Petit Saint Vincent
Petit St Vincent, known locally as PSV, is an island 40 miles south of St. Vincent in the Grenadine islands, it is the southernmost island in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The entire island operates as a luxury resort, with 22 one- and two-bedroom bluff cottages and luxury villas, has been a part of the Small Luxury Hotels of the World hotel chain since July 2013. Petit St Vincent is located at latitude 12.32 north and longitude 61.23 west in the southern part of the Grenadines island chain, to the north of Carriacou and Petite Martinique and south of Palm Islands and Union Island. PSV is surrounded by two miles of white sand beaches. Inland, the terrain consists of rolling hills and tropical woodland, amid which the resort’s accommodation is built; the highest point on the island is on Marni Hill to the northwest of the island, 275 feet above sea level. The Grenadines are marginally drier and warmer than St. Vincent to the north, with the average daily temperature being between 29 and 30 °C all year round, due to the island chain’s proximity to the equator.
The island is owned. In 1963 Haze Richardson and Doug Terman chartered their yacht, JACINTA, to Mr. H. W. Nichols, Jr. and family. During this three-week cruise, Mr. Nichols expressed interest in purchasing an island and building a small hotel. Richardson and Terman concentrated their search on the Grenadines island chain arranging the purchase of Petit St. Vincent from a woman on Petit Martinique; the two men oversaw the construction of the resort on the behalf of Nichols, who asked Richardson to stay on as manager. Richardson accepted this offer and never left the island, becoming owner after Nichols’ death in 1985. Richardson died in a swimming accident in Costa Rica in 2008, his wife, Lynn Richardson, continued to manage the resort until November 2010, when it was announced that the island had been sold to business partners Phil Stephenson and Robin Paterson. Stephenson invested in the refurbishment of the resort, under the management of husband and wife team Matthew and Anie Semark, the island was inducted into the portfolio of Small Luxury Hotels of the World in July 2013.
Petit St. Vincent
Platform supply vessel
A platform supply vessel is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil and gas platforms. These ships accomplish a variety of tasks; the primary function for most of these vessels is logistic support and transportation of goods, tools and personnel to and from offshore oil platforms and other offshore structures. In the recent years a new generation of platform supply vessel entered the market equipped with Class 1 or Class 2 dynamic positioning system, they belong to the broad category of offshore vessels that include platform supply vessels, crane vessels and well stimulation well stimulation vessels, anchor handling tug supply vessels and Offshore construction vessels. Larger offshore vessels have extensive sophisticated equipment including ROVs and tend to accommodate a larger number of people A primary function of a platform supply vessel is to transport supplies to the oil platform and return other cargoes to shore. Cargo tanks for drilling mud, pulverized cement, diesel fuel and non-potable water, chemicals used in the drilling process comprise the bulk of the cargo spaces.
Fuel and chemicals are always required by oil platforms. Certain other chemicals must be returned to shore for proper recycling or disposal, crude oil product from the rig is not a supply vessel cargo. Common and specialty tools are carried on the large decks of these vessels. Most carry bulk cargo in tanks below deck. Many ships are constructed to accomplish a particular job; some of these vessels are equipped with a firefighting capability and fire monitors for fighting platform fires. Some vessels are equipped with oil containment and recovery equipment to assist in the cleanup of a spill at sea. Other vessels are equipped with tools and personnel to "work-over" existing oil wells for the purpose of increasing the wells' production. Crew on these ships can number up to 36 crew members, depending on the size, working area and whether DP equipped or not. Crane vessels and drill ships have 100 to 200 people on board including a dedicated "Project team". Crews sign on to work and live aboard the ship an extended period of time, this is followed by similar period of time off.
Depending on the ship's owner / operator the time aboard varries from 1 to 3 months with 1 month off. Work details on platform supply vessels, like many ships, are organized into shifts of up to 12 hours. Living aboard the ship, each crew member and worker will have at least 12 hour shift, lasting some portion of a 24-hour day. Supply vessels are provided with a "bridge" area for navigating and operating the ship, machinery spaces, living quarters, galley and mess room; some have built in work areas, common areas for entertainment. The large main deck area is sometimes utilized for portable housing. Living quarters consist of cabins, lockers and spaces for storing personal items. Living areas are provided with wash basins and toilets; the galley or cooking and eating areas aboard ship will be stocked with enough grocery items to last for the intended voyage but with ability to store provision for months if required. A walk-in size cooler and freezer, a commercial stove and oven, deep sinks and counter space will be available for the persons doing the cooking.
