The pith helmet is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of pith material. Typically, a pith helmet derives from either the plant, Aeschynomene aspera. In the narrow definition, a helmet is technically a type of sun helmet made out of pith material. However, the helmet may more broadly refer to the particular style of helmet. In this case, a helmet can be made out of cork, fibrous. No matter the material, the commonality of the helmet style is one designed to shade the wearers head. Pith helmets were worn by European travelers and explorers, in the varying climates found in Africa, Southeast Asia, as well as the tropics. It was made of pith with small peaks at the front and back, it was covered by cloth, often with a cloth band around it. It had a metal insignia at the front, and may be decorated with a spike or ball-shaped top. The chin strap could be in leather or brass chain, depending on occasions, the pith helmet soon became associated strongly with the British Empire. However, the helmet was used by all European colonial powers.
As such it became something of a symbol of rule and was quickly discarded at the end of the period of European empires. Soon khaki-coloured pith helmets became standard issues as well, helmets of this style have been used as late as World War II by European and American military personnel. Included in this category are the sun helmets worn in North Africa by Italian troops and Germanys Afrika Korps, such was the popularity of the pith helmet that it became a common civilian headgear for Westerners in the tropics from the end of the 19th century. The civilian pith helmet was typically less decorative and more practical, not as tall as the military counterpart and it was worn by men and women and young, both in formal and casual occasions, until the Second World War. Similar sun helmets are worn today by some mail carriers of the U. S. Postal Service. After the war, the Viet Minh of Vietnam copied the pith helmet from the former French colonizer, and adopted it as its own. Outside Vietnam the pith helmet is now mainly by the British and Thai military, as well as the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince of Monaco
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Wilcannia is a small town located within the Central Darling Shire in north western New South Wales, Australia. This was the third largest inland port in the country during the river boat era of the mid-19th century. At the 2011 census, Wilcannia had a population of 604, the name Wilcannia is said to be derived from an Aboriginal term for either gap in the bank where floodwaters escape or wild dog. Neither meaning has been linguistically verified, in 1835, explorer Major Thomas Mitchell was the first European to the region, in which he traced the Darling River to what is now Menindee. In June 1866, the township of Wilcannia was proclaimed, in 1871, the population was 264, and grew to 1,424 by 1881. During the 1880s, Wilcannia reached its peak, and had a population of 3000 and 13 hotels and its own newspaper, Wilcannia is located where the Barrier Highway crosses the Darling River,965 kilometres from Sydney. The environment is borderline semi-arid to desert with a rainfall of 255 millimetres.
Wilcannia is located within the Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion, consisting of landscapes adapted to flooding, common species include River Red Gum, Yellow Box, Oldman Saltbush and Lignum. The surrounding area is sparsely settled by pastoralists who have large land holdings. These holdings fall in the Western Division and the majority are held as 99-year leases, Wilcannia has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild to cool winters. Mean maximum daily temperature in summer is 34 °C and in winter is 19 °C, the highest temperature recorded in Wilcannia was 50.0 °C on 11 January 1939. This was during the heatwave of January 1939. On 9 November 1950, a thunderstorm with damaging winds. Two people were injured, dozens of homes lost their roofs, from the 2011 Census, Wilcannia had a population of 604 with 466 people being of Aboriginal descent. The suburb was listed as one of the most socially disadvantaged areas in the State according to the 2015 Dropping Off The Edge report. The towns demographic issues were highlighted in the BBC3 documentary Reggie Yates, Hidden Australia Episode 1, Black in the Outback, media related to Wilcannia, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Central Darling Shire Visit NSW Wilcannia Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Frederic Bonney was a British land owner and photographer. He took photographs at Momba Station in New South Wales in the 1870s and he was known for these and he was born and died in Rugeley, Staffordshire. Bonney was the son of the Reverend Thomas Bonney, headmaster of Rugeley Grammar School and his brothers included Edward Smith Bonney and Thomas George Bonney, who was an academic geologist. He went to school at Marlborough College and his uncle, Charles Bonney, visited England from Australia in 1858 to 1862. Encouraged by his uncle, he and his brother, Edward went to Australia first and Frederic joined him in 1865 at Momba Station in New South Wales, near Wilcannia. In the late 1860s Momba had an area of 6,000 square kilometres, Charles Dickens son, was sent by his father to Momba Station and he arrived a few days before his sixteenth birthday in 1868. He worked as a stockman at Momba until 1872, Bonneys occupation was as a grazier but his hobby was photography and anthropology. He took many pictures of the Paakantyi people who had lived along the Paroo River.
