The Young Men's Christian Association, sometimes regionally called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, with more than 64 million beneficiaries from 120 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 by Sir George Williams in London and aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body and spirit". From its inception, it grew and became a worldwide movement founded on the principles of muscular Christianity. Local YMCAs deliver projects and services focused on youth development through a wide variety of youth activities, including providing athletic facilities, holding classes for a wide variety of skills, promoting Christianity, humanitarian work. YMCA globally operates on a federation model, with each independent local YMCA voluntarily affiliated to their national organizations; the national organizations, in turn, are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. With regard to the history and purpose of the founding, this "organization and its female counterpart were established to provide low-cost housing in a safe Christian environment for rural young men and women journeying to the cities."
It was associated with the movement of young people to cities to work. The YMCA "combined preaching in the streets and the distribution of religious tracts with a social ministry. Philanthropists saw them as places for wholesome recreation that would preserve youth from the temptations of alcohol and prostitution and that would promote good citizenship." The YMCA was founded by three men, led by George Williams, a London draper, typical of the young men drawn to the cities by the Industrial Revolution. His co-founders included Rev John Stewart FEIS who served as the association's first Secretary under Williams' chairmanship; the three were concerned about the lack of healthy activities for young men in major cities. Williams's idea grew out of meetings he held for prayer and Bible-reading among his fellow-workers in a business in the city of London, on 6 June 1844, he founded the first YMCA in London with the purpose of "the improving of the spiritual condition of young men engaged in the drapery and other trades."
By 1851, there were YMCAs in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United States. In 1855, 99 YMCA delegates from Europe and North America met in Paris at the First World Conference of YMCAs, held before the 1855 Paris World Exposition of the same year, they discussed joining together in a federation to enhance cooperation amongst individual YMCA societies. This marked the beginning of the World Alliance of YMCAs; the conference adopted a common mission for all present and future national YMCAs. Its motto was taken from the Bible, "That they all may be one". Other ecumenical bodies, such as the World YWCA, the World Council of Churches, the World Student Christian Federation have reflected elements of the Paris Basis in their founding mission statements. In 1865 The Fourth World Conference of YMCAs, held in Germany, affirmed the importance of developing the whole individual in spirit and body; the concept of physical work through sports, a new concept for the time, was recognized as part of this "muscular Christianity".
Two themes resonated during the council: the need to respect the local autonomy of YMCA societies, the purpose of the YMCA: to unite all young, male Christians for the extension and expansion of the Kingdom of God. The former idea is expressed in the preamble: The delegates of various Young Men's Christian Associations of Europe and America, assembled in Conference at Paris, the 22nd August, 1855, feeling that they are one in principle and in operation, recommend to their respective Societies to recognize with them the unity existing among their Associations, while preserving a complete independence as to their particular organization and modes of action, to form a Confederation of secession on the following fundamental principle, such principle to be regarded as the basis of admission of other Societies in future; the YMCA was influential during the 1870s and 1930s, during which times they most promoted "evangelical Christianity in weekday and Sunday services, while promoting good sportsmanship in athletic contests in gyms and swimming pools."
In this period, continuing on through the 20th century, the YMCA had "become interdenominational and more concerned with promoting morality and good citizenship than a distinctive interpretation of Christianity." Today the YMCA is more focused on their families to exercise and be healthy. In 1878, World Alliance of YMCAs offices were established in Switzerland. In 1900, North American YMCAs, in collaboration with the World Alliance, set up centres to work with emigrants in European ports, as millions of people were leaving for the USA. In 1880, the YMCA became the first national organization to adopt a strict policy of equal gender representation in committees and national boards, with Norway being the country that first adopted it. In 1885, Camp Baldhead, the first residential camp in the United States and North America, was established by A. Sanford and Sumner F. Dudley, both of whom worked for the YMCA; the camp located near Orange Lake in New Jersey, moved to Lake Wawayanda in Sussex County the following year, to the shore of Lake Champlain near Westport, New York, in 1891.
St. Patrick's Church (Eau Claire, Wisconsin)
St. Patrick's Church is a historic Catholic church built in 1885 in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 for its architectural significance. St. Patrick's parish was established in the 1850s by missionaries from Chippewa Falls, with a frame church built on N. Barstow Street in 1858; the parish added a school in 1870. In 1875 some of the German-speaking families split off to form Sacred Heart Church. In 1880 St. Patrick's bought the current lot at the corner of Fulton and Oxford, dedicating their new church building in 1882, but it burned in 1884, before they could finish the brick veneer. In the next year the current church was built on the same site; the current church was designed by Abraham M. Radcliffe - a brick building with a gable roof and three matched doors across the front. Above the doors are a wall recesses holding statues. To each side of the front door stands a square tower - the right tower is four stages and the left three; the towers and the side walls are buttressed.
