El País is a Spanish-language daily newspaper in Spain. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination it is the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain as of December 2017. It's by the number sales in 2018 were, on average, 60.000 according to internal audits, more than 70% less than a decade prior. The current editor, Soledad Gallego Díaz, has been brought to court after dismissing five employees for what the accusers mainatin are political and ideological reasons. El País is the most read newspaper in Spanish online and the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain, one of three Madrid dailies considered to be national newspapers of record for Spain. El País, based in Madrid, is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. PRISA is owned by Banco Santander, Telefónica and the Liberty vulture fund. PRISA's debt of 988 million euros is bigger than the company's value, its headquarters and central editorial staff are located in Madrid, although there are regional offices in the principal Spanish cities where regional were produced until 2015.
El País produces a world edition in Madrid, available online in Brazil and Hispanic America. An English edition began as a print edition in 2001, available as a supplement in what was the International Herald Tribune The Global New York Times. Since 2014, it has been an digital project. In 2018, the newspaper changed editors one week after a vote of no confidence forced a change of premiership in Parliament, sparking doubts about the political independence of the parent company. Since the newspaper has engaged in a radical change of editorial line, going from a politically independent position to defending the socialist minority government; the current newspaper's editor in America, Javier Moreno, managing editor, Jan Martinez Ahrens, were responsible for publishing a false picture of a dying Hugo Chávez in 2013. The publication of such photo in the front page was a major blow to the newspaper's credibility and standing in Latin America. El País was founded in May 1976 by a team at PRISA which included Jesus de Polanco, José Ortega Spottorno and Carlos Mendo.
The paper was designed by Julio Alonso. It was first published on 4 May 1976, six months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, at the beginning of the Spanish transition to democracy; the first editor-in-chief of the daily was Juan Luis Cebrián. El País was the first pro-democracy newspaper within a context where all the other Spanish newspapers were influenced by Franco's ideology; the circulation of the paper was 116,600 copies in its first year. It rose to 137,562 copies in 1977. El País filled a gap in the market and became the newspaper of Spanish democracy, for which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and the Humanities in 1983, at a time when the transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy was still developing; the paper's first Director was Juan Luis Cebrián. Like many other Spanish journalists of the time he had worked for Diario Pueblo, a mouthpiece for the Francoist sindicato vertical, its reputation as a bastion of Spanish democracy was established during the attempted coup d'état by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero of the Guardia Civil on 23 February 1981.
During the uncertain situation of the night of 23 February 1981, with all the members of parliament held hostage in the Congress building and with tanks on the streets of Valencia, before the state television station could transmit a speech by King Juan Carlos I condemning the coup, El País published a special edition of the newspaper called'El País, for the Constitution'. It was the first daily paper on the streets that night with a clear pro-democracy position calling on citizens to demonstrate in favour of democracy, it was discussed in the news media that the director of El País, Juan Luis Cebrián, telephoned the director of Diario 16, Pedro J. Ramírez, in order to propose that both newspapers work on a joint publication in defence of democracy and Ramírez refused, claiming that he would prefer to wait a few hours to see how the situation developed. Diario 16 was not published until after a television broadcast by the king. Along with its commitment to democracy before the attempted coup of 23 February 1981, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's election victory in 1982 with an absolute majority and its open support for the government of Felipe González, meant that El País consolidated its position during the 1980s as the Spanish newspaper with the most sales ahead of the conservative leaning ABC.
In 1986 El País was the recipient of the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech by the Roosevelt Institute. In 1987 El País received the largest amount of the state aid. Both the rigorous journalistic standards and the fact that it was the first Spanish newspaper to establish internal quality control standards have increased the standing of El País, it was the first Spanish daily to create the role of "Reader's Advocate" and the first to publish a "Style Guide", that has become a benchmark for quality amongst journalists. El País has established a number of collaborative agreements with other European newspapers with a social democrat viewpoint. In 1989, El País participated in the creation of a common network of information resources with La Repubblica in Italy and Le Monde in France. At the beginning of the 1990s, El País had to face a new journalistic challenge; the increasing political tensions caused by corru
Grupo Santillana, born Santillana Ediciones Generales, is a Spanish publisher founded in 1959 by Jesús de Polanco and Francisco Pérez González. From 2008 and due to the high debts of the group PRISA, Santillana made desinvestments to guide itself. In 2008 the bookshop Crisol, which come to have fourteen subsidiaries in Spain, two in Buenos Aires and one in Lima, closed. In 2010 it was sold the 25% of shares. In 2014 Santillana sold all its trade publishing to Penguin Random House for €72 million. Santillana shifted its focus towards educational publishing
XEW-AM is a radio station in Mexico City, broadcasting on the AM frequency of 900 kHz. XEW-AM serves as the originating station for other "W-Radio" stations around Mexico that carry some of its programs; the programming on XEW-AM is simulcast on Mexico City FM radio station 96.9 XEW-FM. XEW began regular broadcasts at 20:00 CST on 18 September 1930. Broadcasting from a room at the Olympia Cinema on 16 September Street in Mexico City, it had only 5 kW of transmitter power, although this was increased to 50 kW by 1934. With the installation of new transmitters, the power became 250 kW by 1935 and remained there for more than 80 years, making XEW-AM the most powerful AM radio station in North America, it was the first Mexico City station in Emilio Azcarraga Vidaurreta's Chain of the Americas, the forerunner to today's Televisa whose radio unit still owns XEW-AM. XEW-AM was affiliated with the NBC Radio Networks; as radio in Mexico evolved with the country's growth and more radio stations signed on, XEW-AM became flagship to the country's largest radio network.
