Bayble Island is an uninhabited island off the south coast of the Eye Peninsula of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Bayble Island lies at the southern end of Bayble Bay, it consists of two islands. The hamlets of Upper and Lower Bayble overlook the bay. Rats are thought to have arrived on the island, as to the Shiant Islands, from a shipwreck. Gannets and other seabirds can be seen on the island and diving into the surrounding waters
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
There is a Seaforth Island in the Whitsunday Islands of Queensland, AustraliaSeaforth Island is an uninhabited island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Unlike many other islands of the Outer Hebrides which are surrounded by open sea, Seaforth Island lies in a narrow fjord-like sea loch named Loch Seaforth, 8 kilometres from the open waters of The Minch. There are two different Gaelic names for the island. Mulag is from the Old Norse name Múli, which describes its geographical location, the other is after the family of Francis Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, who inherited the island in 1783; the island has poor soil. There are no census records indicating inhabitation in the recent past, although the loch area was the subject of border disputes in the 19th century. In 1851 these were resolved by the unusual decision to allocate the whole of Seaforth Island to both counties, Ross-shire and Inverness-shire, which at the time controlled Lewis and Harris respectively; this situation continued until the 1975 county reorganisation
Harris, Outer Hebrides
Harris is the southern and more mountainous part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Although not an island itself, Harris is referred to as the Isle of Harris, the former postal county and the current post town for Royal Mail postcodes starting HS3 or HS5. St Kilda, an uninhabited small archipelago, located 40 miles west-northwest of North Uist is considered part of the civil parish of Harris; the same is true for the remote uninhabited rock islet Rockall, 230 miles west of North Uist. According to the 2011 Census, there are 1,212 Gaelic speakers in Harris. Harris is most to be the island referred to as Adru on Ptolemy's map of the British Isles. In Old Norse, a Hérað was a type of administrative district, the name may derive from that. An alternative origin is the Norse Hærri, meaning "higher" - a reference to the high hills in comparison with the much flatter Lewis lying to the north. Most of the place names on Harris are Gaelicized Old Norse; the Gaelic name "Na Hearadh" was an earlier term for the Rinns of Islay.
Harris divides into northern and southern parts which are separated by West and East Loch Tarbert. These halves are joined by a narrow isthmus at the main settlement of Tarbert; the bedrock of Harris is Lewisian gneisses, which were laid down in the Precambrian period, interspersed with igneous intrusions. One of these intrusions forms the summit plateau of the mountain Roinebhal; the rock here is anorthosite, is similar in composition to rocks found in the mountains of the Moon. Harris is a part of historic Inverness-shire, was administered as such under older administrative divisions. In the 2001 census, Harris had a resident population of 1,916, it is part of the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland. North Harris, adjoining Lewis, contains Clisham, the highest mountain in the Outer Hebrides at 799 metres; the area is sparsely populated. Beyond Tarbert, the furthest settlement is Hushinish on the west coast. A bridge from the east coast links Harris to the island of Scalpay.
In March 2003 the 25,300-hectare North Harris Estate was purchased by the North Harris Trust, a development trust, on behalf of the local community. In April 2006 the Trust hosted the Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company conference "Community Energy: Leading from the Edge" in Tarbert. In early 2008 the Trust received planning consent for three 86 metre wind turbines to be located at Monan. In 2008 Mike Russell, the Scottish environment minister announced that the North Harris Trust had begun canvassing local opinion about a proposal to create Scotland's third national park in the area; the southern part of Harris is less mountainous, with numerous unspoilt, white sandy beaches on the west coast. Its main settlements are Rodel, known for its medieval kirk of St. Clement, the most elaborate surviving medieval church in the Hebrides after Iona Abbey, Leverburgh. A ferry sails from the latter to Berneray, an island off the coast of North Uist, to which it is joined by a causeway; the east coast of south Harris is known as the Bays.
The best known section called the "Golden Road" as it cost so much money to build, when it was built in 1897. It runs from Miavaig via Drinishader, Grosebay and Cluer to Stockinish. From Stockinish the road is the Bays and meanders through the coastal townships of Lickisto, Manish, Ardvay and Lingerbay; the beaches of Luskentyre and Scarista are amongst the most spectacular. From the former the island of Taransay, where the BBC Television series Castaway 2000 was recorded, is seen most from Harris. At Scarista the beach is a venue for kite buggying. Nearby the Harris Golf Club offers well kept greens and views of the hills, but there is no play on Sundays. Scarista is the birthplace of the author Finlay J. MacDonald, who wrote about growing up on Harris in the 1930s, his books: Crowdie and Cream and White and The Corncrake and the Lysander paint a vivid and humorous picture of Hebridean life. Tarbert is the main port and main settlement of Harris, with a population of about 550; the name Tarbert comes from the Norse tairbeart meaning "portage" or "isthmus".