On the exterior, Radcliffe mixes styles, with narrow lancet windows suggesting Gothic Revival style, yet some round arches suggest Romanesque Revival. An old postcard suggests that the right tower was once larger, topped with a steeple much taller than the current tower. Edward Henneberry and Cornelius Webster oversaw the stonework, Henneberry the woodwork. Built at the height of the log drives on the Chippewa River, St. Patrick's is the oldest surviving church building in Eau Claire
Solanus Casey – born Bernard Francis Casey was an American Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin. He was known during his lifetime as a wonderworker, for his great faith, for his abilities as a spiritual counselor - but for his great attention to the sick, for whom he celebrated special Masses; the friar came to be revered in Detroit where he resided. He was a noted lover of the violin, a trait he shared with his eponym, Saint Francis Solanus, his cause for beatification commenced over a decade after his death, he received the title of Venerable in mid-1995. As a miraculous healing attributed to him was approved by Pope Francis in mid-2017, he was beatified in Detroit at Ford Field on November 18, 2017. Bernard Francis Casey was born on November 25, 1870 on a farm in the town of Oak Grove, Pierce County, the sixth of sixteen children born to Bernard James Casey and Ellen Elizabeth Murphy, Irish immigrants, he was baptized on December 18, 1870. He contracted diphtheria in 1878, which permanently damaged his voice and left it wispy and impaired.
The family moved to Hudson, Wisconsin. In 1878, he began school at Saint Mary's, but this was cut short in October 1882 when the family relocated again, to Burkhardt in Saint Croix County. In 1887, he left the farm for a series of jobs in his home state and in nearby Minnesota, working as a lumberjack, a hospital orderly, a guard in the Minnesota state prison, a street car operator in Superior, his time as a prison guard saw. At first, he desired married life, but the mother of a girl to whom he had proposed sent her off to a boarding school. While working at his last job, he witnessed a brutal murder which caused him to evaluate his life and his future. Driving his car in a rowdy section of Superior, he saw a drunken sailor stab a woman to death, he acted on a call he felt to the priesthood. Due to his limited formal education, he enrolled at Saint Francis High School Seminary – the minor seminary of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee – in January 1891, hoping to become a diocesan priest. Classes there were taught in either Latin, neither of which he knew.
In due course, he was advised that, due to his academic limitations, he should consider joining a religious order if he wanted to become a priest. There, he could be ordained as a "simplex" priest, who could preside at a Mass but would not have the faculties for public preaching or hearing confessions, he returned home before deciding to make his application. While reflecting before a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary, he heard her distinct voice telling him to "go to Detroit", he applied to the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin in that city, was received into it on January 14, 1897. He was given the religious name of "Solanus" after Saint Francis Solanus, he made his vows on July 21, 1898. He struggled through his studies, but received ordination to the priesthood on July 24, 1904 from Archbishop Sebastian Messmer at Saint Francis of Assisi Church in Milwaukee; because he had not performed well enough in his studies, he was indeed ordained as a "simplex" priest. He celebrated his first Mass on July 31, 1904 with his family present.
He served for two decades in a succession of friaries in New York. His first assignment was at Sacred Heart Friary in Yonkers, he was transferred to New York City, where he first served at Saint John's Church next to Penn Station and at Our Lady Queen of Angels in Harlem. He was recognized as an inspiring speaker. In August 1924, he was transferred to the Saint Bonaventure convent in Detroit, where he worked until 1945. During this time, he served as the simple porter; each Wednesday afternoon, he conducted well-attended services for the sick, through these services, he became known for his great compassion and the amazing results of his consultations with visitors. People considered him instrumental in other blessings, he loved to kneel before the Eucharist in the quiet of the night. Casey was a violinist and he loved to play Irish songs for his fellow friars during recreation time, but he had a terrible singing voice, attributed to his childhood speech impediment. Other friars could not refrain from rolling their eyes or coughing, so he would excuse himself politely and sneak down to the chapel to entertain an invisible audience at the tabernacle.
The friar fasted, but ate enough. Until his late seventies, he was able to join the younger religious in games of tennis and volleyball, went jogging on occasion. In 1946, in failing health and suffering from eczema over his entire body, he was transferred to the Capuchin novitiate of Saint Felix in Huntington, where he lived until a 1956 hospitalization in Detroit. In 1957, he was rushed to the hospital for food poisoning, upon his release, friars noted that he was walking much slower and scratching his legs; the doctors diagnosed him with erysipelas or psoriasis, beyond treatment, the doctors considered amputation but the ulcers began to heal. On July 2, 1957, he was readmitted to the hospital for good due to the deterioration of his skin, he was put on oxygen. His sister, came to visit him when his relatives were notified of the seriousness of his condition, he died from erysipelas at 11:00am on July 31, 1957, at Saint John Hospital in Detroit, with only his nurse at his side. A commemorative plaque was placed outside th
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Notre Dame Church and Goldsmith Memorial Chapel
Notre Dame Church and Goldsmith Memorial Chapel is a historic church located in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. On April 7, 1983, the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places, it is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of La Crosse. The church was completed in 1872. Goldsmith Memorial Chapel was added in 1894; the church underwent other renovations in 1887 and again from 1904 to 1906
Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe
Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe is a Catholic shrine located in La Crosse, Wisconsin. It is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Guadalupe; the Construction of the Shrine Church began on May 13, 2004, with a dedication on July 31, 2008. The 100-acre grounds include a visitors' center and outdoor devotional areas such as a rosary walk, Stations of the Cross, a votive candle chapel; the shrine was founded and dedicated by Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke. Mass and the sacrament of Penance are celebrated daily by Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate; the shrine was an inspiration of Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, while he was Bishop of La Crosse, who wanted to establish a place of lasting worship for Roman Catholics to go on pilgrimage to in the Diocese of La Crosse. On September 28, 1999 a letter was sent for consideration to the Vatican, on November 11, 1999 the Holy See gave the project its approval and blessing. 70 acres of woodland near the south end of La Crosse were donated by Robert and Lucille Swing.
