Socialist Party of Chile
The Socialist Party of Chile is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría. Its historic leader was President of Chile Salvador Allende, deposed in a coup d'état by General Pinochet in 1973. Twenty-seven years Ricardo Lagos Escobar represented the Socialist Party in the 1999 presidential elections, he was elected with 51.3 % in the second round. In the legislative elections on 16 December 2001, as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the party won 10 out of 117 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 5 out of 38 elected seats in the Senate. After the 2005 elections, the Party increased its seats to 8, respectively. In the 2009 elections, it retained 11 Congressional and 5 Senate seats. Socialist Michelle Bachelet won the 2005 presidential election, she was the first female president of Chile and was succeeded by Sebastián Piñera in 2010. In the 2013 presidential election, she was elected again and took office in 2014; the Socialist Party of Chile was co-founded on 19 April 1933, by Colonel Marmaduque Grove, who had led several governments, Oscar Schnake, Carlos Alberto Martínez, future President Salvador Allende, other personalities.
After the Chilean coup of 1973 it was proscribed and the party split into several groups which would not reunite until after the return to civilian rule in 1990. Socialist thought in Chile goes back to the mid-19th century, when Francisco Bilbao and Santiago Arcos opened a debate on civil rights and social equality in Chile; these ideas took hold in the labour movement at the beginning of the 20th century and, along with them, the various communist, anarchist and mutualist ideals of the time were diffused by writers and leaders such as Luis Emilio Recabarren. The impact of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia imparted new vigor to Chile's revolutionary movements, which in the 1920s were identified with the global Communist movement; the Great Depression of 1930 plunged the country's working and middle classes into a serious crisis that led them to sympathize with socialist ideas, which found expression in the establishment of the short-lived Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932. The idea of founding a political party to unite the different movements identified with socialism took shape in the foundation of the Socialist Party of Chile, on 19 April 1933.
At a conference in Santiago, at 150 Serrano, 14 delegates from the Socialist Marxist Party led by Eduardo Rodriguez Mazer. The Party's Statement of Principles was: -The Socialist Party embodies Marxism, enriched by scientific and social progress. -The Capitalist exploitation based on the doctrine of private property regarding land, industry and transportation must be replaced by an economically socialist state in which said private property be transformed into collective. -During the process of total transformation of the system of government, a representative revolutionary government of the manual and intellectual labourers' class is necessary. The new socialist state only can be born of the initiative and the revolutionary action of the proletariat masses. -The socialist doctrine is of an international character and requires the support of all the workers of the world. The Socialist Party will support their revolutionary goals in economics and politics across Latin America in order to pursue a vision of a Confederacy of the Socialist Republics of the Continent, the first step toward the World Socialist Confederation.
The Party obtained popular support. Its partisan structure exhibits some singularities, such as the creation of "brigades" that group their militants according to environment of activity. In the 1930s they included the "Left Communist" faction, formed by a split of the Communist Party of Chile, headed by Manuel Noble Plaza and comprising the journalist Oscar Waiss, the lawyer Tomás Chadwick and the first secretary of the PS, Ramón Sepúlveda Loyal, among others. In 1934 the Socialists, along with the Radical-Socialist Party and the Democratic Party constituted the "Leftist Bloc". In the first parliamentary election they obtained 22 representatives, among them its Secretary general Oscar Schnake Vergara, elected senator of Tarapacá-Antofagasta, placed by the PS in a noticeable place inside the political giants of the epoch. For the 1938 presidential election, the PS participated in the formation of the Popular Front, withdrawing its presidential candidate, the colonel Marmaduque Grove, supporting the Radical Party's candidate, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, who narrowly defeated the right-wing candidate following an attempted coup by the National Socialist Movement of Chile.
In the government of Aguirre Cerda the socialists obtained the Ministries of Public Health and Social Assistance, given to Salvador Allende, the Minister of Promotion, trusted to Oscar Schnake, the Ministers of Lands and Colonization, handed out to Rolando Merino. The participation of the Socialist Party in the government of Aguirre Cerda reached an end on 15 December 1940, due to internal conflic
The Lemon of Pink
The Lemon of Pink is the second album by American musical duo The Books, released October 7, 2003 on the Tomlab record label. Like much of The Books' other work, The Lemon of Pink incorporates sampled elements juxtaposed with folk and string instrumentation and other melodic elements, including guest vocals by Anne Doerner on the first track, "The Lemon of Pink". Initial critical response to The Lemon of Pink was positive. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received an average score of 86, based on 9 reviews. Daphne Carr of AllMusic wrote that "It isn't that one finds an American artist with such a mastery of collage technique and a desire to incorporate traditional folk instruments and melodies. Like the Notwist or Badly Drawn Boy, the Books open up territory for relaxed electro-acoustic listening without compromising their creative process." Comparing The Lemon of Pink to its predecessor Thought for Food, Mark Richardson of Pitchfork stated that several tracks on The Lemon of Pink "are better than their forebears, with more dynamic range and a greater sense of development", the record as a whole "may sound a bit like this duo's debut, but it sounds like nobody else."Alternative Press hailed The Lemon of Pink as "the rare sort of album that convinces you original music still exists".
Andy Battaglia of The A. V. Club wrote that while "some of the exposed-seam splicing sounds sloppy and/or twee", The Books "wield a solid musical hand over melodic figures that hint at swooning grandeur without falling prey to florid temptation"; the Village Voice's Robert Christgau gave the album a three-star honorable mention, indicating "an enjoyable effort consumers attuned to its overriding aesthetic or individual vision may well treasure", described it as "ambient musique concrète out of acoustic instruments, fractured song structures, talky voices". Pitchfork named The Lemon of Pink the second best album of 2003 on their year-end list, as well as placing it at number 20 on their list of the top 100 albums of 2000–2004. "The Lemon of Pink 1" – 4:40 "The Lemon of Pink 2" – 1:34 "Tokyo" – 3:43 "Bonanza" – 0:52 "S Is for Evrysing" – 3:32 "Explanation Mark" – 0:19 "There Is No There" – 3:36 "Take Time" – 3:36 "Don't Even Sing About It" – 4:09 "The Future, Wouldn't That Be Nice?" – 3:15 "A True Story of a Story of True Love" – 4:25 "That Right Ain't Shit" – 2:44 "PS" – 0:55 The Books official website, which contains samples of songs on the album The Lemon of Pink at MusicBrainz
Positronium is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom an onium. The system is unstable: the two particles annihilate each other to predominantly produce two or three gamma-rays, depending on the relative spin states; the orbit and energy levels of the two particles are similar to that of the hydrogen atom. However, because of the reduced mass, the frequencies of the spectral lines are less than half of the corresponding hydrogen lines; the mass of positronium is 1.022 MeV, twice the electron mass minus the binding energy of a few eV. The ground state of positronium, like that of hydrogen, has two possible configurations depending on the relative orientations of the spins of the electron and the positron; the singlet state, 1S0, with antiparallel spins is known as para-positronium. It has a mean lifetime of 0.125 ns and decays preferentially into two gamma rays with energy of 511 keV each. By detecting these photons the position at which the decay occurred can be determined.
This process is used in positron-emission tomography. Para-positronium can decay into any number of photons, but the probability decreases with the number: the branching ratio for decay into 4 photons is 1.439×10−6. Para-positronium lifetime in vacuum is t 0 = 2 ℏ m e c 2 α 5 = 0.1244 n s. The triplet state, 3S1, with parallel spins is known as ortho-positronium, it has a mean lifetime of 142.05±0.02 ns, the leading decay is three gammas. Other modes of decay are negligible. Ortho-positronium lifetime in vacuum can be calculated as: t 1 = 1 2 9 h 2 m e c 2 α 6 = 138.6 n s. However more accurate calculations with corrections to order O yield a value of 7.040 μs−1 for the decay rate, corresponding to a lifetime of 142 ns. Positronium in the 2S state is metastable having a lifetime of 1100 ns against annihilation; the positronium created in such an excited state will cascade down to the ground state, where annihilation will occur more quickly. Measurements of these lifetimes and energy levels have been used in precision tests of quantum electrodynamics, confirming quantum electrodynamics predictions to high precision.
Annihilation can proceed via a number of channels, each producing gamma rays with total energy of 1022 keV 2 or 3, with up to 5 recorded. The annihilation into a neutrino–antineutrino pair is possible, but the probability is predicted to be negligible; the branching ratio for o-Ps decay for this channel is 6.2×10−18 and 9.5×10−21 in predictions based on the Standard Model, but it can be increased by non-standard neutrino properties, like high magnetic moment. The experimental upper limits on branching ratio for this decay are <4.3×10−7 for p-Ps and <4.2×10−7 for o-Ps. While precise calculation of positronium energy levels uses the Bethe–Salpeter equation or the Breit equation, the similarity between positronium and hydrogen allows a rough estimate. In this approximation, the energy levels are different because of a different effective mass, m*, in the energy equation: E n = − μ q e 4 8 h 2 ε 0 2 1 n 2, where: qe is the charge magnitude of the electron, h is Planck's constant, ε0 is the electric constant, μ is the reduced mass: μ = m e m p m e + m p = m e 2 2 m e = m e 2, where me and mp are the mass of the electron and the positron.
