Samochód pancerny wz. 29
Samochód Pancerny wzór 29 known as Ursus or CWS, was a Polish interwar heavy armored car. A handful of these vehicles saw combat during the Polish-German War of 1939; the car was designed in 1929 by Rudolf Gundlach. The vehicle was based on the chassis of the Ursus A 2-ton truck, the armored body was built by CWS, Warsaw; the initial armament consisted of the French 37 mm low-velocity gun in the turret front, 7.92 mm machine guns in the turret left-rear and right-rear at 120 degrees to the gun, another 7.92 mm MG in the hull rear. Although this arrangement helped to achieve good balance of the turret, it was awkward to use. In the mid-1930s the right turret machine gun was removed; the car carried 96 rounds for 4032 MG rounds in 16 252-round belts. The vehicle was sufficiently armed and armored for late 1920s, but was underpowered, lacked all-wheel drive and had high silhouette; because of these shortcomings, only between 10 and 13 cars were built. Although obsolete by 1939, the car was still in service at the outbreak of the Second World War.
8 vehicles were assigned to the 11th armoured battalion of the Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade, Army Modlin, as a reconnaissance unit. The vehicles acted well by 16 September all of them were lost. Derela.republika.pl
Sokół was a brand of motorcycles manufactured in Poland before World War II for both civilian and military use. Designed and produced by the Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe CWS company, they were continued after its takeover by the PZInż between 1934 and 1939; the name was first used for the Sokół 600 RT tourist motorcycle, but is the most associated with the Polish Sokół 1000, a heavy motorcycle produced after 1936 for the Polish Army. Chronologically, the Sokół motorcycles were as follows: Sokół 1000 M111 Sokół 600 RT M211 Sokół 500, a sport motorcycle Sokół 200 M411 Sokół 125, built 1947-1950, a different design based on German DKW RT 125. Zbigniew Otoczyński "Sokół 600 i 1000", WKŁ - Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Łączności Sp. Z o.o 1999, ISBN 83-206-1292-6 Jan Tarczyński "Polskie motocykle 1918-1945" "The Polish motorcycle industry 1918-1945" Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Łączności WKŁ 2005, ISBN 83-206-1579-8 A. Jońca, R. Szubański, J. Tarczyński: "Wrzesień 39 - Pojazdy Wojska Polskiego", WKŁ, Warszawa 1990 A.
Jońca, J. Tarczyński, K. Barbarski: "Pojazdy w Wojsku Polskim - Polish Army Vehicles - 1918-1939", AJaKS, Pruszków 1995
The Ursus Factory is a Polish producer of agricultural machinery located in Lublin. In the 2010s, it has carried out some production of trolleybuses in a joint venture with the Ukrainian manufacturer Bogdan; the Ursus Factory was founded in Poland in 1893 on 15 Sienna Street, Warsaw, by three engineers and four businessmen. It began producing exhaust engines and later trucks and metal fittings intended for the Russian Tsar. In 1930, the Ursus factory fell on hard times due to the world financial crisis and was nationalised under the Państwowe Zakłady Inżynieryjne, the Polish manufacturer of arms and vehicles, it began producing military tractors and other heavy machinery for troops. During the German occupation of Poland in World War II the factory was controlled by FAMO and produced Panzer II, Marder II and Wespe AFVs. After the war, the Ursus Factory started producing the Ursus C-45, a copy of the German pre-war Lanz Bulldog tractor. During the 1950s, the Ursus factory began producing tractors using a Zetor-based design.
By 1961, there was a growing need for tractors in Poland, but the tractors produced by the Ursus factory did not meet the needs of Polish agriculture. A bilateral agreement was created between Poland and Czechoslovakia, where Czechoslovakia would provide the Ursus factory with the parts necessary to enlarge and modernise the factory and in exchange, Poland would supply Czechoslovak factories with raw materials; the goal was to construct a joint tractor industry where Poland and Czechoslovakia would combine to produce 120,000 tractors per year, as in 1963 Poland was only producing 15,000. Workers of the Ursus tractor factory played a large role in the solidarity movement in the 1970s and 1980s. On 25 June 1976 in response to a rise in food prices, the workers of Ursus, acting in solidarity with workers in Radom and many other areas, went on strike and blocked and destroyed parts of the main east-west and north-south rail lines leaving Warsaw; this was one of the largest and most disruptive strikes that occurred that day, resulted in the prime minister announcing on television the withdrawal of the food price increase.
