Rail transport in France
Rail transport in France is operated by SNCF, the French national railway company. France has the second largest European railway network, with a total of 29,901 kilometres of railway. However, the railway system is a small portion of total travel, accounting for less than 10% of passenger travel. Since 1981, the SNCF has operated the TGV service, a high-speed rail network, expanded in subsequent years. France is a member of the International Union of Railways; the UIC Country Code for France is 87. In 1814, the French engineer Pierre Michel Moisson-Desroches proposed to Emperor Napoleon to build seven national railways from Paris, in order to travel "short distances within the Empire", but the history of the railroad in France begins in 1827 with the first trains operated on the Saint-Etienne to Andrezieux Railway, the first French line granted by order of King Louis XVIII in 1823. Since Legrand Star rail plan of 1842, French railway is polarized by Paris. Traffic is concentrated on the main lines: 78% of activity is done on 30% of the network when the 46% smaller lines only drive 6% of the traffic.
The 366 largest stations make 85% of passenger activity, the smallest 56% of stations take only 1.7% of traffic. Freight transport has declined since the early 1980s. Today the network is predominantly passenger centric. Since 1 January 2007, the freight market has been open to conform to European Union agreements. New operators had reached 15% of the market at the end of 2008; the Transport express régional is directed by the administrative Regions of France. They contract with the SNCF for lines exploitation; the SNCF directly manage this class of trains. The TGV is used on the most important destinations, while Intercités carriages are still used for other lines; the French railway network, as administered by SNCF Réseau, as of June 2007, is a network of commercially usable lines of 29,213 kilometres, of which 15,141 km is electrified. 1,876 km of those are 16,445 km dispose of two or more tracks. 5,905 km are supplied with 1,500 V DC, 9,113 km with 25 kV AC at 50 Hz. 122 km are electrified by third rail or other means.1,500 V is used on the south, HSR lines and the northern part of the country use 25 kV electrification.
Trains drive on the left, except in Alsace and Moselle where tracks were first constructed while those regions were part of Germany. Same gauge Belgium — voltage change 25 kV AC/3 kV DC Germany — voltage change 25 kV AC/15 kV AC Great Britain via the Channel Tunnel — voltage change 25 kV AC/750 V DC third rail Italy — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC Luxembourg — same voltage Monaco — same voltage Spain via the LGV Perpignan-Figueres — same voltage Switzerland — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/15 kV AC Break-of-gauge, 1,435 mm /1,668 mm Spain — voltage change 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC No rail link to Andorra The French non-TGV intercity service is in decline, with old infrastructure and trains. It is to be hit further as the French government is planning to remove the monopoly that rail has on long-distance journeys by letting coach operators compete. Travel to the UK through the Channel Tunnel has grown in recent years, from May 2015 passengers have been able to travel direct to Marseille and Lyon.
Eurostar is introducing new Class 374 trains and refurbishing the current Class 373s. The International Transport Forum described the current status of the French railways in their paper "Efficiency indicators of Railways in France": The success of the TGV is undeniable. Work started in September 1975 on the first high-speed rail line, between Paris and Lyon, it was inaugurated in September 1981. New high-speed lines were opened in 1993, etc.. The high-speed network now covers 2,000 km, will reach over 2,600 km in 2017 with the opening of the four lines being built; the regionalisation of intercity and local services was tested in 1997 and deployed in the early 2000s. Since TERs have seen traffic rise steeply as, to a lesser extent, have services in the Ile de France region. Rail freight has been far less successful; the French network carried 55 billion tonne-km in 2001, but this figure scarcely reached 32 billion tonne-km in 2013. This weak performance contrasts with the ambitious public policy of the last fifteen years.
