Dhanbad is a city in the Indian state of Jharkhand, India. It is the second most populated city in Jharkhand, Dhanbad along with its urban areas population ranks 42nd in population amongst other cities in India. Dhanbad is famous for its mining, has some of the largest mines in India and is called Coal Capital of India. Tata Steel, Bharat Coking Coal Limited, Eastern Coalfields Limited, the IIT, Dhanbad is located in Dhanbad. Among the rail divisions of Indian Railway, Dhanbad Rail Division is the second largest in terms of generation after the Mumbai division. The city has one seat and six seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Dhanbad originated from the district of Manbhum occupied by Mundari or Kolarian races in the wilderness of South undivided Bihar, in the seventh century A. D. some information is available from the account of the travels of Hieun Tsang. These accounts narrate existence of a kingdom which comprised the district and adjoining areas. Manbhum was one of the districts of the East India during the British Raj, after India’s independence, the district became a part of Bihar state, and upon re-organization of the Indian states in the mid-1950s, the district became a part of the West Bengal.
Present Purulia district was carved out of the district of Manbhum, Dhanbad has an average elevation of 227 m. Its geographical length is 15 miles and the breadth is 10 miles and it shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the eastern and southern part and Giridih in the North and Bokaro in the west. Dhanbad comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau, Dhanbad features climate that is transitional between a humid subtropical climate and a tropical wet and dry climate. Summer starts from last week of March and ends in mid-June, peak temperature in summer can reach 48 °C. In winter, the temperature remains around 10 °C with a maximum of 22 °C. Damodar River is the river flowing through the district. Katri, Gobai and Irji are the rivers flowing through the district. The present district used to be a part of Manbhum, the oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and barely even a hundred years old. Dhanbad was in Manbhum district from 1928 up to 1956, as of 2011 census, Dhanbad city had a population of 1,162,472
Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east, the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to 2011 census, Delhis city population was about 11 million, Delhis urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the worlds second largest urban area. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a wealth of $450 billion. Delhi has been inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and it has been captured and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.
New Delhi is jointly administered by the government of India and the local government of Delhi. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, which is a unique interstate regional planning area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985, Delhi ranks among the cities with the worst air pollution in the world. There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi, one of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal, according to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali, another theory suggests that the citys original name was Dhillika. The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas, the city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages.
Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring, aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty. The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, the city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called Khandavaprastha which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha, the earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period, in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight cities have been discovered in Delhi
4DX is a motion picture technology owned and developed by South Korean company CJ 4DPLEX, a part of the CJ Group. 4DX allows a motion picture presentation to be augmented with environmental effects such as motion, rain, lights. As such, theaters must be designed for and equipped with 4DX technology. The experience was introduced commercially in 2009 with the release of Journey to the Center of the Earth in Seoul, 4DX was launched by South Korean theater chain, CJ CGV with the release of New Line Cinemas Journey to the Center of the Earth in Seoul in 2009. In 2010, after the success with the 4DX screening of Avatar. On 2 June 2011, Mexican cineplex company, Cinépolis, have invested $25 million, the company opened its first room in Guatemala on 17 December 2013, with the release of The Hobbit, The Desolation of Smaug, as the first 4DX theater in Central America. The company opened its first 4DX theater in India in 2014, in Costa Rica, the company is set to open its first 4DX theater on 14 September 2014 with the release of The Maze Runner.
In 2012, CNN Travel named the CGV Gangbyeon 4DX theater as one of the worlds best movie theatres. The Paramount Pictures film, Dark of the Moon, has opened new 4DX rooms at Major Cineplex on 19 June 2011 in Thailand and Cinema Park on 22 December 2012 in Russia. Cinema City has opened its first 4DX room in Israel on 19 July 2012 at the Yes Planet Rishon Lezion theater, the company opened new 4DX theaters throughout Europe. On 26 April 2013, Japanese cineplex chain, Korona World, opened its first room in Nagoya, on 6 May 2013, CGV released a new 4DX trailer, starring Lee Byung-hun. On 12 June 2013, Taiwanese cineplex chain, Vieshow Cinemas, has opened its first room with the release of Man of Steel, on 19 July 2013, Cine Hoyts opened its first 4DX room in La Reina, with the release of Turbo. As of August 2013, the 4DX technology has achieved over 10,000 seats in 16 countries and 58 cities, on 23 August 2013, Indonesias Blitzmegaplex opened its first 4DX theater with the release of Percy Jackson, Sea of Monsters.