In 1980, workers of the Ursus factory went on strike and spent the night at the factory to protest the detention of Jan Narozniak, a volunteer printing worker at the Warsaw chapter of Solidarity. In 1980, 16,000 workers threatened to stop coming to work on Saturdays in order to self-enforce the 5-day work week proclaimed by the Solidarity movement. In 1988, 200 workers in the Ursus factory occupied the plant canteen and demanded that the management petition for increased wages, the release of imprisoned workers, the legalisation of Solidarity and the Independent Students' Association; the Ursus factory was the focus of an extensive investment initiative in the 1970s under Edward Gierek. Under this programme, large loans were taken from western banks for the purpose of importing modern equipment and methods that would cause expansion of Polish industry and growth of the Polish economy. In 1977, a 7.9 million dollar export-import bank loan and a 7 million dollar loan from private American banks were granted to the Ursus tractor factory for the purpose of purchasing machine tools from the Ingersoll Milling Machine Company of Rockford and Gleason Works in Rochester, New York.
However, such investment programmes became inefficient and failed, leaving Poland with an immense debt. By 1980, 25 billion dollars were locked into inefficient, unfinished projects in Polish industry that were speculated to require an additional 50 billion dollars to complete; the Ursus Tractor Factory was one of the largest victims of this problem. By 1981, equipment, purchased in the West at the Ursus Factory amounted to 3,600 million złoty. Warehouse space at Ursus was filled with unused, unnecessary supplies, e.g. a stock of 1.6 million used screws, since construction of new warehouse space had stopped, other supplies were left to deteriorate outside. Gierek had invested nearly 1 billion dollars into a project of developing a modern Massey Ferguson model of tractor at Ursus, however due to licensing problems, these tractors could not be sold in the Western Bloc during the Cold War for political reasons, in the Eastern Bloc neither because they were too expensive. Instead of the targeted production of 75,000 tractors per year, only 500 were made.
Ursus' tractor production declined throughout the 1990s, falling from 60,000 tractors per year in 1980 to about 16,000 tractors in 1995. The decline in production was due to the enormous debt that Ursus had contracted as a result of its expansion programme in the 1980s; the need to repay the debt blocked access to funds needed for the daily operations of the factory. In 1996, 550 million złoty, 80% of Ursus’ debt, owed to nearly 700 creditors, was written off. Tractor sales continued to decline to an all-time low of 1,578 units in 2006. URSUS Company was established in the years 1998–2003 as a consequence of restructuring and cooperation of PHZ "Bumar" Ltd. ZPC URSUS Ursus Tractor Factory Ltd.. The company is still producing Ursus tractors. Bumar Ltd became the main shareholder of Ursus Company, leading to Ursus becoming part of Bumar Industrial Group, marketing Ursus products both on foreign and domestic markets. In 2007, Uzel Holding of Turkey announced. Both Uzel and Ursus were, licensees of AGCO's Massey Ferguson.
In 2008 it was announced that Uzel had not kept up to its commitments, TAFE and Pol-Mot were interested in buying. In 2011 Pol-Mot bought the Ursus Company from Bumar Ltd; the company is expanding its business in Central Europe and other countries, as well as planning to produce electric buses. In 2013, a joint venture between Ursus and the U
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal into a mold, removing the mold material after the metal has solidified as it cools; the most common metals processed are cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, steel and zinc, are used to produce castings in foundries. In this process, parts of desired shapes and sizes can be formed. In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, allowing it to cool and solidify; the solidified part is known as a casting, ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Melting is performed in a furnace. Virgin material, external scrap, internal scrap, alloying elements are used to charge the furnace. Virgin material refers to commercially pure forms of the primary metal used to form a particular alloy.
Alloying elements are either pure forms of an alloying element, like electrolytic nickel, or alloys of limited composition, such as ferroalloys or master alloys. External scrap is material from other forming processes such as forging, or machining. Internal scrap consists of gates, defective castings, other extraneous metal oddments produced within the facility; the process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gases and elements from the molten metal to avoid casting defects. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific range specified by industry and/or internal standards. Certain fluxes may be used to separate the metal from slag and/or dross and degassers are used to remove dissolved gas from metals that dissolve certain gasses. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made. Several specialised furnaces are used to heat the metal.