It is located on an isthmus between West Loch Tarbert. The village has a ferry terminal, local tourist information and some small shops, including a Harris Tweed shop overlooking the main access road to the CalMac ferry terminal and a general grocery store; the island of Scalpay is located at the mouth of East Loch Tarbert. It was known for its fishing industry, though little of that remains; the island was linked to Harris when the Scalpay Bridge was opened in 1997, connecting Scalpay to the settlement of Kyles on Harris. Media attention has been drawn to angling on Harris, Tarbert in particular. Local fishermen have been targeting large Common Skate in the area and have had prolific catches from West Loch Tarbert, in autumn and winter. There is an application for the Scottish shore record of 183 pounds although a fish estimated at 204 pounds was landed; these catches have attracted the attention of the local and national press and sea angling's leading magazines. In common with many parts of the Highlands and Islands, Harris has numerous single-track roa
South Lewis, Harris and North Uist National Scenic Area
South Lewis and North Uist is a large national scenic area in the Western Isles of Scotland. It is one of 40 such areas in Scotland, which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development; the designated area covers 202,388 ha in total, of which 112,301 ha is on land, with a further 90,087 ha being marine, making it the largest of the NSAs in both total and marine area. The designated area includes the mountainous south west of Lewis, all of Harris, the Sound of Harris and the northern part of North Uist. National scenic areas are designated due to the scenic qualities of an area, however NSAs may well have other special qualities, for example related to culture, archaeology, geology or wildlife. Areas with such qualities may be protected via other national and international designations that overlap with the NSA designation. There are several Natura 2000 sites within the designated area of the NSA. Although the national scenic area designation provides a degree of additional protection via the planning process, there are no bodies equivalent to a national park authority, whilst local authorities can produce a management strategy for each one, only the three national scenic areas within Dumfries and Galloway have current management strategies.
Following the Second World War, a committee, chaired by Sir Douglas Ramsay, was established to consider preservation of the landscape in Scotland. The report, published in 1945 proposed. Accordingly, the government designated these areas as "national park direction areas", giving powers for planning decisions taken by local authorities to be reviewed by central government. Following a further review of landscape protection in 1978, additional areas, including the area of the current South Lewis and North Uist NSA, were identified as worthy of protection due to their landscape qualities. Accordingly, in 1981 the direction areas were replaced by the national scenic area designation, which were based on the 1978 recommendations and thus included this area; the defined area remains as mapped in 1978, but was redesignated under new legislation in 2010. Since this date there have been calls for further protection of the scenery of the area, although the Scottish Government rejected a proposal to create a national park on Harris in 2011.
In 2013 the Scottish Campaign for National Parks proposed seven areas deemed suitable for national park status, one of, Harris, but in September 2016 Roseanna Cunningham, the Cabinet Secretary for Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform told the Scottish Parliament that the Government had no plans to designate new national parks in Scotland and instead planned to focus on the two existing national parks. North Harris contains the highest peak in the Outer Hebrides. Steep-sided glens, with precipitous crags, have a mountainous character. Exposure and grazing prevent tree growth. Deep sea lochs in the east penetrate far into the hills; the east coast of Harris has many islets. The west coast has sandy beaches with machair. Rocky headlands, separating the bays, have been sculptured into stacks. Scattered islands lies in the Sound of Harris between North Uist. On North Uist the spectacular deep peatland supports a wide variety of birds; the settlement of Lochmaddy is a ferry terminal, a harbour for the creel fishing and is used for salmon farms.
There are four Special Protection Areas and five Special Areas of Conservation, within or overlapping with the NSA. The areas protected by these two Natura 2000 designations overlap, with four sites sharing both designations; the Grimersta river and loch system at Langavat in south Lewis is regarded as the best salmon system in the Western Isles and is protected as an SAC. It forms part of an SPA covering the peatlands of Lewis, protected due to the presence of breeding black-throated divers, golden eagles, golden plovers, greenshank and red-throated divers. Much of North Harris is protected as a SAC due the variety of heathland habitats; the area is protected as an SPA due to the presence of breeding pairs of golden eagles. The machair of North Uist is the second-largest area of machair in the Western Isles, differs from the machair of South Uist due to the fact that a high proportion of it has been traditionally cultivated or used for rough pasture, promoting a different ecosystem to that found further south.