These people had been devastated by disease and the invasion by foreign immigrants, Bonneys attitude to these people was not as judgmental as many and he took natural pictures which recorded their lives. He was shocked by the racist views of others and he recorded his respect for the loyalty and integity of the native Australians, Bonneys pictures have been published recently and in his time they were exhibited at the Melbourne Exhibition in 1880. Bonneys pictures of Wonko Mary record a mourning tradition—Wonko Mary is shown with a cap which she has made from gypsum and water. Edward became ill with syphilis and he returned home in 1879. Frederic had to tidy up their affairs but he took the opportunity to complete his anthropological. Frederic sold Momba station and he returned to Staffordshire in 1881 and he travelled back the long way and he visited Hawaii where he again took photographs during a month there. Once he was back in his county he bought Colton House in Rugeley. He established gardens and an arboretum at his house and he continued to record local events using photography.
He became chair of the council and bred show pigeons. Bonney volunteered to manage his local hospital and the reading room
Simpson Newland CMG, pastoralist and politician, was a pioneer in Australia who made significant contributions to development around the Murray River. He was an author of works and novels. He and his siblings were educated to a standard at home by their mother. Simpson Newland was at first a boy, but the open air life improved his health. His evenings were largely given up to improving his education with the help of his mother and he improved the breeds of his sheep and cattle, and by age 40 had become very prosperous. On 12 September 1872 at Buckanbee, New South Wales, he married Jane Isabella Layton, in 1876, with three sons, they moved to Adelaide and bought a mansion at Burnside which they called Undelcarra, Newland continued to manage the stations from Adelaide. George Debney was a furniture maker in Rundle Street and one of the first owners of the estate that was known as Undelcarra. The estate stretched north from Second Creek, between Lockwood Road and Hallett Road up to approximately where Statenborough Street is now located, the Debneys lived on the property from the 1850s till 1877 when it was sold to Simpson Newland who significantly enlarged the house and called it Undelcarra.
Undelcarra belonged to Simpson Newland between 1876 and 1911, the estate passed into the hands of Torrens Ward, solicitor from 1911–1919. It was purchased in 1919 by Alfred Allen Simpson of A. Simpson & Co whitegoods manufacturers, the house is still owned by his descendants. Final subdivision was in 1969, but the house stands in Undelcarra Road. The gatehouse which is still on Lockwood Road near the bridge over Second Creek was converted into a private residence, the gates that are now seen there were originally on Glynburn Road at the end of the driveway to the house Erindale. Other nearby streets include Debney Drive, Newland Road, Torrens Avenue and he entered the House of Assembly in 1881 as member for Encounter Bay, and soon afterwards brought in a measure to build a north to south railway on the land grant system which was defeated. In June 1885 he became Treasurer of South Australia in the Downer ministry but, finding the strain of his duties too much for his health and he took much interest in the development of the River Murray and revived the question of the north-south railway.
He succeeded in getting a commission appointed to consider it. In two pamphlets, The Far North Country and Our Waste Lands, Newland gave an account of his journey, in 1889 he visited England and while there heard of the discovery of rich ore at Broken Hill. He had acquired an interest in the new field and this now became very valuable and he went to England again in 1893 and arranged for the publication of his book. It was released the year and was given a good reception by the critics
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The throwing stick or throwing club is one of the first weapons used by early humans and cultures all around the world. In essence, it is a stave or wooden club thrown as a projectile to hunt small game such as rabbits or waterfowl, in flight, it rotates rapidly, hitting the target with one of the ends, maiming or killing it. One difference between a stick and a javelin is in their shapes and lengths. A javelin is almost always a straight shaft with either a pointed tip or an attached to the front end. A throwing stick can be straight like a wooden shaft or curved like the boomerang. It became obsolete as slings and bows became more prevalent, except for on the Australian continent, Throwing sticks shaped like returning boomerangs are designed to fly straight to a target at long ranges. Their surfaces are shaped as airfoils, when tuned correctly they do not exhibit curved flight, but rather they fly on an extended straight flight path. Straight flight ranges greater than 100 meters distance have been reported by sources as well as in recent research.