Furnaces are refractory-lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it. Modern furnace types include electric arc furnaces, induction furnaces, cupolas and crucible furnaces. Furnace choice is dependent on the alloy. For ferrous materials EAFs, induction furnaces are used. Reverberatory and crucible furnaces are common for producing aluminium and brass castings. Furnace design is a complex process, the design can be optimized based on multiple factors. Furnaces in foundries can be any size, ranging from small ones used to melt precious metals to furnaces weighing several tons, designed to melt hundreds of pounds of scrap at one time, they are designed according to the type of metals. Furnaces must be designed based on the fuel being used to produce the desired temperature. For low temperature melting point alloys, such as zinc or tin, melting furnaces may reach around 500 °C. Electricity, propane, or natural gas are used to achieve these temperatures. For high melting point alloys such as steel or nickel-based alloys, the furnace must be designed for temperatures over 1,600 °C.
The fuel used to reach these high temperatures can be coke. The majority of foundries specialize in a particular metal and have furnaces dedicated to these metals. For example, an iron foundry may use a cupola, induction furnace, or EAF, while a steel foundry will use an EAF or induction furnace. Bronze or brass foundries use crucible furnaces or induction furnaces. Most aluminium foundries use either electric resistance or gas heated crucible furnaces or reverberatory furnaces. Degassing is a process that may be required to reduce the amount of hydrogen present in a batch of molten metal. Gases can form in metal castings in one of two ways: by physical entrapment during the casting process or by chemical reaction in the cast material. Hydrogen is a common contaminant for most cast metals, it forms from water vapor or machine lubricants. If the hydrogen concentration in the melt is too high, the resulting casting will be porous. Porosity seriously deteriorates the mechanical properties of the metal.
An efficient way of removing hydrogen from the melt is to bubble a dry, insoluble gas through the melt by purging or agitation. When the bubbles go up in the melt, they bring it to the surface. Chlorine, nitrogen and argon are used to degas non-ferrous metals. Carbon monoxide is used for iron and steel. There are various types of equipment. Alternatively, the presence of hydrogen can be measured by determining the density of a metal sample. In cases where porosity still remains present after the degassing process, porosity sealing can be accomplished through a process called metal impregnating. In the casting process, a pattern is made in the shape of the desired part. Simple designs can be made in solid pattern. More complex designs are made in two parts, called split patterns. A split pattern has a top or upper section, called a cope, a bottom or lower section called a drag. Both solid and split patterns can have cores inserted to complete the final part shape. Cores are used to create hollow areas in the mold.
Where the cope and drag separates is called the parting line. When making a pattern it is best to taper the edges so that the pattern c
Autosan S. A. is a Polish coach manufacturer. The company is located in Poland, its sales network includes European and Asian countries. It produces 300 buses a year; the company was founded in 1832 by Mateusz Beksiński as a boilermaker's plant. The history of the factory changed depending on European economic situations. At the beginning of its activity, the factory produced devices and equipment for the oil mining and brewing industries, it added transportation to its range and by 1894 it had become Poland's most important manufacturer of rail coaches and freight cars and other high-capacity vehicles, while continuing to produce their initial output of boilers and other related devices. More variety of product was added, including cisterns, dredgers, road rollers, steel lifeboats, steel bridge constructions and casting articles. In 1926, Autosan launched its first lot of buses mounted on Lancia chassis. Activities were interrupted during World War II but resumed in 1950. In 1973, a new family of buses is launched - the H9 bus, with the engine mounted at the rear.