Several radio and television stations have derived their call signs from XEW radio and television, all of them affiliated at one time or another with Televisa. In the United States, the call letters for KXEW, a commercial AM radio station in Tucson, owned by Pan American Radio Corporation, that went on the air May 10, 1963, were chosen by its president and CEO, J. Carlos McCormick, because of his admiration of Vidaurreta, whom he had met as a teenager during a 1950 visit to Mexico City. On February 10, 2016, XEW-AM was approved to relocate its transmitter to a site in Los Reyes Acaquilpan, La Paz Municipality, in the State of Mexico and to reduce power to 100,000 watts; the FM frequency, 96.9, received its concession on April 28, 1962. By 1981, it had changed to "Rock Stereo". On September 9, 1985, it was renamed "WFM" with an English rock and pop format, being the direct competition of XHSON-FM. Among the DJs that conformed the station were Alejandro González Iñárritu, Martha Debayle and Charo Fernández.
After 14 years, in 1999, the station changed its name and format to "W Radical", directed by the former head of "Rock 101", Luis Gerardo Salas, airing electronic music and eurodance. By 2001, it returned to its former WFM format with the slogan "Frecuencia Adictiva", but in late 2002, after the association of Televisa Radio and PRISA, it was decided to simulcast the same programming on AM and FM, thus XEW-FM became a news and talk outlet. Manuel "Maber" Bernal Emilio Tuero Juan Arvizu Luis Arcaráz Nicolás Urcelay Alfonso Ortiz Tirado Los Panchos Juan García Esquivel Mario Ruiz Armengol Maria Luisa Landín María Victoria Mario Moreno Cantinflas Germán Valdés "Tin-Tan" José Sabre Marroquín Agustín Lara Toña la Negra Angelines Fernández Carmen Rey Pedro Infante Jorge Negrete Pedro Vargas Gustavo Adolfo Palma from Guatemala Fernando Fernández Eulalio González "Piporro" Francisco Gabilondo Soler Hugo Avendaño, Amparo Montes Héctor Martínez Serrano Antonio Aguilar Paco Stanley XEW-AM, official page Radio-Locator Information on XEW-FM Radio-Locator Information on XEW Query the FCC's AM station database for XEW
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited investors or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets with complex portfolio-construction and risk management techniques. It is administered by a professional investment management firm, structured as a limited partnership, limited liability company, or similar vehicle. Hedge funds are distinct from mutual funds, as their use of leverage is not capped by regulators, distinct from private equity funds, as the majority of hedge funds invest in liquid assets; the term "hedge fund" originated from the paired long and short positions that the first of these funds used to hedge market risk. Over time, the types and nature of the hedging concepts expanded, as did the different types of investment vehicles. Today, hedge funds engage in a diverse range of markets and strategies and employ a wide variety of financial instruments and risk management techniques. Hedge funds are made available only to certain sophisticated or accredited investors, cannot be offered or sold to the general public.
As such, they avoid direct regulatory oversight, bypass licensing requirements applicable to investment companies, operate with greater flexibility than mutual funds and other investment funds. However, following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, regulations were passed in the United States and Europe with intentions to increase government oversight of hedge funds and eliminate certain regulatory gaps. Hedge funds have existed for many decades and have become popular, they have now grown to be a substantial fraction of asset management, with assets totaling around $3.235 trillion in 2018. Hedge funds are always open-ended, allow additions or withdrawals by their investors; the value of an investor's holding is directly related to the fund net asset value. Many hedge fund investment strategies aim to achieve a positive return on investment regardless of whether markets are rising or falling. Hedge fund managers invest money of their own in the fund they manage. A hedge fund pays its investment manager an annual management fee, a performance fee.
