Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is referred to as frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, for example, if a newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as vibrations, audio signals, radio waves. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, in physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν. For a simple motion, the relation between the frequency and the period T is given by f =1 T. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, a previous name for this unit was cycles per second. The SI unit for period is the second, a traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm.
As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves and fast waves, like audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency instead of period. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. Y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, in the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has a relationship to the wavelength. Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of a wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum, v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes, f = c λ. When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their remains the same—only their wavelength. For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is, the latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count.
This is called gating error and causes an error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/, or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/ where Tm is the timing interval. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small, an older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope
Jabodetabek is an official and administrative definition of the urban area or megacity surrounding the Indonesia capital city, Jakarta. Also included were the Kota independent municipalities of Bogor, Bekasi, the name of the region is taken from the first two letters of each citys name, Jabotabek from Jakarta, Bogor and Bekasi. The population share of Jabodetabek to national population was increased from 6. 1% in 1961 to 11. 26% in 2010, the region is the center of government, culture and economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people from throughout of Indonesia to come and its economic power makes Jabodetabek the countrys premier center for finance and commerce. The region was established in 1976 through Presidential Instruction No.13 in response to the needs to sustain the population of capital city. Indonesias government established Jabotabek Cooperation Body of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta, the generic term Greater Jakarta refers to the urban region surrounding Jakarta, it is not specific to any official or administrative designations.
On the contrary, dependent on context, it may refer to the area around Jakarta. The population is increasing due to migration from other parts of Indonesia. The proportion of city population to the total population of metropolitan area declined significantly. In 2010, the population of Jakarta only 35. 5% to the population of Jabodetabek area. However, there has been relative shifting of in migration destination from Jakarta city to cities in Jabodetabek area. Nowadays, about 20% of Indonesias urban population is concentrated in the Jabodetabek area, common names for Greater Jakarta, W. J. The region accounts for 25. 52% of total gross domestic product and 42. 8% to the total GDP of Java Island in 2010. There are three dominant sectors which have high contribution to the total Jabodetabeks GDP comprising, industrial sector, financial sector as well as trade, prime business and commercial centers is Golden Triangle in central Jakarta. There are countrys premier center, Sudirman Central Business District, Mega Kuningan, Rasuna Epicentrum as well as along Jenderal Sudirman, M.
H Thamrin. Jakartas Golden Triangle known to expatriates and local populates as a center of the metropolis. There are countless high end boutiques, fine restaurants, coffee shops, kelapa Gading is the newest business district, lifestyle center and residential areas, located in the north-eastern part of Jakarta city. It has several bars and entertainment places that open up until late night, the development of large scale residential areas and industrial parks in the Jabodetabek has been induced by infrastructure development, especially toll roads and railways
The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising. A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and these attributes are necessary in a slogan, as it is only a short phrase. Therefore, it is necessary for slogans to be memorable, as well as concise in what the organisation or brand is trying to say, the word slogan is derived from slogorn which was an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the written and the visual to the chanted and their simple rhetorical nature usually leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankels research states that, English-speaking people began using the term by 1704, the term at that time meant the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons. Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages, crimmins research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a businesss total value.
With this in mind, if we take into consideration Kellers research and these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the name to be likable. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas research suggests there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan. The clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan, the slogan emphasizes the benefit of the product or service it is portraying. The creativity of a slogan is another factor that had an effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans, marketing slogans are often called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs, sloganeering is a mostly derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans.
Slogans are used to convey a message about the product, service or cause that it is representing and it can have a musical tone to it or written as a song. Slogans are often used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach, if the slogan is used for commercial purposes, often it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the aspect that helps create an image for the product
Adult contemporary music
Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush and highly polished qualities where emphasis on melody and it is usually melodic enough to get a listeners attention, and is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure, the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which mostly use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are normally faint and high-pitched, recent adult contemporary music may usually feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, and some forms of teen pop, as these are popular among adults. AC radio often targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s, a common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past.
This de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart, over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including hot AC, soft AC, urban AC, rhythmic AC, and Christian AC. Some stations play only hot AC, soft AC, or only one of the variety of subgenres, therefore, it is not usually considered a specific genre of music, it is merely an assemblage of selected tracks from musicians of many different genres. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, a few offered 90% instrumentals, and a handful were entirely instrumental. Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 17,1961, with 20 songs, the chart described itself as not too far out in either direction. Initially, the vocalists consisted of such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como. The custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, some stations would occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s.
After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced, better reflecting what middle of the road stations were actually playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically. As rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the charts most popular performers and these middle of the road stations frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or beautiful music stations, stations with music specifically designed to be purely ambient, hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock.
Soft rock was often derived from rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody
Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language.
Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality.
The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women. Often referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles on issues, sex, careers, self-improvement, fashion. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, is printed in 35 languages, Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. There was a department for the members of the family. Cosmopolitans circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889. That same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to his magazine. Under John Brisben Walkers ownership, E. D. Walker, formerly with Harpers Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews. It became a market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Willa Cather.
The magazines circulation climbed to 75,000 by 1892, in 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school, No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan, No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study. When 20,000 immediately signed up, Walker could not fund the school, in 1897, H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed an article about the Boer War. And Colorado - New Tricks in an Old Game, Jack Londons novella, The Red One, was published in the October 1918 issue, and a constant presence from 1910-18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the scientific detective, Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, and James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923, Hollywood until 1938. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearsts International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952.
In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914 it was shortened to Hearsts and was ultimately titled Hearsts International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearsts International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, after Hearst died in 1951, the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952
Central Jakarta is one of the five cities which form Jakarta, Indonesia. It had 898,883 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, Central Jakarta is the smallest in area and population of the five cities of Jakarta. It is the administrative and political center of Jakarta and Indonesia, Central Jakarta contains a number of large international hotels and major landmarks such as Hotel Indonesia. Central Jakarta is bounded by North Jakarta to the north, East Jakarta to the east, South Jakarta to the south, and West Jakarta to the west. At the end of the first quarter of 2010, the Jakarta CBD had a rate of 80%. According to Jones Lang LaSalle, the amount of space in the Jakarta CBD increased by 93,000 square metres between the second half of 2010 and the second half of 2009. The number of serviced office spaces in Central Jakarta increased by 50% in the leading to September 2010. SMA Negeri 4 Jakarta SMA Negeri 68 Jakarta SMA Negeri 77 Jakarta Official site Jakarta/Central travel guide from Wikivoyage