Venezuelas Cinex opened its first room on 21 December 2013 with the release of Frozen, on 28 September 2013, UME International Cineplex opened a new 4DX theater in Chongqing, with the release of Jurassic Park 3D. On 12 December 2013, Croatian cinema chain, Blitz-CineStar, opened its first 4DX room with the releases of The Hobbit, The Desolation of Smaug and Frozen. Ukrainian theater chain, Planeta Kino, opened its first 4DX room with the premiere of The Hobbit, The Desolation of Smaug on 18 December 2013, VOX Cinemas has opened their first 4DX theater in the United Arab Emirates on 22 December 2013. On 24 March 2014, CJ 4DPlex has signed a deal with AEG to bring the technology to the United States and it opened at the Regal Cinemas L. A. Live Stadium 14 theater in Los Angeles, operated by the Regal Entertainment Group, on 26 June 2014 with Transformers and it was screened with Marvel Studios Captain America, The Winter Soldier, and premiered with Paramounts Transformers, Age of Extinction
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and it has an area of 79,710 km2. The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital, Jamshedpur is the largest industrial city in the state, while Dhanbad and Bokaro Steel City are the second and fourth most populous cities respectively. The State is primarily a state as only 24 percent of the population resides in Cities. According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire, beras book refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, for a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent, in those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga Empire.
According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century, the Singh Deos of Orissa were influential in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhands neighboring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. In the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became known under its present title, Jharkhand — the Land of jungles. In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company, the subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi and he wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors.
The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi, soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau and they revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla, soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes and they too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords
Noida, short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a systematically planned Indian city under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority. It is part of National Capital Region of India, Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as Noida Day. It was set up as part of an urbanisation thrust during the controversial Emergency period, the city was created under the UP Industrial Area Development Act by the initiatives of Sanjay Gandhi. The city has the highest per capita income in the whole National Capital Region, the Noida Authority is among the richest civic bodies in the country. As per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Noida in 2011 is 642,381, roads in Noida are lined by trees and it is considered to be Indias greenest city with about 50% green cover, the highest of any city in India. Noida is located in Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh state, the districts administrative headquarters are in the nearby town of Greater Noida.
However, the districts highest government official, the District Magistrate, has its official camp office in Noida Sector-27, the city is a part of the Noida Vidhan Sabha constituency and Gautam Buddha Nagar. Minister of State for Culture, Tourism of Civil Aviation Mahesh Sharma of the BJP is the current MP of Noida, the current MLA is Pankaj Singh. Noida has emerged as a hot spot for IT and IT-enabled services industry with large companies setting up their businesses here. Noida is located in the Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh state India, Noida is about 25 kilometres southeast of New Delhi,20 kilometres northwest of the district headquarters - Greater Noida and 457 kilometres northwest of the state capital, Lucknow. Noida falls under the catchment area of the Yamuna River, and is located on the old river bed, the soil is rich and loamy. Since Noida can be termed as being situated on the tail of Aravali, other common trees are Neem, Banyan and Teak that grow naturally. Recent urbanisation has introduced laburnam, red cotton, and other trees on the roadsides, people take a lot of interest in planting amaltash and Gulmohar.
For these reasons, different trees surround roads of Noida from almost everywhere, There are various types of grasses that grow naturally on the free ground, as this land was perfect for agriculture before construction work took over. Sugarcane and vegetables were grown in great extent along with Mango and you can record a great number of birds in Noida, Crows, Bulbuls, Kingfishers and Bushchats can be spotted anywhere. With careful eyes one can see barbets, Okhla Bird Sanctuary is one such place to go and do bird watching and it has a great number of birds varying from cormorants to jacanaa and seagulls. More than 55 species are present and around the same number are seasonal. Surajkund Sanctuary, village areas are not far off for nature viewing, the Noida-Greater Noida Expressway is poised to become a self-sustaining urban pocket in Noida with good infrastructure
Connaught Place, New Delhi
Connaught Place is one of the largest financial and business centres in New Delhi, India. It is often abbreviated to CP and houses the headquarters of several noted Indian firms. The main commercial area of the new city, New Delhi, during the erstwhile British Raj and it was developed as a showpiece of Lutyens Delhi with a prominent Central Business District. Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, a metro railway station built under it is named Rajiv Chowk. Prior to the construction of Connaught Place, the area was a ridge, covered with trees and populated with jackals. Residents of the Kashmere Gate, Civil Lines area visited during the weekends for partridge hunting, the Hanuman Temple attracted many visitors from the old walled city, who came only on Tuesdays and Saturdays and before sunset, as the return trip was considered dangerous. Residents of villages including Madhoganj, Jaisingh Pura and Raja ka Bazaar were evicted to clear the area for the construction of Connaught Place and the development of its nearby areas.