It is protected as both an SAC and an SPA, with the SPA designation taking parts of the nearby islands of Berneray and Boreray. Loch nam Madadh is a unique fjardic sea loch that forms part of one of the most extensive and diverse water systems in Europe, combining both salt and fresh water. Loch nam Madadh supports an unusual combination of intertidal plants and animals, is protected as an SAC. In some of the lagoons, fresh water organisms grow in a layer just above salt water organisms. Mointeach Scadabhaigh is an area of blanket bog in South Uist, it is the UK's largest example of a type of blanket bog, rare in Britain, occurring at only two other sites. It is home to a productive breeding population of red- and black-throated divers, with the area hosting one of the highest-density populations of red-throated divers in the UK, it is protected as both an SAC and an SPA. The special qualities of the National S
Taransay is an island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. It was the host of the British television series Castaway 2000. Uninhabited since 1974, except for holidaymakers, Taransay is the largest island of Scotland that lacks a permanent population, it is one hectare larger than Scarba, uninhabited. Taransay lies 1.9 miles from Harris, separated by a stretch of sea called the Sound of Taransay. It is part of the civil parish of Harris and the Na h-Eileanan Siar council area of Scotland. Crossings between the two islands are dependent on calm weather and there are no harbours for large boats on either island. Taransay is 4 miles long, and, at its widest point, 3.1 miles across, with an area of 5.7 square miles Taransay is made up of two 750 feet heather-covered hills connected by a white sandy isthmus in the south of the island. It overlooks the bays of Luskyntyre and Seilibost bay to the east, with the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the bays are bordered with sandy beaches and machair dunes. The area is gneiss, with granite veins.
The highest point of the island is Ben Raah at 876 feet. The island hosts a variety of birds. In 2003/04, the population of American mink on the island were the subject of an eradication programme in order to protect the rare groundnesting birds. Taransay is however, noted for its flora, with an abundance of wild flowers growing on the island's machair grasslands; the Isle of Taransay was inhabited as early as 300 AD, considerably earlier. Home to Celtic pagans, Christianity was established on Taransay around 650 AD. In 900 AD, Taransay was taken over by Vikings. 1544 saw the Massacre of Taransay by the Morrisons of Lewis. Inhabitants from the island of Berneray retaliated against this, forcing the Morrisons to retreat to a rock where they were executed; the rock was called Sgeir Bhuailte, meaning "smitten rock". In 1549, Donald Monro wrote of "Tarandsay" that it was: ane ile of five myle lange, haffe myle braid, ane rough ile, with certain tounis, weil inhabit and manurit, it pertains to M’Cloyd of Harrey.
Taransay was once made up of three villages. Rent increases in 1835 caused a large decrease in the population of Taransay, made worse in 1883 by new orders that cotter households were no longer allowed to keep livestock or grow neither oats nor barley; the island was abandoned in 1942, re-inhabited. In 1961 there was only one family of five, the MacRaes living in the village of Paible, who departed in 1974. Taransay remained uninhabited until 2000 when the island was revived in order to host the television programme Castaway 2000. During the uninhabited years, the island had been used as a sheep-farm, run from the Harris mainland. Evidence that Vikings settled on the island can be derived from its name, as the word is an Old Norse translation of "the Isle of Taran"; the island was most named after the Irish Saint Ternan, although another theory, reported by Saint Adomnan of Iona, suggests that Taran may have been the son of a Noble Pictish family. The village of Paible had two ancient chapels.
The former was used for the burial of women, the latter for men. A traditional myth on the island suggests that if this was reversed, the dead would rise and the bodies would be disinterred; the remains of Saint Keith's chapel can still be identified on the ground, but the site of Saint Taran's was destroyed by coastal erosion some time in the late 1970s. The island was bought in 1967 by John MacKay, for £11,000. In 2011 his sons Angus and Norman MacKay of the neighbouring island of Harris, placed the island up for sale with an asking price of £2.2 million. Having visited the island several times after the series "Castaway" finished, including spending his honeymoon there, Ben Fogle expressed an interest in purchasing the island in order to turn it into a wildlife reserve, but he was unsuccessful; the island was sold to "a local family" within two weeks of being placed up for sale. Taransay became well known following the BBC show Castaway; the show, organised by Lion Television, featured a group of 36 people marooned on the island for a year starting January 1, 2000.