The eating area will have coffee makers, microwave ovens, cafeteria style seating, other amenities needed to feed a hard working crew. Anchor handling tug supply vessel Ebb Tide - the first PSV of modern style
The Philips Sport Vereniging, abbreviated as PSV and internationally known as PSV Eindhoven is a sports club from Eindhoven, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. It is best known for its professional football department, which plays in the Eredivisie since its inception in 1956. Along with Ajax and Feyenoord, PSV is one of the country's "big three" clubs that have dominated the Eredivisie; the club was founded in 1913 as a team for Philips employees. PSV's history contains two golden eras revolving around the UEFA Cup victory in 1978 and the 1987–88 European Cup victory as part of the seasonal treble in 1988; the team has won the Eredivisie 24 times, the KNVB Cup nine times and the Johan Cruyff Shield ten times. PSV is 39th on the UEFA club coefficients ranking. Throughout the years, PSV established itself as a stepping stone for future world class players like Ruud Gullit, Ronald Koeman, Romário, Phillip Cocu, Jaap Stam, Jisung Park, Ruud van Nistelrooy and Arjen Robben.
Since its foundation, it has upheld its club colours. Its elaborate connection with Philips can be witnessed in its sponsoring, shared technology and board member ties. Fans have named themselves'boeren', taking pride in Eindhoven's status of being a provincial city and their Brabantian heritage. To serve the need for activities with Philips employees, the company founded its own football team in 1910: the Philips Elftal, its ground was the Philips Sportpark, located on the same location as the present day stadium. Financial turmoil and worker strikes led to a quick demise of the team and in 1913, its successor emerged, Philips Sport Vereniging, founded on 31 August, it was the day that Philips organized celebrations and sports competitions in light of the centennial defeat of the French in the Napoleonic Wars. It was not until 1916, that the football department switched its name from Philips Elftal to PSV; because of World War I, the first possibility to enter a league was in the 1915–16 season.
The club's first match was a 3–2 defeat against Willem II Reserves on 19 September 1915. The team did achieve promotion that season to a newly created Third Division of the Brabantian FA. Under the guidance of coach Wout Buitenweg, PSV were promoted in 1918 and 1921 as well reaching the Eerste Klasse; the team was relegated in 1925, but its stint in the Second Division only lasted one year when PSV were promoted again. Since 1926, PSV has always played in the highest possible domestic league; that year, defender Sjef van Run was brought in and a year Jan van den Broek joined PSV, two players that would shape the squad in the coming years. Behind the scenes, Frans Otten became chairman of the entire PSV sports union, he was responsible for bringing the club to a new level with new accommodations and stadium expansions. After winning the district league in 1929, PSV entered the championship play-offs. In that competition, it won. A 5–1 win against Velocitas from the city of Groningen meant that PSV was crowned league champions for the first time.
In the following three years, PSV won the district league every year, but it could not win the play-offs until 1935. In that year, the team secured the second championship in a 2–1 victory against DWS. Due to World War II, attendances decreased and in 1940, PSV player Johan Brusselers died in combat. After the war, PSV signed two new strikers: Piet Fransen in 1948 and Coen Dillen in 1949. In 1950, PSV got its first post-war success when the team defeated HFC Haarlem in the KNVB Cup final. A year PSV won the district title after EVV failed to win their final match. Though coach Sam Wadsworth resigned during the championship play-offs, the title was won after a 2–1 win over Willem II; the 1950–51 season was Dillen's breakthrough, scoring 21 times and earning the nickname "The Canon". Besides Dillen and Fransen, a memorable player of the early 1950s success was goalkeeper Lieuwe Steiger, who ended up playing 383 matches for PSV. In 1955, PSV became the first Dutch club to enter the European Champion Clubs' Cup.
The two matches against Rapid Wien ended in 1–6 and 1–0. Other success in the 1950s remained absent but in the 1956–57 season, Dillen scored 43 times, a Dutch record that still stands today; the approaching 1960s marked a shift in player's heritage: the team went from Brabantian men to players nationwide. Representative for this policy were defender Roel Wiersma, who arrived in 1954 and captained the team for a decade, Piet van der Kuil, who came from Ajax for the equivalent of €59,000. Dillen left the club in 1961 after being club top scorer every year from 1953 to 1961. In 1962, Otten decided to quit as chairman of the sports union. By board member Ben van Gelder had started to mold the club in his way. Throughout the next two decades, he became responsible for turning PSV into a full-fledged professional organization. In the 1962–63 season, marking PSV's 50-year anniversary, the club appointed Bram Appel as the new coach; the first results were disastrous, with a mere six points earned from the first six fixtures.