The villages were situated along the historic Qutb Road, the main road connecting Shahjahanabad. The displaced people were relocated in Karol Bagh to the west, three structures were spared demolition. These were Hanuman temple, a Jain temple in Jaisinghpura and the Jantar Mantar, plans to have a central business district were developed as the construction of the new capital of Imperial India began to take shape. Headed by W. H. Nicholls, the architect to the Government of India. Connaught Places Georgian architecture is modelled after the Royal Crescent in Bath, the circle was eventually designed with two concentric circles, creating an Inner Circle, Middle Circle and the Outer Circle with seven roads radiating from a circular central park. As per the plan, the different blocks of Connaught Place were to be joined from above, employing archways. However, the circle was broken up to give it a grander scale, even the blocks were originally planned to be 172 metres in height, but reduced to the present two-storied structure with an open colonnade.
Government plans to have New Delhi Railway Station built inside Central Park were rejected by authorities as they found the idea impractical. Early commercial establishments belonged to traders from the Kashmere Gate area, Galgotia, most of the rulers of the Indian princely states had their local homes in the nearby areas around Kings way, and would frequent shops for designer clothes, artefacts and pianos. Wengers, the confectioners, was one of the first shops in Connaught Place, davicos across Connaught Plaza, and the Standard restaurant were popular for decades before fading away. Another old timer, the Embassy Restaurant, opened in 1948, the Imperial, New Delhi’s first luxury hotel opened in 1931 on Queens Way, and eventually became a haunt for the royalty and a place for political discussions
Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand, and now it is the most populous city of the state. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur, the name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi. Archi derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave, according to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi and vanished, Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi. One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda, Doranda lies between the Hinoo & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Ranchi is well known for being the hometown of former Indian cricket captain MS Dhoni, Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E near to the Tropic of Cancer.
Its municipal area is 175.12 km2, and its elevation is 651 m above sea level. Ranchi is located in the part of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Ranchi has a topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the deforestation, and development of the city. Although Ranchi has a subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which its known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm, from June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cwa, as of 2011 India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,120,374, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51. 3% of the population and females 48.
7%, Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87. 68%. The city witnessed a surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, and FMCG companies
National Stock Exchange of India
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai. NSE was established in 1992 as the first demutualized electronic exchange in the country. National Stock Exchange has a market capitalization of more than US$1.41 trillion. NSEs flagship index, the NIFTY50, the 51 stock index, is used extensively by investors in India, only about 4% of the Indian economy / GDP is actually derived from the stock exchanges in India. NSE was set up by a group of leading Indian financial institutions at the behest of the government of India to bring transparency to the Indian capital market. Based on the laid out by the government committee, NSE has been established with a diversified shareholding comprising domestic. The key domestic investors include Life Insurance Corporation of India, State Bank of India, IFCI Limited IDFC Limited and Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited. And the key global investors are Gagil FDI Limited, GS Strategic Investments Limited, SAIF II SE Investments Mauritius Limited, Aranda Investments Pte Limited, NSE offers trading and settlement services in equity, equity derivatives and currency derivatives segments.
It is the first exchange in India to introduce electronic trading facility thus connecting together the investor base of the entire country, NSE has 2500 VSATs and 3000 leased lines spread over more than 2000 cities across India. NSE commenced operations in the Wholesale Debt Market segment in June 1994, the capital market segment of the NSE commenced operations in November 1994, while operations in the derivatives segment commenced in June 2000. Of these only 7,800 companies are listed of which only 4000 trade on the stock exchanges at BSE and NSE. Hence the stocks trading at the BSE and NSE account for only around 4% of the Indian economy, NSE was mainly set up to bring in transparency in the markets. Instead of trading membership being confined to a group of brokers, NSE ensured that anyone who was qualified, experienced, in this context, NSE was ahead of its times when it separated ownership and management in the exchange under SEBIs supervision. The price information which could earlier be accessed only by a handful of people could now be seen by a client in a location with the same ease.