Thus, for positronium, its reduced mass only differs from the electron by a factor of 2. This causes the energy levels to roughly be half of what they are for the hydrogen atom. So the energy levels of positronium are given by E n = −
P. S. is a 2004 drama film directed by Dylan Kidd. The screenplay by Kidd and Helen Schulman is based on Schulman's 2001 novel p.s. The film stars Topher Grace. Thirty-nine-year old divorcée Louise Harrington works in the admissions office at Columbia University School of the Arts, she is unnerved when she receives an application from F. Scott Feinstadt, the same name of her high school sweetheart, killed in a car crash, calls the student to arrange an interview, his appearance and painting style resemble those of her former love, she begins to suspect the young artist may be the reincarnation of her old flame. Hours after meeting, the two embark upon an affair. Complicating Louise's life are her relationship with her ex-husband Peter, who confesses he is learning to cope with a sex addiction that, unknown to her, plagued their marriage. Laura Linney..... Louise Harrington Topher Grace..... F. Scott Feinstadt Gabriel Byrne..... Peter Harrington Marcia Gay Harden..... Missy Paul Rudd..... Sammy Silverstein Lois Smith.....
Ellie Silverstein On the DVD release of the film, director Dylan Kidd explains how cuts in the film changed the character of Louise. He opted to remove a scene depicting F. Scott living at home with his mother because he felt it bestowed upon him a lack of maturity he didn't want him to display. In that same scene, Louise confessed to being only an administrative assistant responsible for mailing catalogues and arranging campus tours rather than the director of admissions she had led the young man to believe she was. Deleting the scene necessitated making other cuts for the sake of continuity. On the DVD, Kidd includes a deleted scene set in a cafe where Louise and F. Scott became better acquainted following their initial meeting and preceding their first sexual encounter in her apartment. Kidd had excised it due to time constraints but admits it made Louise look like less of a predator than she did without it; the soundtrack includes the songs "These Flowers" and "When the Day Is Short," written and performed by Martha Wainwright.
The film premiered at the Venice Film Festival. It was shown at the Telluride Film Festival, Toronto International Film Festival, Austin Film Festival, Edmonton International Film Festival before being given a limited theatrical release in the US, where it grossed $180,503; the film received mixed reviews by critics, having a 55% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. Manohla Dargis of The New York Times: "a would-be romance etched in acid and loathing... an appalling collection of clichés and stereotypes... What's disheartening about the film isn't its contempt for its central character in specific and for women of a certain age in general, or the screenplay's silly swerve into the supernatural or how the direction shows none of the energy of Mr. Kidd's first feature. What's disheartening is that an actress as fine as Ms. Linney has to endure the indignity of such excremental nonsense... while negotiates the story's emotional and narrative switchbacks, sliding from fury to hurt like rain on a window, a living, believable human being from such a shabbily patched-together conceit."
Carla Meyer of San Francisco Chronicle: "Filmmaker Dylan Kidd assayed male-arrested development quite brilliantly in 2002's Roger Dodger, at some moments, his follow-up film hints at a scabrous female reinterpretation. But Kidd and co-writer Helen Schulman... smooth every edge, P. S. goes disappointingly soft despite two dynamite lead performances." Peter Travers of Rolling Stone awarded the film three out of a possible four stars and commented: "Dylan Kidd, making good on the promise of his 2002 debut with Roger Dodger, delivers a sexy, funny surprise package that resonates with long-buried emotions. Grace, away from the sitcom slick of That'70s Show, shows rare sensitivity. But... is Linney's show, she makes it hilarious and haunting." Roger Ebert of Ebert and Roeper awarded the film three out of four stars and compared the film to Birth released in 2004: "Both films are fascinating because they require us to see the younger character through two sets of eyes – our own, which witness an attractive woman drawn to a younger male, the women's, which see a lost love in a new container."
Metacritic.com gave the film a 55 with mixed or average reviews based on 28 critics. Laura Linney was nominated for the Satellite Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama, she shared Best Actress honors with Emmanuelle Devos at the Mar del Plata Film Festival, where the film was nominated for Best Picture. Topher Grace won the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Award for Best Breakthrough Performance by an Actor for this film and In Good Company; the film was nominated for the Artios Award at the Casting Society of America for Best Casting in an Independent Feature Film. List of American films of 2004 P. S. on IMDb P. S. at Rotten Tomatoes P. S. at Box Office Mojo
State of Palestine
Palestine the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is located in Ramallah. The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world. After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces; the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan.
Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War. On 15 November 1988, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, in Algiers proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would be ruled by Hamas in 2007, two years after the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza; the State of Palestine is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which implies recognition of statehood. It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, the International Olympic Committee and other international bodies.
Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories; some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Retenu, Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina. The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant; the Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, Israel to the north and west.
Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area. In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate; the plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan; the Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and annexed the West Bank.
Egypt supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan; the annexation was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories. In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel; the Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971; the October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."
In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN. After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of thi
The Proton Synchrotron is a particle accelerator at CERN. It is CERN's first synchrotron, beginning its operation in 1959. For a brief period the PS was the world's highest energy particle accelerator, it has since served as a pre-accelerator for the Intersecting Storage Rings and the Super Proton Synchrotron, is part of the Large Hadron Collider accelerator complex. In addition to protons, PS has accelerated alpha particles and sulphur nuclei, electrons and antiprotons. Today, the PS is part of the CERN's accelerator complex, it accelerates protons for the LHC. Using a proton source, the protons are first accelerated to the energy of 50 MeV in the linear accelerator Linac 2; the beam is injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster, which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the PS, which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. The protons are sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron, accelerated to 450 GeV before they are injected into the LHC; the PS accelerate heavy ions from the Low Energy Ion Ring at an energy of 72 MeV, for collisions in the LHC.
The synchrotron is a type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed path. The magnetic field which bends the particle beam into its fixed path increases with time, is synchronized to the increasing energy of the particles; as the particles travels around the fixed circular path they will oscillate around their equilibrium orbit, a phenomenon called betatron oscillations. In a conventional synchrotron the focusing of the circulating particles is achieved by weak focusing: the magnetic field that guides the particles around the fixed radius decreases with radius, causing the orbits of the particles with different positions to approximate each other; the amount of focusing in this way is not great, the amplitudes of the betatron oscillations are large. Weak focusing requires a large vacuum chamber, big magnets. Most of the cost of a conventional synchrotron is the magnets; the PS was the first accelerator at CERN that made use of the alternating-gradient principle called strong focusing: quadrupole magnets are used to alternately focus horizontally and vertically many times around the circumference of the accelerator.
The focusing of the particle can in theory become as strong as one wishes, the amplitude of the betatron oscillations as small as desired. The net result is; when early in the 1950s the plans for a European laboratory of particle physics began to take shape, two different accelerator projects emerged. One machine was to be of standard type and fast and cheap to build: the Synchrocyclotron, achieving collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 600 MeV; the second device was a much more ambitious undertaking: an accelerator bigger than any other existing, a synchrotron that could accelerate protons up to an energy of 10 GeV — the PS. By May 1952 a design group was set up with Odd Dahl in charge. Other members of the group were among others Frank Kenneth Goward and John Adams. After a visit to the Cosmotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US, the group learnt of a new idea for making cheaper and higher energy machines: alternating-gradient focusing; the idea was so attractive that the study of a 10 GeV synchrotron was dropped, a study of a machine implementing the new idea initiated.
Using this principle a 30 GeV accelerator could be built for the same cost as a 10 GeV accelerator using weak focusing. However, the stronger focusing the higher a precision of alignment of magnets required; this proved a serious problem in the construction of the accelerator. A second problem in the construction period was the machines behavior at an energy called "transition energy". At this point the relative increase in particle velocity changes from being greater to being smaller, causing the amplitude of the betatron oscillation to go to zero and loss of stability in the beam; this was solved by a jump, or a sudden shift in the acceleration, in which pulsed quadruples made the protons transverse the transition energy level much faster. The PS was approved in October 1953, as a synchrotron of 25 GeV energy with a radius of 72 meter, a budget of 120 million Swiss franc; the focusing strength chosen required a vacuum chamber of 12 cm width and 8 cm height, with magnets of about 4000 tonnes total mass.
Dahl was replaced by John Adams. By August 1959 the PS was ready for its first beam, on 24 of November the machine reached a beam energy of 24 GeV. By the end of 1965 the PS was the center of a spider's web of beam lines: It supplied protons to the South Hall where an internal target produced five secondary beams, serving a neutrino experiment and a muon storage ring. Together with the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings, an improvement program for the PS was decided in 1965 making space for the Gargamelle and the Big European Bubble Chamber experiments; the injection energy of the PS was raised by constructing an 800 MeV four ring booster — the Proton Synchrotron Booster — which became operational in 1972. In 1976 the Super Proton Synchrotron became a new client of the PS; when SPS started to operate as a proton-antiproton collider — the SppS — the PS h
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P