The Grenelle Environment Forum oversaw the deployment of a costly freight plan, no more effective than its predecessors. Like roads, the French railways receive rail subsidies from the state; those amounted to €13.2 billion in 2013. Alstom is the manufacturer of the TGV, is behind many regional train models Transport in France Narrow gauge railways in France Rail transport in Europe Rail transport by country RFF – Réseau Ferré de France. Updated in June 2007
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée
The Compagnie des chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée was a French railway company. Created between 1858 and 1862 from the amalgamation of the earlier Paris-Lyon and Lyon-Méditerranée companies, subsequently incorporating a number of smaller railways, the PLM operated chiefly in the south-east of France, with a main line which connected Paris to the Côte d'Azur by way of Dijon and Marseille; the company was the operator of railways in Algeria. PLM commissioned poster artist Roger Broders, sponsoring his travel to the Côte d'Azur and the French Alps so he could visit the subjects of his work. Lithographs of travel posters Broders rendered. Several of their draughtsman went on including Alfred Grévin. Absorbed in 1938 into the majority state-owned Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français, the PLM's network became the south-eastern region of SNCF. Baron Barlatier de Mas
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-8-2 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels, eight powered and coupled driving wheels and two trailing wheels. This type of steam locomotive is known as the Mountain type; the tank and tender locomotive versions of the 4-8-2 Mountain wheel arrangement both originated in the Colony of Natal in South Africa. In 1888, the Natal Government Railways placed the first five of its eventual one hundred Class D 4-8-2 tank locomotives in service; the locomotive was designed by William Milne, the locomotive superintendent of the NGR from 1877 to 1896, was built by Dübs and Company. This was the first known use of the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement in the world. In 1906, six NGR Class B 4-8-0 Mastodon locomotives, designed by D. A. Hendrie, NGR Locomotive Superintendent from 1903 to 1910, were modified to a 4-8-2 wheel arrangement by having trailing bissel trucks added below their cabs to improve their stability when hauling fast passenger trains.
These altered Class B locomotives were the first 4-8-2 tender locomotives in the world. The first locomotive to be designed and built as a 4-8-2 tender locomotive was New Zealand's X class, designed by A. L. Beattie and built by the New Zealand Railways Department's Addington Workshops in Christchurch in 1908, it was designed to haul heavy freight trains on the mountainous central section of the North Island Main Trunk Railway and it is believed that this was the source of the "Mountain" name of the 4-8-2 type, although it is possible that the name was originated by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in the United States, who named the type after the Allegheny Mountains. The X class was, not considered to be a true Mountain type, since its trailing truck served to spread the axle load rather than to allow a larger and wider firebox; the trailing wheels were positioned well behind a narrow firebox, which itself sat above the coupled wheels, necessitating the same design compromise between coupled wheel diameter and grate size as on a 2-8-0 Consolidation or 4-8-0 Mastodon.
A true 4-8-2 design was a progression of the classic 4-6-2 Pacific layout, which featured a wide firebox positioned above the trailing truck and behind the coupled wheels, allowing for a wide and deep firebox as well as large coupled wheels. In 1909, the NGR placed the world's first true Mountain type locomotive in service when five Class Hendrie D 4-8-2 tender locomotives were commissioned, it was designed by Hendrie to handle coal traffic on the upper Natal mainline and, while it was based on the Class Hendrie B 4-8-0, it had the firebox positioned to the rear of the coupled wheels to make a larger grate and ashpan possible. To accomplish this, the plate frame was equipped with a cast bridle at the rear to accommodate the improved firebox design, which necessitated the addition of a trailing truck. Five locomotives were built by the North British Locomotive Company and delivered in 1909; the 4-8-2 type went on to become the most used steam locomotive wheel arrangement in South Africa, with altogether thirty classes of both tank and tender versions seeing service on the South African Railways.
In 1951, six 4-8-2 locomotives were built by North British Locomotive Company to the design of the South African Class 19D for the Angolan Caminho de Ferro de Benguela as their 11th Class. Unlike some other countries which utilised the 4-8-2 design for heavy passenger duties, the Australian 4-8-2 was more used as a heavy goods locomotive with small coupled wheels and a large firebox; the first 4-8-2 in Australia was the 3 ft 6 in gauge Q class of the Tasmanian Government Railways. Nineteen were built in batches between 1922 and 1945 by Perry Engineering in South Australia, Walkers Limited of Maryborough and Clyde Engineering of New South Wales; until 1950, the class handled the majority of mainline goods trains around the state. Armstrong Whitworth built ten 500 class 4-8-2 locomotives for the South Australian Railways in 1926, they were the most powerful locomotives in Australia at the time and the heaviest non-articulated locomotives yet built in the United Kingdom. In 1929, they were modified to 500B class 4-8-4 Northern locomotives.
