel engine and main generator, is mounted on parallel girders; the engine is connected to main generator with an elastic clutch. Four traction motors are mounted with a tram system. Traction motors can be powered in series connection, parallel connection and parallel connection with field reduction of 40 to 60%. Traction motors are series devices with 60 kW hour power. Main generator is a DC machine with 600 V and 367 A, its power rating whilst working with 1500 rpm. is 220 kW.
During engine starting the main generator serves as electric starter, powered from the battery. For the purposes of lighting the locomotive and charging batteries an additional generator is used. SM30 locomotives had two types of diesel engine mounted. Wola V-300 and 2DVSa-350 12-cylinder engines had powers, respectively: 350 hp. Neutral gear rotation is 600 rpm. and rated rev is 1500 rpm
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
PKP class ST40
PKP Class ST40 is a new class of cargo diesel-electric locomotives used by the PKP LHS broad-gauge division and various Polish private operators, designated 311D or 311Da by its manufacturer, Newag. The class is a reconstructed Russian M62, using only the underframe; the body is new, the main engine is a General Electric GE 7FDL12. Original engines were modernized, as ED118 A GE; the class is much more economical and modern than a basic M62. The body has external walkways instead of an internal passage connecting the cabs; the first locomotive was modernized in 2007. As of January 2009, there were 20 class 311D completed and six 311Da for PKP LHS, where they are designated ST40; the locomotive is a modernisation of the popular Soviet locomotive M62, which can be noticed by the chassis structure and carriages. The drive unit has been changed by installing a more efficient engine by the General Electric company, placed in one place together with the main generator and fan; the most visible change is the complete change of the structure, the internal passageway between the cabins, having a driver's cab at each end and that the train has transitions outside with the jetties.
By using the graft this has improved access to the engine. The front of the locomotive has been changed; the cabin provides better working conditions. Pokropiński, Bogdan. Lokomotywy spalinowe produkcji polskiej. Warsaw: WKiL. ISBN 978-83-206-1731-3. "Spalinowa lokomotywa towarowa 311D", www.newag.pl, archived from the original on 1 February 2008, Diesel freight locomotive 311D "Lokomotywy serii ST40S / 311Da", lhs.pl, Locomotives series ST40S / 311Da
PKP class Ok1
Ok1 is the Polish designation of a Prussian steam locomotive, the Prussian P 8, used on Polish State Railways. Production of the P 8 lasted from 1908 until 1928 and this locomotive was used on all European railway lines. After the end of World War I, 192 Class P 8 engines were handed over as a reparation to Poland, including two machines for Free City of Danzig, where they were re-designated as Class Ok1 locomotives. Since the class was considered successful, further 65 locomotives were built in Germany at Polish order in 1922-1923. During World War II all the locomotives were captured by the Germans or Soviets and most were pressed into the German Railways. After the war, along with new war reparations, Poland received 429 locomotives P 8, what made it by far the most numerous passenger locomotive in the country, they were used until the late 1970s - last locomotive was withdrawn from line service in 1981. A few engines were preserved, including Ok1-359, stabled at the Wolsztyn museum. PKP classification system Terczyński, Paweł.
Atlas parowozów. Poznań. P. 56. ISBN 83-901902-8-1. "Article on the vintage Ok1-359". Retrieved February 10, 2006
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
PKP class SM31
SM31 is a Polish series of diesel shunting locomotives used by PKP and industry. SM31 class had been designed for shunting heavy freight trains in large freight stations and harbours; the design was elaborated in Fablok in 1973 on the basis of SM42 locomotive. Production of this series lasted between 1976 and 1981, as well as between 1983 and 1985. In this period PKP bought 167 items of this series machines. A total number of ca. 200 locomotives was produced, with the rest of them servicing Polish industry, chiefly mining. First two prototypes were sold to industrial works, the last one locomotive for PKP was re-bought from the industry; as the main purpose of this series was shunting heavy freight trains, after its introduction PKP possessed shunters suited for all purposes. For light trains SM03 locomotives were used. Medium light trains were shunted by SM30 series, medium weight trains were left for SM42 engines; the last thing to be done was the introduction of heavy shunter able to work in severe climatic conditions, what did not happen before SM48 were brought to Poland.
Today SM31 locomotives are to be found on Upper Silesia railway tracks, pulling heavy freight trains from works to marshalling yards in Łazy, Szczakowa, Tarnowskie Góry and Rybnik. Other engines are deployed at the stations of Łódź, Nowy Poznań, Szczecin and Wrocław. SM31 is a Co-Co locomotive, what means it runs on each equipped with three axles. Bogies are similar in construction to those used in SU46 locomotives; this gives SM31 locomotive good performance on highland tracks. Being a typical shunter, SM31 has one crew compartment of the same height as machine and electric compartments; the engine is in fact a developed version of SM42 locomotive engine, with its total power raised by ca. 50%. The engine propels main alternator. Trumna - from locomotive's angular shape