Both co-investment and performance fees serve to align the interests of managers with those of the investors in the fund. Some hedge funds have several billion dollars of assets under management; the word "hedge", meaning a line of bushes around the perimeter of a field, has long been used as a metaphor for placing limits on risk. Early hedge funds sought to hedge specific investments against general market fluctuations by shorting the market, hence the name. Nowadays, many different investment strategies are used, many of which do not "hedge risk". During the US bull market of the 1920s, there were numerous private investment vehicles available to wealthy investors. Of that period the best known today is the Graham-Newman Partnership, founded by Benjamin Graham and his long-time business partner Jerry Newman; this was cited by Warren Buffett in a 2006 letter to the Museum of American Finance as an early hedge fund, based on other comments from Buffett, Janet Tavakoli deems Graham's investment firm the first hedge fund.
The sociologist Alfred W. Jones is credited with coining the phrase "hedged fund" and is credited with creating the first hedge fund structure in 1949. Jones referred to his fund as being "hedged", a term commonly used on Wall Street to describe the management of investment risk due to changes in the financial markets. In the 1970s, hedge funds specialized in a single strategy with most fund managers following the long/short equity model. Many hedge funds closed during the recession of 1969–70 and the 1973–1974 stock market crash due to heavy losses, they received renewed attention in the late 1980s. During the 1990s, the number of hedge funds increased with the 1990s stock market rise, the aligned-interest compensation structure and the promise of above high returns as causes. Over the next decade, hedge fund strategies expanded to include: credit arbitrage, distressed debt, fixed income and multi-strategy. US institutional investors such as pension and endowment funds began allocating greater portions of their portfolios to hedge funds.
During the first decade of the 21st century hedge funds gained popularity worldwide, by 2008 the worldwide hedge fund industry held US$1.93 trillion in assets under management. However, the 2008 financial crisis caused many hedge funds to restrict investor withdrawals and their popularity and AUM totals declined. AUM totals rebounded and in April 2011 were estimated at $2 trillion; as of February 2011, 61% of worldwide investment in hedge funds came from institutional sources. In June 2011, the hedge fund management firms with the greatest AUM were Bridgewater Associates, Man Group, Paulson & Co. Brevan Howard, Och-Ziff. Bridgewater Associates had $70 billion in assets under management as of 1 March 2012. At the end of that year, the 241 largest hedge fund firms in the United States collectively held $1.335 trillion. In April 2012, the hedge fund industry reached a record high of US$2.13 trillion total assets under management. In the middle of the 2010s, the hedge fund industry experienced a general decline in the "old guard" fund managers.
Dan Loeb called it a "hedge fund killing field" due to the classic long/short falling out of favor because of unprecedented easing by central banks. The US equity market correlation became untenable to short
S. A. or Société anonyme designates a type of corporation in countries that employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions, it is different from private limited companies. Shareholders could be anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to. Share certificates could be transferred and therefore the management of the company would not know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, illegal unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice. Nowadays, shareholders of S. A.s are not anonymous, though shares can still be held by holding companies in order to obscure the beneficiary. S. A. can be an abbreviation of: Sociedade Anónima in Galician and European Portuguese Sociedá Anónima in Asturian and Leonese Sociedade Anônima in Brazilian Portuguese Societat Anònima in Catalan Société anonyme in French Società Anonima in Italian Sociedad Anónima or Sociedad por Acciones in Spanish Mexican law takes into account the variability of the corporate stock, resulting in most S.
A. turning into Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable, or Sociedad Anónima Bursátil de Capital Variable for publicly traded companies. Mexico has Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada de Capital Variable, analogous to the limited liability company. Spółka Akcyjna in Polish Societate pe Acțiuni in RomanianIt is equivalent in literal meaning and function to: Naamloze vennootschap in Dutch Ανώνυμη Εταιρεία, Anonymi Etaireia in Greek Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka in Indonesia Berhad in Malaysia Anonim Şirket in Turkish Corporación anónima in VenezuelaIt is equivalent in function to: Shoqëri Aksionare in Albanian شركة مساهة عامة ذات مسؤولية محدودة ش.ذ.م.م, Sharikah musāhamah ʿāmmah dhāt mas'ūliyyah maḥdūdah in Arabic Dioničko društvo in Croatian and Bosnian Акционерно дружество, Aktsionerno druzhestvo in Bulgarian Акционерско друштво, Aktsionersko drushtvo in Macedonian Akciová společnost in Czech Aktieselskab in Danish Société anonyme égyptienne or (شركة مساهمة مصرية (ش.م.م in Egypt Osakeyhtiö in Finnish Aktsiaselts in Estonian Aktiengesellschaft in German Részvénytársaság in Hungarian Hlutafélag in Icelandic Public Limited in India Public limited company in the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries Kabushiki Gaisha or 株式会社 in Japan Jusighoesa or 주식회사 in Korea Société anonyme laotienne in Laos Akcinė bendrovė in Lithuanian Akciju Sabiedrība in Latvian Aksjeselskap in Norwegian Акционерное общество, Aktsionernoye obshchestvo in Russian Деоничарско друштво, Deoničarsko društvo, or Акционарско друштво, Akcionarsko društvo in Serbian Akciová spoločnosť in Slovak Delniška družba in Slovene Aktiebolag in Swedish Акціонерне товариство, Aktsionerne tovarystvo in Ukrainian Publicly traded company or Incorporated in the United States, though the former term does not appear in the names of business entities Compañía Anónima in Andorra ក.អ or Société anonyme cambodgienne in Cambodia Président-directeur général Global Witness on Anonymous Companies
José Ortega y Gasset
José Ortega y Gasset was a Spanish philosopher and essayist. He worked during the first half of the 20th century, while Spain oscillated between monarchy and dictatorship, his philosophy has been characterized as a "philosophy of life" that "comprised a long-hidden beginning in a pragmatist metaphysics inspired by William James, with a general method from a realist phenomenology imitating Edmund Husserl, which served both his proto-existentialism and his realist historicism, compared to both Wilhelm Dilthey and Benedetto Croce." José Ortega y Gasset was born 9 May 1883 in Madrid. His father was director of the newspaper El Imparcial, which belonged to the family of his mother, Dolores Gasset; the family was definitively of Spain's end-of-the-century educated bourgeoisie. The liberal tradition and journalistic engagement of his family had a profound influence in Ortega y Gasset's activism in politics. Ortega was first schooled by the Jesuit priests of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Málaga, he attended the University of Deusto and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, receiving a doctorate in Philosophy.
From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced among others. On his return to Spain in 1908, he was appointed professor of Psychology and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid and in October 1910 he was named full professor of Metaphysics at Complutense University of Madrid, a vacant seat held by Nicolás Salmerón. In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol, where he published, as a series of essays, his two principal works: España invertebrada and La rebelión de las masas; the latter made him internationally famous. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923, remaining its director until 1936; this publication promoted translation of the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy, including Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, Bertrand Russell.
Elected deputy for the Province of León in the constituent assembly of the Second Spanish Republic, he was the leader of a parliamentary group of intellectuals known as Agrupación al Servicio de la República, which supported the platform of Socialist Republican candidates, but he soon abandoned politics, disappointed. Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Civil War, he spent years of exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina until moving back to Europe in 1942, he settled in Portugal by mid-1945 and began to make short visits to Spain. In 1948 he returned to Madrid. Upon his return to Spain, he privately expressed his hostility to the Franco regime, stating that the government did not deserve anyone's confidence and that his beliefs were "incompatible with Franco." The Revolt of the Masses is Ortega's best known work. In this book he defends the values of meritocratic liberalism reminiscent of John Stuart Mill against attacks from both communists and right-wing populists. Ortega shares Mill's fears of the "tyranny of the majority" and the "collective mediocrity" of the masses, which threaten individuality, free thought, protections for minorities.
Ortega characterized liberalism as a politics of "magnanimity."Ortega's rejection of the Spanish Conservative Party under Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and his successors was unequivocal, as was his distrust of the Spanish monarchy and Catholic Church. However, again in a manner similar to Mill, Ortega was open-minded toward certain socialists and non-Marxist forms of socialism, complimented Pablo Iglesias Posse as a "lay saint." Under the influence of German social democrats such as Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen, he adopted a communitarian ontology and could be critical of capitalism the laissez-faire variant, declaring that "nineteenth-century capitalism has demoralized humanity" and that it had "impoverished the ethical consciousness of man." For Ortega y Gasset, philosophy has a critical duty to lay siege to beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. To accomplish such tasks, the philosopher must—as Husserl proposed—leave behind prejudices and existing beliefs, investigate the essential reality of the universe.
Ortega y Gasset proposes that philosophy must overcome the limitations of both idealism and ancient-medieval realism to focus on the only truthful reality: "my life"—the life of each individual. He suggests that there is no "me" without things, things are nothing without me: "I" cannot be detached from "my circumstance"; this led Ortega y Gasset to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" which he always put at the core of his philosophy. For Ortega y Gasset, as for Husserl, the Cartesian'cogito ergo sum' is insufficient to explain reality. Therefore, the Spanish philosopher proposes a system wherein the basic or "radical" reality is "my life", which consists of "I" and "my circumstance"; this circunstancia is oppressive.