Groundbreaking began on June 17, 2001. The first phase of construction included a Pilgrim Center, which features an orientation room, information desk, the Flores Mariae gift shop, the Culina Mariana restaurant, the Mother of Good Counsel Votive Candle Chapel; this phase was completed and dedicated December 12, 2002. The second phase included an outdoor stations of the cross, a devotional area to St. Joseph the Workman and a rosary walk, in addition to construction on the Shrine Church. Groundbreaking for the church was on May 13, 2004; the Stations of the Cross were dedicated December 9, 2004, followed by the devotional area to St. Joseph the Workman on September 21, 2007 and the rosary walk on December 8, 2007. Excavation for the third phase, the Memorial to the Unborn, began on October 29, 2007. On July 31, 2008 the Shrine Church was dedicated; the dedication Mass was presided over by Burke, who by had been named Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, having served as Archbishop of Saint Louis and before that as Bishop of La Crosse, who would be named a Cardinal in 2010.
Burke was joined by Cardinals Justin Francis Rigali of Philadelphia, who had served as Archbishop of Saint Louis before Burke was named as his successor, Francis Eugene George of Chicago, the closest cardinalatial see to La Crosse. The ceremony included an honor guard made up of members of the local area Knights of Columbus and Knights and Ladies of the Holy Sepulchre. In attendance were over 100 priests, members of the St. Juan Diego Guild and Marian Catechist Apostolate; the Memorial to the Unborn was completed on December 12, 2008 and was dedicated by Archbishop Burke. The interior of the Shrine Church was designed by Duncan G. Stroik, in collaboration with River Architects; the architecture is in a classical style, one of the first Catholic structures to be designed in such a way in 50 years. The art work inside the Shrine Church and around the grounds was a collaboration of many artists and includes a variety of styles. A fresco inside the narthex inside the main entrance painted by Anthony Visco is titled “Visions of Guadalupe.”
The images are of the apparitions of Mary to Juan Diego from the time of his approach to the hill of Tepeyac until the time of the healing of his uncle. Surrounding the outside the fresco are images of workers of the faith. On the aisles inside the church are six paintings of saints, five of whom lived in the 20th century: Saint Peregrine Laziosi, Saint Gianna Beretta Molla, Blessed Miguel Pro, Saint Therese of Lisieux were painted by Neilson Carlin, Saint Faustina and Divine Mercy and Saint Maria Goretti by Noah Buchanan. There are three paintings by Brett Edenton in the lower narthex of the church that depict Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli, Venerable Bishop Frederic Baraga, Blessed Solanus Casey; the many sculptures inside and outside the church were sculpted in Italy of Carrara marble. Outside the church above the entrance is a statue of Jesus the Good Shepherd, to his right St. Peter, to his left St. Paul. In the middle of the plaza is a statue of Juan Diego showing his tilma to Bishop Zumárraga.
Inside the church are statues in each of the transepts. The south transept holds statues of Juan Diego. In the north transept are statues of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and of St. Jesus; the sanctuary of the church contains a mosaic of Our Lady of Guadalupe, created by The Vatican Mosaic Studio. The mosaic measures 6 ft in width. Blessed Miguel Pro - in the altar of the church and in the side-aisle shrine Saint Kateri Tekakwitha - in the altar of the church Saint Therese of Lisieux- in the side-aisle shrine under the painting by Neilson Carlin Saint Peregrine Laziosi - in the side-aisle shrine under the painting by Neilson Carlin Saint Maria Goretti - in the side-aisle shrine Saint Faustina - in the side-aisle shrine Saint Gianna Beretta Molla - in the side-aisle shrine The Rosary Walk has four alcoves, with each alcove made up of five blue tiles, each depicting a mystery of the rosary; the alcoves were designed by Anthony Visco. The Rosary Walk was dedicated December 8, 2007; this area includes a fountain and a bronze relief designed by Anthony Brankin showing Saint Joseph the Workman instructing Jesus.
Background images depict Archbishop Burke, founder of the shrine, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Swing, donors of the land; the Saint Joseph the Workman Devotional Area was dedicated September 21, 2007. This secluded devotional area features a larger-than-life-sized bronze statue of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, Lily of the Mohawks, by artist Cynthia Hitschler, it was dedicated July 30, 2008. The work depicts the Saint in native buckskin in a natural