The three-cylinder D57 class locomotive of the New South Wales Government Railways was one of the largest and most powerful locomotives built in Australia. Twenty-five were built by Clyde Engineering from 1929. With their large 65 square feet grates and 64,327 pounds-force tractive effort, they were put to good use on the steep, 1 in 33 and 1 in 40 gradients leading out of Sydney on the New South Wales mainlines; the D57 design was developed further in 1950 with the smaller cylindered D58 class, of which thirteen were built at the Eveleigh and Cardiff Locomotive Workshops of the NSWGR. This class proved to be less successful, suffering from reliability problems attributed to the rack and pinion valve gear, used for the third cylinder instead of the Gresley-Holcroft valve gear, used on the D57 class; the Western Australian Government Railways introduced two classes of 4-8-2 locomotive for freight haulage on the state's 3 ft 6 in network. The first was the S class, of which ten were built at the WAGR Midland Railway Workshops from 1943, with the locomotives named after West Australian mountains.
The second was the W class, of which 64 were built by Beyer and Company in 1951 and 1952. The 4-8-2 layout allowed for the weight of these powerful locomotives to be spread over a number of axles, resulting in the W class having a maximum axle load of less than 10 tons, it enabled the incorporation of a wide firebox for burning poor-quality coal. In 1951, the Tasmanian Gove
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre, it is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal, equal to one millibar, the kilopascal, equal to one centibar; the unit of measurement called. Meteorological reports in the United States state atmospheric pressure in millibars. In Canada these reports are given in kilopascals; the unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, experiments with a barometer. The name pascal was adopted for the SI unit newton per square metre by the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1971; the pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively SI base units, as: 1 P a = 1 N m 2 = 1 k g m ⋅ s 2 = 1 J m 3 where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram, s is the second, J is the joule. One pascal is the pressure exerted by a force of magnitude one newton perpendicularly upon an area of one square metre.
The unit of measurement called a standard atmosphere is 101325 Pa.. This value is used as a reference pressure and specified as such in some national and international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 2787, ISO 2533 and ISO 5024. In contrast, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommends the use of 100 kPa as a standard pressure when reporting the properties of substances. Unicode has dedicated code-points U+33A9 ㎩ SQUARE PA and U+33AA ㎪ SQUARE KPA in the CJK Compatibility block, but these exist only for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated; the pascal or kilopascal as a unit of pressure measurement is used throughout the world and has replaced the pounds per square inch unit, except in some countries that still use the imperial measurement system or the US customary system, including the United States. Geophysicists use the gigapascal in measuring or calculating tectonic stresses and pressures within the Earth.
Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, displays the Young's modulus or shear modulus of tissue in kilopascals. In materials science and engineering, the pascal measures the stiffness, tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. In engineering use, because the pascal represents a small quantity, the megapascal is the preferred unit for these uses; the pascal is equivalent to the SI unit of energy density, J/m3. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurised gases, but to the energy density of electric and gravitational fields. In measurements of sound pressure or loudness of sound, one pascal is equal to 94 decibels SPL; the quietest sound a human can hear, known as the threshold of hearing, is 20 µPa. The airtightness of buildings is measured at 50 Pa; the units of atmospheric pressure used in meteorology were the bar, close to the average air pressure on Earth, the millibar. Since the introduction of SI units, meteorologists measure pressures in hectopascals unit, equal to 100 pascals or 1 millibar.
Exceptions include Canada. In many other fields of science, the SI is preferred. Many countries use the millibars. In all other fields, the kilopascal is used instead. Atmospheric pressure which gives the usage of the hbar end the mbar Centimetre of water Meteorology Metric prefix Orders of magnitude Pascal's law Pressure measurement
Kilogram-force per square centimetre
A kilogram-force per centimetre square just kilogram per square centimetre, or kilopond per centimetre square is a deprecated unit of pressure using metric units. It is not a part of the International System of the modern metric system. 1 kgf/cm2 equals 98.0665 kPa. kg/cm2 remains active as a measurement of force due to older torque measurement devices still in use. This use of the unit of pressure provides an intuitive understanding for how a body's mass can apply force to a scale's surface area i.e.kilogram-force per square metre. In SI units, the unit is converted to the SI derived unit pascal, defined as one newton per square metre. A newton is equal to a kg·m/s2, a kilogram-force is 9.80665 newtons, meaning that 1 kgf/cm2 equals 98.0665 kilopascals. In some older publications, kilogram-force per square centimetre is abbreviated ksc instead of kg/cm2. All the Russian origin gauges are calibrated annually. Technical atmosphere, another name for this unit