It would be followed in 1984 by the high-capacity H10 model. In September 2013 the Court of Krosno declared the factory bankrupt. In a statement issued at the time it was explained that it was impossible to continue financing the restructuring. A few days Sobiesław Zasada Group, which owned the company, sold a package of shares in Autosan to Gregory Tarnawa for one polish zloty. Trade unionists from the factory picketed in front of the former owner, Sobiesław Zasada Group, in Kraków, demanding payment of arrears of salary for several months; the company is still operational. Autosan is one of the oldest factories in Poland, its existence dates back to 1832. Since 2001, the company has developed and produced components for rail vehicles the bodies of railcars and trams. Tourist coaches Autosan A0808T "Gemini" Autosan A1112T "Ramzes" Intercity buses Autosan A0808T "Gemini" Autosan A0909L "Tramp 2" Autosan A1010T "Lider 3" Autosan A1012T "Lider" Autosan Eurolider 12 Autosan Eurolider 13 Autosan Lider 9 eco Autosan Lider 9 eco2 Autosan A8V "Wetlina" Local buses Autosan A1010T "Lider 10" Autosan H7-20MB "Solina" Autosan Sancity 9LE Autosan Eurolider 13LE Autosan Eurolider 15LE City buses Sancity 9LE Sancity 10LF Sancity 12LE Sancity 12LF Sancity 18LF Autosan A8V "Wetlina City" School buses Autosan A0909S Smyk Autosan A1012T "Eagle RHD" Special buses, prison vans Autosan A1010T DW Autosan H7-10ZK Police buses for military squads Autosan H7-10I Tourist coaches Autosan A404T "Cezar" Autosan A1112T "San" Autosan A1112T "Sanman" Intercity buses Autosan H6-10 "Melon" Autosan A0909L "Tramp" Autosan H7-10 "Traper" Autosan H9-xx Autosan H10-xx Autosan A10-10T "Lider Midi" Local buses Autosan A0808MN "Sancity" Autosan H7-20 "Trafic" City buses Autosan H9-33 Autosan H9-35 Autosan A1010M "Medium" School buses Autosan H6-10.03S "Żaczek" Autosan H9-21 "Kleks" Autosan H10-10S "Urwis" Special buses, prison vans Autosan H6-56 "Towos" Autosan H6-10 SW Rail buses Passenger trailers Containers Special coachworks Components Jelcz SA Company homepage Autosan Coach Sales homepage Homepage "Autosan Sverige" "Autosan Component Suppliers" Movie about Autosan
Fiat 524 is a car, produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between 1931 and 1934. The 524 was a more luxurious version of the Fiat 522 model. 10,135 cars were produced in total. A Polish version called the Fiat-Polski 524 was built in Warsaw. Cabriolet, 4 doors, 4 seats Limousine, 4 doors, 4 seats Saloon, 4 doors, 4 seats
Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski was a Polish politician and economist, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland, government minister and manager of the Second Polish Republic. He studied at the Jesuit school Zakład Naukowo-Wychowawczy Ojców Jezuitów w Chyrowie, graduated chemistry at the University of Lwów and Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. After Józef Piłsudski's May coup d'état of 1926 in the Second Polish Republic, he was recommended by president Ignacy Mościcki for the post Minister of Industry and Trade in the government of Kazimierz Bartel. Kwiatkowski was a minister in eight successive governments and Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and Minister of Treasure in two governments. Among the most famous achievements of Kwiatkowski are the giant construction projects: the construction of Gdynia seaport, the development of the Polish Merchant Navy and sea trade, the creation of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy. After the Soviet Union joined Nazi Germany in the invasion of Poland in 1939, he evacuated Poland with the rest of the Government on 17 September.
He was interned in Romania until 1945. He returned to Poland and supervised the projects of reconstruction of the Polish seacoast, in the years 1947–1952, he was a deputy to the Polish parliament. With the strengthening of the communist and Soviet grip on the Polish government, which he opposed, he fell out of favour of the communist government of the People's Republic of Poland and was forced to retire in 1948. From 1952 onward, he concentrated on studies of chemistry and history, he died in Kraków on 22 August 1974. Zagadnienie przemysłu chemicznego na tle wielkiej wojny Postęp gospodarczy Polski Polska gospodarcza w roku 1928 Powrót Polski nad Bałtyk Dysproporcje. Rzecz o Polsce przeszłej i obecnej "Rzecz najważniejsza Polska" - Wybór myśli politycznych i społecznych - selection of his papers Janusz Zaręba, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski - romantyczny pragmatyk, Centrum Edukacji i Rozwoju Biznesu. Instytut Naukowo-Wydawniczy, Warszawa, 1998 Archiwum polityczne Eugeniusza Kwiatkowskiego, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa, 2002 Marian Marek Drozdowski, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, Zakład Narodowy im.
Ossolińskich - Wydawnictwo, Wrocław, 2001 Marian Marek Drozdowski, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski w polskiej historiografii i publicystyce historyczno-ekonomicznej, Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warszawa, 1992 Marian Marek Drozdowski, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski: człowiek i dzieło, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków, 1989 Marian Marek Drozdowski, Piotr Dwojacki, Archiwum Morskie Eugeniusza Kwiatkowskiego, E. Kwiatkowski University of Business and Administration, Gdynia, 2009