A sudden revival led to a first place at the winter break and a 5–2 victory over Ajax in June meant that PSV could celebrate its fourth league title, with Pierre Kerkhofs leading the goal scorer charts with 22 goals. The following year, PSV ended second in the league but more reached the Europa Cup I quarter-finals for the first time, where it was el
The PlayStation Vita is a handheld game console developed and released by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation Portable as part of the PlayStation brand of gaming devices, it was released in Japan on December 17, 2011, with releases in North America and other worldwide regions starting on February 22, 2012. It competed with the Nintendo 3DS as part of the eighth generation of video game consoles; the original model of the handheld includes a 5-inch OLED multi-touch capacitive touchscreen, two analog joysticks and shoulder push-button input, supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and optional 3G. Internally, the Vita features a quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a quad-core SGX543MP graphics processing unit. A revised model, the PS Vita 2000 series, released across 2013 and 2014, sports all of the same features with a smaller size, extended battery life, an LCD screen replacing the OLED display. Sony released the PlayStation TV, a short-lived, re-purposed version of the Vita that allowed for the play of PS Vita games on a television screen similar to a home video game console, though the PS TV variant was discontinued by the end of 2015.
The system's design was created to meld the experience of big budget, dedicated video game platforms with the up-and-coming trend of mobile gaming through smart phones and tablets. However, in the year after the device's successful launch, sales of the hardware and its bigger budget games stalled, threatening to end its lifespan. A concentrated effort to attract smaller, indie developers in the West, combined with strong support from mid-level Japanese companies, helped keep the platform afloat. While this led to less diversity in its game library, it did garner strong support in Japanese-developed role-playing video games and visual novels alongside a wealth of Western-developed indie games, leading it to become a moderate seller in Japan, build a smaller, yet passionate userbase in the West. While Sony has not released exact sales figures, late-lifespan estimates in sales fall around 15 to 16 million units. In the platform's years, Sony promoted its ability to work in conjunction with its other gaming products, notably the ability to play PlayStation 4 games on it through the process of Remote Play, similar to the Wii U's function of Off-TV Play.
Production of the system and physical cartridge games ended in March 2019. After the massive success of Nintendo's Game Boy line of handheld game consoles throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, with little in the way of market competition, Sony's massive success with its PlayStation and PlayStation 2 home video game consoles around the same time, Sony decided to enter the handheld market as well. In 2004, it released the PlayStation Portable to compete with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. After a slow start in the worldwide market, it was invigorated in Japan with multiple releases in the Monster Hunter series. With the series being less popular in western regions, it failed to revive the platform in the same way; the PSP ended up being a mixed result for the company. It was seen as a success in that it was the only handheld video game platform that had significantly competed with Nintendo for market share in a meaningful way, selling 80 million units in its lifespan the same amount as Nintendo's Game Boy Advance had during the sixth generation of video game consoles.
Despite this, it had still only managed to sell a little over half of what its actual market competitor, the DS, had sold, over 150 million units by the end of 2011. Rumors of a successor to the PSP came as early as July 2009 when Eurogamer reported that Sony was working on such a device, which would utilize the PowerVR SGX543MP processor and perform at a level similar to the original Xbox. Through mid-2010, websites continued to run stories about accounts of the existence of a "PSP 2". Reports arose during the Tokyo Game Show that the device was unveiled internally during a private meeting during mid-September held at Sony Computer Entertainment's headquarters in Aoyama, Tokyo. Shortly after, reports of development kits for the handheld had already been shipped to numerous video game developers including both first-party and third-party developers to start making games for the device, a report confirmed by Mortal Kombat Executive Producer Shaun Himmerick. By November, Senior Vice President of Electronic Arts, Patrick Soderlund, confirmed that he had seen that the PlayStation Portable successor existed, but could not confirm details.