Castaway was broadcast internationally, including to audiences in Germany, Canada, Denmark and New Zealand. The show reached nine million viewers at its peak; the cast was made up of volunteers selected from 4000 applicants. They lived in temporary accommodation built for the show, known as'pods', which were based in the former village of Paible. Existing buildings on the island included a farmhouse called the Mackay house and a school chalet, which were renovated for the show. Since 2004 these have been available as self-catering holiday cottages for tourist use. According to the BBC website, the aim of the project was to "create a new society for the new millennium". Unlike the original inhabitants of the island, the "castaways" had access to electricity and a water supply, as well as limited modern conveniences. Of the 36 who joined the show, 29 remained on the island for the whole year, including Ben Fogle who went on to be a presenter for a number of BBC shows, including Countryfile; the show was reported to be a social experiment, focusing on.
The pods where the "castaways"
The Highland Clearances were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands in the period 1750 to 1860. In the first phase, clearance resulted from agricultural improvement, driven by the need for landlords to increase their income; this involved the enclosure of the open fields managed on the shared grazing. In the North and West of the region, these were replaced with large scale pastoral farms stocked with sheep, on which much higher rents were paid, with the displaced tenants getting alternative tenancies in newly created crofting communities, where they were expected to be employed in industries such as fishing, quarrying or the kelp industry; the reduction in status from farmer to crofter was one of the causes of resentment from these changes.:212The second phase involved overcrowded crofting communities from the first phase that had lost the means to support themselves, through famine and/or collapse of industries that they had relied on, as well as continuing population growth.
This is when "assisted passages" were common, when landowners paid the fares for their tenants to emigrate. Tenants who were selected for this had, in practical terms, little choice; the Highland Potato Famine struck towards the end of this period, giving greater urgency to the process. Agriculture in the Highlands had always been marginal, with famine a recurrent risk for pre-clearance communities.:47-48 Nevertheless, population levels increased through the 18th and early 19th century. This increase continued through nearly all of the time of the clearances, peaking in 1851, at around 300,000.:400 Emigration was part of Highland history before and during the clearances, reached its highest level after them.:2 During the first phase of the clearances, emigration could be considered a form of resistance to the loss of status being imposed by a landlord’s social engineering.:9The eviction of tenants went against dùthchas, the principle that clan members had an inalienable right to rent land in the clan territory.
This was never recognised in Scottish law. It was abandoned by clan chiefs as they began to think of themselves as commercial landlords, rather than as patriarchs of their people – a process that arguably started with the Statutes of Iona; the clan members continued to rely on dùthchas. This different viewpoint was an inevitable source of grievance.:35-36, 39, 60, 300 The actions of landlords varied. Some did try to delay or limit evictions to their financial cost; the Countess of Sutherland genuinely believed her plans were advantageous for those resettled in crofting communities and could not understand why tenants complained. A few landlords displayed complete lack of concern for evicted tenants. There is a substantial distance between the understanding of the Highland clearances held by historians and the popular view of these events; the subject was ignored by academic historians until the publication of a book by the journalist John Prebble in 1963.:1-13 However, a substantial body of academic work now exists on the subject, to the extent that there is an argument that the balance of work in Scottish history is excessively tilted toward the Highlands.:9 The definition of "clearance" is debatable.
The term was not in common use during much of the clearances. However, by 1843, "clearance" had become a general word to describe the activities of Highland landlords, its use was ambiguous, as for some it meant only the displacement of large numbers of people from a single place at one time. For others, the eviction of a single tenant at the end of a lease could be termed "clearance". Eric Richards suggests that current usage is broad, meaning "any displacement of occupiers by Highland landlords", he adds that it can apply to both large and small evictions, includes voluntary or forced removal and instances involving either emigration or resettlement nearby.:6-8 T. M. Devine takes the view that "clearance" has a broader meaning now than when it was used in the 19th century.:12 The first phase of the Highland Clearances was part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution but happened than the same process in the Scottish Lowlands. Scottish agriculture in general modernised much more than in England and, to a large extent, elsewhere in Europe.
The growing cities of the Industrial Revolution presented an increased demand for food. Those working in this system lived in townships or bailtean. Under the run rig system, the open fields were divided into equivalent parts and these were allocated, once a year, to each of the occupiers, who worked their land individually. With no individual leases or ownership of plots of land, there was little incentive to improve it. Nor, with common grazing, could an individual owner improve the quality of his stock.:27 Enclosure of the common lands and the run rig fields was a method of improvement. More there was a greater change in land use: the replacement of mixed farming wi