A bogie is a chassis or framework that carries a wheelset, attached to a vehicle—a modular subassembly of wheels and axles. Bogies take various forms in various modes of transport. A bogie may remain attached or be detachable. While bogie is the preferred spelling and first-listed variant in various dictionaries and bogy are used. A bogie in the UK, or a railroad truck, wheel truck, or truck in North America, is a structure underneath a railway vehicle to which axles are attached through bearings. In Indian English, bogie may refer to an entire railway carriage. In South Africa, the term bogie is alternatively used to refer to a freight or goods wagon; the first standard gauge British railway to build coaches with bogies, instead of rigidly mounted axles, was the Midland Railway in 1874. Bogies serve a number of purposes: Support of the rail vehicle body Stability on both straight and curved track Improve ride quality by absorbing vibration and minimizing the impact of centrifugal forces when the train runs on curves at high speed Minimizing generation of track irregularities and rail abrasionUsually, two bogies are fitted to each carriage, wagon or locomotive, one at each end.
Another configuration is used in articulated vehicles, which places the bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons. Most bogies have two axles. Heavy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars; the train floor is at a level above the bogies, but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies, such as for a bilevel rail car to increase interior space while staying within height restrictions, or in easy-access, stepless-entry, low-floor trains. Key components of a bogie include: The bogie frame: This can be of inside frame type where the main frame and bearings are between the wheels, or of outside frame type where the main frame and bearings are outside the wheels. Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. Common types are coil springs and rubber airbags. At least one wheelset, composed of an axle with bearings and a wheel at each end; the bolster, the main crossmember, connected to the bogie frame through the secondary suspension.
The railway car is supported at the pivot point on the bolster. Axle box suspensions absorb shocks between the bogie frame; the axle box suspension consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up-and-down movement, sliders to prevent lateral movement. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. Brake equipment: Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against the tread of the wheel, disc brakes and pads. In powered vehicles, some form of transmission electrically powered traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter; the connections of the bogie with the rail vehicle allow a certain degree of rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot, with side bearers preventing excessive movement. More modern, bolsterless bogie designs omit these features, instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to permit rotational movement; the Commonwealth bogie was manufactured by the English Steel Corporation under licence from the Commonwealth Steel Company in Illinois, United States.
Fitted with SKF or Timken bearings, it was introduced in the late 1950s for all BR Mark 1 vehicles. It was a heavy, cast-steel design weighing about 6.5 long tons, with sealed roller bearings on the axle ends, avoiding the need to maintain axle box oil levels. The leaf springs were replaced by coil springs running vertically rather than horizontally; the advanced design gave a better ride quality than the BR1. The side frame of the bogie was of bar construction, with simple horn guides attached, allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them; the axle boxes had a cast-steel equaliser bar resting on them. The bar had two steel coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs; the effect was to allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both springs to soften shocks from either axle. The bogie had a conventional bolster suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank; the B4 bogie was introduced in 1963. It was a fabricated steel design versus cast iron and was lighter than the Commonwealth, weighing in at 5 long tons.
It had a speed rating of 100 mph. Axle to spring connection was again fitted with roller bearings. However, now two coil springs. Only a small number of Mark 1 stock was fitted with the B4 bogie from new, it being used on the Mark 1 only to replace worn BR1 bogies; the British Rail Mark 2 coach, carried the B4 bogies from new. A heavier-duty version, the B5, was standard on Southern Region Mk1-based EMUs from the 1960s onwards; some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end, a B4 under the seating
British Rail railbuses
British Rail produced a variety of railbuses, both as a means of acquiring new rolling stock cheaply, to provide economical services on lightly-used lines. Railbuses are a lightweight type of railcar designed for passenger transport on little-used railway lines; as the name suggests, they share many aspects of their construction with a bus having a bus body, or a modified bus body, having four wheels on a fixed wheelbase, instead of on bogies. Some, but not all, of the units have been equipped for operation as diesel multiple units. In the late 1950s, British Rail tested a series of small railbuses, produced by a variety of manufacturers, for about £12,500 each; these proved to be economical, but somewhat unreliable. The lines they worked on were closed during the Beeching Cuts and, being non-standard, they were all withdrawn in the mid-1960s, before being allocated TOPS classifications. In addition to these railbuses, BR ordered three for departmental service; the full list of passenger and departmental units is set out below.
Engines79958/59, Gardner 6HLW of 112 bhp at 1,700 rpm 79960–62/64, Büssing, 150 bhp at 1,900 rpm 79963, AEC A220X 79965–69, Meadows 6HDT500 of 105 bhp at 1,800 rpm 79970–74, AEC, 150 bhp 79975–79, AEC, 150 bhp British Rail returned to the idea of railbuses from the mid-1970s, a prototype four wheel vehicle was developed jointly by British Leyland and the British Rail Research Division. A number of single and two-car railbuses were tested, in co-operation with Leyland; the first three single car prototypes were Leyland National bus bodies mounted on a modified HSFV1 four wheeled rail chassis. The prototype two-car railbus was allocated Class 140 and is dealt with on that page, but the prototype single car railbuses were not classified and are set out in the table below: In 1978 tests were carried out with a modified double ended Leyland National bus body placed on an unpowered wagon chassis derived from HSFV1, this was LEV1. Whilst in its unpowered state this vehicle never left the Railway Technical Centre in Derby.
In 1979 a powertrain was added to LEV1, the engine being a Leyland 510 diesel, the transmission a mechanical type with self-changing gears. Though some of these vehicles carried numbers in the departmental coach series, they were used in ordinary passenger service. LEV1 was tested in passenger service at first in East Anglia, elsewhere, before being temporarily exported to the USA in the early 1980s. LEV1 was withdrawn and transferred to the National Railway Museum in 1987, it was until at the North Norfolk Railway where it underwent restoration. In 2012 it was moved to the NRM's Shildon site. LEV2 was built for the USA at 15.3 m was a stretched version of LEV1 and sometimes known as R3. Following export around 1981 it was used on an experimental extension of MBTA commuter service to Concord, New Hampshire; when that experiment was ended in 1981 the LEV2 was sold to Amtrak for use on the Northeast Corridor, but it was put out of service after an accident at a crossing. It was subsequently sold to the Steamtown Museum in Scranton, Pennsylvania for use as a shuttle, but was damaged during repair and sold for scrap.
It was bought from the scrap dealer by the Durbin & Greenbrier Valley Railroad, a tourist railroad in West Virginia, sold to the Connecticut Trolley Museum, where it remains to this day. The BR version of R3 was run in service on BR for a few years before being sold to Northern Ireland Railways in late 1982, being converted to 5 ft 3 in Irish gauge. R3 known as RB003, was withdrawn in 1990 and preserved at the Ulster Transport Museum in 2001 at the Downpatrick & County Down Railway. Another version, RB004 was built at Derby in 1984; the body was built at the Leyland plant at Workington and BREL Derby C&W were responsible for the underframe and final assembly. This is preserved in running order at the Waverley Route Heritage Association site at Whitrope, yet another BREL-Leyland product from c1984, RB002, was exported as a demonstrator, going to the USA and Canada Denmark and Sweden. Afterwards, the RB002 was used in the Netherlands and Germany for a demonstration of light rail vehicles on the defunct railway between Enschede and Gronau.
It returned to the UK, having gained the nickname, "The Denmark", was used as a classroom/office by BREL for a while and somehow it too ended up in Ireland. Its present location is believed to be at the now closed standard gauge Riverstown Old Corn Railway near Dundalk in Ireland but it is understood to be in a poor state of repair; these railbuses were sent abroad in the hope of gathering export orders. In addition, there was an experiment with a loco-hauled Leyland-built vehicle. A National bus-type body was placed on the 63-foot underframe from Mk1 BCK coach number 21234; this was numbered RDB 977091 and was run in normal service around the London Midland region alongside ordinary coaching stock until withdrawn as being unsuitable. The only direct connection with railbuses was the use of the same type of bus based body shell to reduce costs to a minimum; the coach is now preserved at the Mynydd Mawr Railway. The result of these tests was that British Rail ordered a series of two- and three-car Railbuses, which became known as Pacers and were allocated TOPS Classes 141–144.
The next generation of Sprinter units were bas
British Rail Class 140
The British Rail Class 140 was the prototype of the Pacer diesel multiple unit. Much of the bodywork was constructed using Leyland National bus components, with the exception of the cabs, between 1979 and 1981; the sole member of the class is at the Keith and Dufftown Railway. Based on the single car railbus prototypes, the class 140 was built to BR's stringent regulations regarding crashworthiness and resistance to end loading in 1980; this meant that it was much more substantial. The original traction power train consisted of a Leyland TL11 200 HP engine, a Self-Changing Gears mechanical automatic gearbox and a Gmeinder final drive unit on each car driving only one axle; the unit was built between 1979 and 1981, had a press launch in June 1981, toured the UK for trials and as a demonstration unit. During 1985, the unit was in use as a driver training vehicle. From September 1986, the set was allocated to Neville Hill. By 1994, prior to sale, the unit was kept at Neville Hill depot as a parts donor.
The Class 140 formed the basis of the design of the production Pacer sets of Class 141 introduced in 1984 and Class 142 introduced in 1985. The unit was purchased for preservation and collected from Leeds in February 1995; the sole member of the class, 140001, formed of cars 55500+55501, has been preserved and is at the Keith and Dufftown Railway This unit is at Dufftown Station. It is being restored to its former state by volunteers at the railway. Fox, Peter. Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2. Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580. Smith, R. I.. Class 140: The Past, The Present, The Future. Keith & Dufftown Railway Association. ISBN 0901845213. Bellass, Eddie. "'140' in the Highlands". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. Pp. 38–39. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. Haresnape, Brian. Diesel Multiple-Units: The Second Generation and DEMUs. British Rail Fleet Survey. 9. Ian Allan. Pp. 32–41. ISBN 9780711016040. OCLC 59997563. "'Pacer' prototype goes to Dufftown".
RAIL. No. 339. EMAP Apex Publications. 9–22 September 1998. P. 59. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699. Pictures of some of the early pacer units on test and in use
Kilmarnock is a large burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland with a population of 46,350, making it the 15th most populated place in Scotland and the second largest town in Ayrshire. The River Irvine runs through its eastern section, the Kilmarnock Water passes through it, giving rise to the name'Bank Street'; the first collection of work by Scottish poet Robert Burns, chiefly in the Scottish dialect, was published in Kilmarnock in 1786 by John Wilson and bookseller and became known as the Kilmarnnock Edition. The internationally distributed whisky brand Johnnie Walker originated in the town in the 19th century and until 2012 was still bottled and distilled in the town at the Johnnie Walker Hill Street plant. Protest and backing from the Scottish Government took place in 2009, after Diageo, the owner of Johnnie Walker announced plans to close the bottling plant in the town after 289 years; the economy of Kilmarnock today is dependent on skill force knowledge, with companies such as Vodafone and Teleperformance occupying a large part of the Rowallan Business Park Centre, home to Food Partners, a nationwide sandwich franchise.
Local property redevelopment and regeneration company, The KLIN Group occupies the former Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. offices in West Langland Street, Wabtec Rail Scotland operate a production factory for locomotives in the town centre and Utopia Computers, one of the UK's fastest growing computer companies have their headquarters and main site situated in Kilmarnock in High Glencairn Street. The bakery company, Brownings the Bakers, was established in 1945 in Kilmarnock, today, operates a large production plant at the town's Bonnyton Industrial Estate, with products being distributed across Scotland via chains such as Aldi and Scotmid; the local newspaper, the Kilmarnock Standard has main offices in the centre of the town with publications taking place each Thursday per week. Kilmarnock is home to Kilmarnock Academy, one of only two state schools in the world that have educated two Nobel Prize laureates, Alexander Fleming, who became known for his groundbreaking discovery of Penicillin in 1928, alongside John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr for his research and work into Nutrition as well as his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
He was the first President of the World Academy of Art and Science. In recent years, Kilmarnock has been used for musical acts and film locations. Rock band Biffy Clyro were formed in the town in a primary school in the mid-1990s; the 2001 film, Pyaar Ishq Aur Mohabbat was shot in the town. The name Kilmarnock comes from the Gaelic cill, the name of Saint Marnock or Mernoc, remembered in the name of Portmarnock in Ireland and Inchmarnock, it may come from the three Gaelic elements mo,'my', Ernán and the diminutive ag, giving Church of My Little Ernán. According to tradition, the saint founded a church there in the 7th century. There are 12 Church of Scotland congregations in the town, plus other denominations. In 2005, the Reverend David W. Lacy, minister of the town's Henderson Church, was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; the core of the early town appears to have lain around what is now the Laigh Kirk, although the oldest parts of the current building are no earlier than the 17th century, extending north and northwest.
In 1668 the town was destroyed by an accidental fire. About 120 families lost most of their possessions and were forced to live destitute in the fields surrounding the town; these tradespeople had no other way of making a living and had been driven to the edge of poverty by having troops stationed with them as part of the anti-Covenanter measures. Parish churches throughout Scotland collected money for the relief of these homeless citizens. A comparatively modest settlement until the Industrial Revolution, Kilmarnock extended from around 1800 onwards, requiring the opening of King Street, Portland Street, Wellington Street. Added was John Finnie Street, regarded as "one of the finest Victorian planned streets in Scotland." The Sandbed Street Bridge is the oldest known surviving bridge in the area. The Titchfield Street drill hall was completed in 1914. Kilmarnock, as part of the Kilmarnock and Loudoun parliamentary constituency, had long been considered a "safe seat" for the Scottish Labour Party, having been represented by a Labour MP since the establishment of the constituency in 1983.
However, in the 2015 General Election, for the first time since 1983, the seat changed hands from Labour to the Scottish National Party with the election of Alan Brown. The Member of Parliament for the Kilmarnock and Loudoun constituency area in the Westminster parliament is Kilmarnock-born Alan Brown. Brown defeated Labour candidate Cathy Jamieson with an overwhelming majority with Brown receiving 30,000 votes with Jamieson only receiving 16,363; the member of the Scottish Parliament for Kilmarnock is Willie Coffey. In the Scottish Parliament, the town, as part of the Kilmarnock and Irvine Valley constituency, is represented by Willie Coffey who has represented the seat since the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary elections. Similar to the voting pattern shown at UK General Elections, in the Scottish Parliament elections, Kilmarnock had always been seen as a safe seat for Labour with an MSP representing the area since the parliament's re-establishment in 1999. Kilmarnock is the home of the East Ayrshire Council Chambers and offices situated on the London Road, thus making Kilmarnock the main town within East Ayrshire.
In local counci
Great Western Railway (train operating company)
First Greater Western Limited, trading as Great Western Railway, is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup that operates the Greater Western railway franchise. It manages 197 stations and its trains call at over 270. GWR operates long-distance inter-city services along the Great Western Main Line to and from South West England and South Wales, as well as the Night Riviera sleeper service between London and Penzance, it provides commuter/outer-suburban services from its London terminus at Paddington to West London, the Thames Valley region including parts of Berkshire, parts of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. GWR was due to begin operating the Heathrow Express service under a management contract on behalf of Heathrow Airport Holdings from August 2018; the company began operating in February 1996 as Great Western Trains, as part of the privatisation of British Rail. In December 1998 it became First Great Western after FirstGroup bought out its partners' shares in Great Western Holdings.
In April 2006, First Great Western, First Great Western Link and Wessex Trains were combined into the new Greater Western franchise and brought under the First Great Western brand. The company adopted its current name and a new livery in September 2015 to coincide with the start of an extended franchise, due to run until April 2020; as part of the privatisation of British Rail, the Great Western InterCity franchise was awarded by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising to Great Western Holdings in December 1995 and began operations on 4 February 1996. Great Western Holdings was owned by some former British Rail FirstBus and 3i. In March 1998, FirstGroup bought out its partners' stakes to give it 100% ownership. In December 1998, the franchise was rebranded as First Great Western. On 1 April 2004, First Great Western Link commenced operating the Thames Trains franchise, it operated local train services from Paddington to Slough, Henley-on-Thames, Didcot, Newbury, Worcester, Hereford and Stratford upon Avon.
It operated services from Reading to Gatwick Airport, from Reading to Basingstoke. On 1 April 2006, the Great Western, Great Western Link and Wessex Trains franchises were combined into a new Greater Western franchise. FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for this new franchise. On 13 December 2005, it was announced. First planned to subdivide its services into three categories based on routes. Following feedback from staff and stakeholders, the decision was taken to re-brand and re-livery all services as'First Great Western'. In May 2011, FirstGroup announced that it had decided not to take up the option to extend its franchise beyond the end of March 2013. FirstGroup stated that, in the light of the £1bn plan to electrify the Great Western route from London via Bristol to Cardiff, it wanted to try to negotiate a longer-term deal. CEO Tim O'Toole said: "We believe we are best placed to manage these projects and capture the benefits through a longer-term franchise."By not taking up the option to extend its original franchise contract for a further three years, FirstGroup avoided having to pay £826.6m to the government.
In March 2012 Arriva, FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for the new franchise. The winner was expected to be announced in December 2012, with the new franchisee taking over in April 2013; the ITT ran from the end of July until October 2012. The winner would have been announced in March 2013, taken on the franchise from 21 July 2013 until the end of July 2028; the new franchise would include the introduction of new Intercity Express Trains, capacity enhancements and smart ticketing. The award of the franchise was again delayed in October 2012, while the Department for Transport reviewed the way rail franchises are awarded. In January 2013, the government announced that the current competition for the franchise had been terminated, that FirstGroup's contract had been extended until October 2013. A two-year franchise extension until September 2015 was agreed in October 2013, subsequently extended until March 2019. A further extension to April 2019 was granted in March 2015.
The refurbishment of first class carriages in 2014 included interiors that featured a new GWR logo and no First branding. The whole company was rebranded as Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015 and introduced a green livery in recognition of the former Great Western Railway; the new livery was introduced when HST interiors were refurbished, on sleeper carriages and Class 57/6 locomotives. Great Western Railway is the primary train operator in Devon, Somerset, Berkshire, Wiltshire and Oxfordshire. Great Western Railway operates commuter services between London and destinations such as Slough, Reading, Oxford, Bedwyn, Hereford and Banbury. There are services between Reading and Basingstoke. Trains run on various north-south routes from Cardiff and Worcester to Taunton, Salisbury, Southampton and Brighton. Many of these run via Bristol; the company runs trains on local routes including branch lines in Devon and Cornwall, such as the Looe, Newq
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907; the origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. Prior to Tehran being the capital of Iran Isfahan was the capital. Isfahan has a significant Armenian Population; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages.
In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia. In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population consisted of Iranians of all classes; the Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Ital
British Rail Class 142
The British Rail Class 142 is a class of Pacer diesel multiple-unit passenger trains used in the United Kingdom. 96 units were built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Derby Litchurch Lane Works between 1985 and 1987. They were a development of the earlier Class 141 which were introduced in 1984; the unit's body is based on that of the original Leyland National bus, many fixtures and fittings of the bus can be found on the units. Each unit has a seating capacity of any number between 121 passengers per two-car set. In theory there should be 121 seats per unit. However, many units have had seats removed to provide additional space for wheelchair access; the same engines and mechanical transmissions were used as on Class 141, as the same double-folding external doors. Each car has a fuel capacity of 125 gallons. Excessive flange squeal on tight curves has been a problem on many routes operated by 142s, caused by the long wheelbase and lack of bogies; the rough ride which can result has led to the units being nicknamed Nodding Donkey.
The 142s were known as "Skippers" when they were allocated to Cornwall in the mid-1980s. They were transferred elsewhere when they proved unsuitable for the curved branch lines there; the class was upgraded in the early 1990s. All units carry a more powerful Cummins engine - 230 bhp per car, which equals 460 bhp per twin-car unit - and Voith two-stage hydraulic transmission, starting with a torque converter which switches to fluid coupling drive once the unit is up to 45 miles per hour; this has proven successful, although incidents have occurred, such as when a Northern Rail unit derailed en route from Blackpool to Liverpool in June 2009. From new, some units were painted according to the region. For example, the first 14 Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive sponsored units received GMPTE orange and brown the next 13 West Country based units were painted in a Great Western Railway inspired chocolate and cream livery and marketed as'Skippers'. Upon the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 142 Fleet was divided between North Western Trains in the North West and Northern Spirit in the North East.
Northern Spirit started its operations in 1997 and continued until 2000. At this point, parent company MTL ran into difficulties and the company was sold to Arriva, who renamed it as Arriva Trains Northern. In 1998 ATN swapped seven Class 142s for seven Class 150/2 units from Valley Lines. In October–December 2002 these were swapped for unrefurbished units 142072-77 and 080-3, as 142086-091 had only been refurbished by Northern Spirit and Valley Lines wished to start their own refurbishment from scratch. In 2004 First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern were merged into the Northern rail franchise, which inherited a combined fleet of 79 Class 142s. All 79 Class 142s are now painted in Northern Rail livery. Due to rising passenger numbers in the north of England, some units have been replaced by Sprinter trains. Five Class 142 Pacers, in service with First Great Western, were returned to Northern Rail in December 2008. Despite being built for branch-line stopping services, the Class 142s are used on urban commuter services in and out of cities like Liverpool, Sheffield and Newcastle and can be seen on longer-distance services of up to three hours including the 1632 Middlesbrough-Carlisle service.
All 79 passed with the Northern franchise to Arriva Rail North in April 2016. Class 142s have operated the following routes: Alderley Edge to Wigan North Western via Stockport Bishop Auckland to Saltburn Blackpool South to Colne Carlisle to Newcastle Carlisle to Lancaster via Barrow-in-Furness Crewe to Chester Crewe to Bolton Hexham to Middlesbrough Heysham Port to Lancaster Huddersfield to Knottingley Huddersfield to Manchester Victoria Huddersfield to Sheffield Huddersfield to Liverpool Lime Street Hull to York via Selby Hull to Bridlington Hull to Doncaster Leeds to Carlisle Leeds to Goole via Knottingley Leeds to Huddersfield Leeds to Morecambe Leeds to Sheffield via Penistone Leeds to Sheffield via Wakefield Westgate Leeds to York via Harrogate Lincoln Central to Sheffield Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Oxford Road via Warrington Central Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Victoria and Huddersfield Liverpool Lime Street to Warrington Bank Quay Manchester Piccadilly to Marple, Rose Hill Marple, New Mills Central Manchester Piccadilly to Hazel Grove Manchester Piccadilly to Sheffield via the Hope Valley line Manchester Piccadilly to Chester via Stockport and Knutsford Manchester Victoria to Kirkby and Southport Manchester Victoria to Leeds via Brighouse Manchester Victoria to Leeds via Halifax Manchester Victoria to Clitheroe via Bolton Manchester Victoria to Blackburn via Todmorden Manchester Victoria to Blackburn via Bolton Manchester Victoria to Rochdale via Oldham Manchester Victoria to Rochdale via Castleton Manchester Victoria to York MetroCentre and Newcastle to Morpeth and Chathill Middlesbrough to Whitby Preston to Ormskirk Sheffield to Cleethorpes via Gainsbrough Central Sheffield to Scunthorpe Stockport to Stalybridge Todmorden to Kirkby Wakefield Kirkgate to Selby via Huddersfield and Bradford Wrexham Central to Bidston (No longer used due to route now transferred to the