There were some throwing sticks placed in the tombs of pharaohs, the throwing stick is a tool used in hunting small game and waterfowl. The Ancient Egyptians used throwing sticks to hunt ducks, as seen in wall paintings. The 18th dynasty Pharaoh Tutankhamun was a lover of duck hunting. Menceys, the kings of the ancient Guanches of the Canary Islands, the Aborigines of Australia used the boomerang. Its range was in excess of 100 meters and it could be wielded as a club or knife for attacking close kangaroo and emu by using it as a club. Some Native American tribes such as the Hopi, as well as all southern California tribes, utilized the throwing stick to hunt rabbits, other titles for the throwing stick are, rabbit stick, throwing club, killer stick, baton and kylie. The throwing stick can be used as a weapon in human combat, as a survival tool, the throwing stick is one of the most effective and easiest tools to obtain. Other than a weapon, it can be used as a tool for making fire-pits. A curved limb will suffice as a throwing stick, Ancient throwing sticks were made of hardwood with a weighted or curved end to one side to impart momentum so the stick stays straight and does not wobble in mid-flight.
Some throwing sticks and their variations are about 2 to 3 feet long pieces of thick hardwood, when they are thrown, they spin, creating the image of a sort of blurry disc
Dreamtime is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs. It was originally used by Francis Gillen, quickly adopted by his colleague Baldwin Spencer and thereafter popularised by A. P. Elkin and they were often distinct from gods as they did not control the material world and were not worshipped, but only revered. The term is based on a rendition of the indigenous word alcheringa, used by the Aranda people of Central Australia, william Stanner remarked, why the blackfellow thinks of dreaming as the nearest equivalent in English is a puzzle. It has been argued that the meaning is closer to eternal. By the 1980s, Dreamtime and the Dreaming had acquired their own currency in popular culture, the station-master and amateur ethnographer Francis Gillen first used the terms in an ethnographical report in 1896. With Baldwin Spencer Gillen, he published in 1899 a major work, in that work, they spoke of the Alcheringa as the name applied to the far distant past with which the earliest traditions of the tribe deal.
In the Arrernte tongue, the verb for to dream was altjirerama. The noun is the rare word altjirrinja, of which Spencer and Gillen gave a corrupted transcription. The native, they concluded, knows nothing of dreamtime as a designation of a period of their history. Related entities are known as Mura-mura by the Dieri and as Tjukurpa in Pitjantjatjara and this is because in Dreamtime an individuals entire ancestry exists as one, culminating in the idea that all worldly knowledge is accumulated through ones ancestors. Many Indigenous Australians refer to the Creation time as The Dreaming, the Dreamtime laid down the patterns of life for the Aboriginal people. Creation is believed to be the work of culture heroes who traveled across a land, creating sacred sites. In this way, songlines were established, some of which could travel right across Australia, the dreaming and travelling trails of the Spirit Beings are the songlines. The signs of the Spirit Beings may be of spiritual essence, physical remains such as petrosomatoglyphs of body impressions or footprints, Dreaming existed before the life of the individual begins, and continues to exist when the life of the individual ends.
Both before and after life, it is believed that this exists in the Dreaming and is only initiated into life by being born through a mother. The spirit of the child is culturally understood to enter the fetus during the fifth month of pregnancy. When the mother felt the move in the womb for the first time. Upon birth, the child is considered to be a special custodian of that part of their country and is taught the stories and songlines of that place, as Wolf states, A black fella may regard his totem or the place from which his spirit came as his Dreaming
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is Australias first university and is regarded as one of the leading universities. The university comprises 16 faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor, master, in 2011 it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students. The university is known as one of Australias sandstone universities. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty, the university has educated six prime ministers and 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices. Sydney has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars and it would take two attempts on Wentworths behalf, before the plan was finally adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, two years later, the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry, by 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university and this was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created, zoology, history, law and mental philosophy, the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities, prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College. In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University, in February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St Johns College to develop the Sydney Institute of Health and Medical Research.
This caused concern among some groups, who argued that it would interfere with scientific medical research, at the start of 2010, the university controversially adopted a new logo. It retains the same university arms, however it takes on a modern look. The original Coat of Arms from 1857 continues to be used for ceremonial and other formal purposes, concerns about public funding for higher education were reflected again in 2014 following the federal governments proposal to deregulate student fees. In order to enhance its competitiveness locally and internationally, the university has introduced plans to consolidate existing degrees to reduce the overall number of programs. In 2001, the University of Sydney chancellor, Dame Leonie Kramer, was forced to resign by the governing body. In 2005, the Public Service Association of New South Wales, action initiated by Spence to improve the financial sustainability of the university has alienated some students and staff