The paper-based settlement was replaced by electronic depository-based accounts and settlement of trades was always done on time, one of the most critical changes was that a robust risk management system was set in place, so that settlement guarantees could protect investors against broker defaults. NSE was instrumental in creating the National Securities Depository Limited which allows investors to hold and transfer their shares. It allows investors to hold and trade in as few as one share or bond, the futures and options segment of NSE has made a global mark. In the Futures and Options segment, trading in NIFTY50 Index, NIFTY IT index, NIFTY Bank Index, NIFTY Next 50 index, trading in Mini Nifty Futures & Options and Long term Options on NIFTY50 are available. The average daily turnover in the F&O Segment of the Exchange during the financial year April 2013 to March 2014 stood at ₹1.52236 trillion
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab. Jalandhar is the oldest city in the Indian state of Punjab and is one of the oldest in the country, in recent times the city has undergone rapid urbanisation and has developed into a highly industrialised centre of commerce. Jalandhar has been shortlisted for the phase of the “Smart City” initiative of the Indian Government. Jalandhar used to be the capital of Punjab from India’s independence until Chandigarh was constructed in 1953, Jalandhar is situated alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 144 km northwest of Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab. The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient and modern, the city is named after Jalandhara, a demon king, who is mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, according to another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term Jalandhar means area inside the water, i. e.
tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period, the modern history of Jalandhar District states that Khilafat Movement was started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure upon British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement, Jalandhar District was declared Proclaimed Area under the Seditious Meetings Act. The city has a subtropical climate with cool winters and long. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February, temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C to average lows of around 25 °C. Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C to lows of −7 °C, the climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August.
The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm, as per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female. The literacy rate was 85.46 per cent, Jalandhar has been selected in the second phase of the smart city project and 200 crores has been allocated to the municipal corporation for initialising the project. Jalandhar exports goods like furniture and glass to neighbouring cities and is a hub for the manufacture of sporting equipment. Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry and equipment manufactured in Jalandhar is used by many prominent sporting figures such as Sachin Tenduklar, Saurav Ganguly and Steve Waugh among others. The nearest airport is Pathankot Airport at Pathankot, about 90 km and Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport at Amritsar and it is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights
Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes referred to as the Gateway of UP because it is close to New Delhi and it is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi. It is a large and planned city, with a population of 2,381,452. Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world. Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two divisions separated by the Hindon River, Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east side. Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, according to the Gazetteer, the fort, Loni is named after Lavanasura. The city and its region have historically witnessed major wars. In AD1313, the region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battlefield. During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa, altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803. The name Ghaziuddinnagar was shortened to its present form, i. e.
Ghaziabad with the opening of the Railways in 1864, establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. The Ghaziabad Municipality came into existence in 1868, the Sind and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year. The city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD1740 by Wazir Ghazi-ud-din, during the Mughal period and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family. Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr, remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj, Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857. During that rebellion, there were clashes between the British forces and Indian rebel sepoys on the banks of the Hindon, and the rebels checked the advancing British forces coming from Meerut.
Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad, however, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan, the Mohan Meakin breweries were set up in the year 1949. This period saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of Indias most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry, in 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, a number of steel manufacturing units came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the centre of Ujjain district. An ancient city situated on the bank of the Kshipra River. It emerged as the centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of the ancient Avanti kingdom, one of the sixteen mahajanapadas and it remained an important political and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Excavations at Kayatha have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE, chalcolithic sites have been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements. H. D.
Sankalia theorized that the settlements at Ujjain were probably destroyed by the Iron Age settlers. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, whose capital was Ujjain, was one of the earliest outposts in central India, around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political and cultural centre of Malwa plateau. The ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra and this city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart, the archaeological investigations have indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city. According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE, dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE. This period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick and weapons made of iron, according to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain.
In the Mauryan period, Ujjain remained the centre of the region. From this period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells, during the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain. Ujjain was subsequently controlled by a number of empires and dynasties, including the Shungas, the Western Satraps, the Satavahanas, the Guptas, the Paramaras shifted the regions capital from Ujjain to Dhar. Raja Bharthari wrote his epics, Virat Katha, Neeti Sataka. The writings of Bhasa are set in Ujjain, and he lived in the city