In the same month, VG247 released pictures of an early prototype version showing a PSP Go-like slide-screen design along with two analog sticks, two cameras and a microphone, though the report mentioned that overheating issues had since caused them to move away from the design in favor of a model more similar to the original PlayStation Portable device. Throughout 2010, Sony would not confirm these reports of a PSP successor, but would make comments regarding making future hardware. Shuhei Yoshida, President of Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios revealed that his studio, despite being more involved with software, had a continued role in future hardware development at the time. In December, Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Kazuo Hirai stated that Sony aimed to appeal to a wide demographic of people by using multiple input methods on future hardware; the device was announced by Sony on January 27, 2011, at their "PlayStation Meeting" press conference held by the company in Japan. The system, only known by its code name "Next Generation Portable", wa
A safety valve is a valve that acts as a fail-safe. An example of safety valve is a pressure relief valve, which automatically releases a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system, when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits. Pilot-operated relief valves are a specialized type of pressure safety valve. A leak tight, lower cost, single emergency use option would be a rupture disk. Safety valves were first developed for use on steam boilers during the Industrial Revolution. Early boilers operating without them were prone to explosion unless operated. Vacuum safety valves are used to prevent a tank from collapsing while it is being emptied, or when cold rinse water is used after hot CIP or SIP procedures; when sizing a vacuum safety valve, the calculation method is not defined in any norm in the hot CIP / cold water scenario, but some manufacturers have developed sizing simulations. The earliest and simplest safety valve was used on a 1679 steam digester and utilized a weight to retain the steam pressure.
On the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the safety valve tended to go off when the engine hit a bump in the track. A valve less sensitive to sudden accelerations used a spring to contain the steam pressure, but these could still be screwed down to increase the pressure beyond design limits; this dangerous practice was sometimes used to marginally increase the performance of a steam engine. In 1856, John Ramsbottom invented a tamper-proof spring safety valve that became universal on railways; the Ramsbottom valve consisted of two plug-type valves connected to each other by a spring-laden pivoting arm, with one valve element on either side of the pivot. Any adjustment made to one of valves in an attempt to increase its operating pressure would cause the other valve to be lifted off its seat, regardless of how the adjustment was attempted; the pivot point on the arm was not symmetrically between the valves, so any tightening of the spring would cause one of the valves to lift. Only by removing and diassembling the entire valve assembly could its operating pressure be adjusted, making impromptu'tying down' of the valve by locomotive crews in search of more power impossible.
The pivoting arm was extended into a handle shape and fed back into the locomotive cab, allowing crews to'rock' both valves off their seats to confirm they were set and operating correctly. Safety valves evolved to protect equipment such as pressure vessels and heat exchangers; the term safety valve should be limited to compressible fluid applications. The two general types of protection encountered in industry are thermal protection and flow protection. For liquid-packed vessels, thermal relief valves are characterized by the small size of the valve necessary to provide protection from excess pressure caused by thermal expansion. In this case a small valve is adequate because most liquids are nearly incompressible, so a small amount of fluid discharged through the relief valve will produce a substantial reduction in pressure. Flow protection is characterized by safety valves that are larger than those mounted for thermal protection, they are sized for use in situations where significant quantities of gas or high volumes of liquid must be discharged in order to protect the integrity of the vessel or pipeline.
This protection can alternatively be achieved by installing a high integrity pressure protection system. In the petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, natural gas processing, power generation, drinks and pharmaceuticals industries, the term safety valve is associated with the terms pressure relief valve, pressure safety valve and relief valve; the generic term is pressure safety valve. PRVs and PSVs are not the same thing, despite. Relief valve: an automatic system, actuated by the static pressure in a liquid-filled vessel, it opens proportionally with increasing pressure. Safety valve: an automatic system that relieves the static pressure on a gas, it opens accompanied by a popping sound. Safety relief valve: an automatic system that relieves by static pressure on both gas and liquid. Pilot-operated safety relief valve: an automatic system that relieves on remote command from a pilot, to which the static pressure is connected. Low pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas.
Used when the difference between the vessel pressure and the ambient atmospheric pressure is small. Vacuum pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas. Used when the pressure difference between the vessel pressure and the ambient pressure is small and near to atmospheric pressure. Low and vacuum pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas. Used when the pressure difference is small, negative or positive and near to atmospheric pressure. RV, SV and SRV are spring-operated. LPSV and VPSV are weight-loaded. In most countries, industries are required to protect pressure vessels and other equipment by using relief valves. In most countries, equipment design codes such as those provided by the ASME, API and other organizations like ISO mus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl