The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
A beach is a landform along a body of water. It usually consists of particles, which are often composed of rock, such as sand, shingle, pebbles. The particles comprising a beach are occasionally biological in origin, such as shells or coralline algae. Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as posts, changing rooms. They may have hospitality venues nearby, wild beaches, known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be valued for their beauty and preserved nature. Beaches typically occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits, although the seashore is most commonly associated with the word beach, beaches are found by lakes and alongside large rivers. Beach may refer to, small systems where rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents, the former are described in detail below, the larger geological units are discussed elsewhere under bars. There are several parts to a beach that relate to the processes that form.
The part mostly above water, and more or less influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm. The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline, the berm has a crest and a face — the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. At the very bottom of the face, there may be a trough, at some point the influence of the waves on the material comprising the beach stops, and if the particles are small enough, winds shape the feature. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune and these geomorphic features compose what is called the beach profile. The beach profile changes seasonally due to the change in energy experienced during summer and winter months. In temperate areas where summer is characterised by calmer seas and longer periods between breaking wave crests, the profile is higher in summer. The gentle wave action during this season tends to transport sediment up the beach towards the berm where it is deposited, onshore winds carry it further inland forming and enhancing dunes.
Conversely, the profile is lower in the storm season due to the increased wave energy. The removal of sediment from the berm and dune thus decreases the beach profile
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife, formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game, is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects the fish, plant. It is responsible for related recreational, scientific, and it works to prevent illegal poaching. The Game Act was passed in 1852 by the California State Legislature, the Game Act closed seasons in 12 counties for quail, partridge and wood ducks, elk and antelope. A second legislative action enacted the same year protected salmon runs, in 1854, the Legislature extended the act to include all counties of California. In 1860, protection controls were extended for trout, Lake Merritt was made the first game refuge of California in 1869, believed to be the first in the United States. In 1870, the Legislature, with the support of Governor Henry Huntly Haight, the Board stipulated that fish ladders were now required at state dams. The Board outlawed explosives or other substances, and created a $500 fine for violations.
In 1870, the first fish ladder in the state was built on a tributary of the Truckee River, over the next 30 years, the Board of Fish Commissioners were given authority over game in the state as well as establishing hunting and fishing licenses. In 1909, the Board of Fish Commissioners changed its name to the Fish, the Division of Fish and Game was established in 1927, set up within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1951, the Reorganization Act elevated the Division of Fish and Game to the Department of Fish, California Fish and Game collaborated with the indigenous Native American Tribes to ensure their proper fishing rights. The Yurok tribe has collaborated with them as recently as 2011, the Department helped figure out the official count of fish killed in the 2002 Fish Kill on the Klamath River. The Klamath river is important to the tribes that live along that river. By 2012, California was one of only 13 states still using Game in the title of their wildlife agency, the State Legislature changed the Departments name to Fish and Wildlife on January 1,2013.
The legislation followed recommendations of a 51-member stakeholder advisory group,18 other states use the term wildlife, while the others generally use natural resources or conservation, in the titles of their Departments. This change reflects the trend toward expansion of the Agencies missions from sport fishing and hunting alone, to protection of non-game wildlife, in June 2015, the CDFW phased out lead ammunition for hunting on state land in order to keep lead out of backcountry ecosystems. The Department of Fish and Wildlife divides the State of California into seven management regions whose boundaries mostly correspond to county borders, northern Region, Del Norte, Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou and Trinity counties. North Central Region, Amador, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sutter and Yuba counties
Point Pinos Lighthouse
Point Pinos Lighthouse was lit in 1855 to guide ships on the Pacific coast of California. It is the oldest continuously operating lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, alcatraz Island Lighthouse preceded Point Pinos by 8 months, but was replaced in 1909 by the expanding military prison. It is still an active Coast Guard aid to navigation, museum exhibits and other functions are operated by the city of Pacific Grove, Monterey County, California. The lighthouse is surrounded by the Pacific Grove Municipal Golf Links, the light had a rigid schedule of being lit one hour prior to sunset, and extinguished one hour after sunrise. With automation completed in 1975, a small battery-operated back-up strobe light was installed outside the tower, the present signal has a simple 3-second on/1-second off signature. As a further aid, a Class D radio beacon operated continuously which had a range of up to 20 miles. A foghorn was located below the lighthouse closer to shore which could be turned on manually by the Coast Guard personnel when lack of visibility warranted its use, with the advent of global positioning satellite navigation in 1993, the radio beacon and foghorn were deactivated.
The light is a third-order Fresnel lens with lenses, prisms, a larger, second-order light had been planned, but delay in shipment caused the present light, originally destined for the Fort Point Lighthouse in San Francisco, to be installed instead. The first light source was an oil lantern set inside the lens. Whale oil was expensive and was soon replaced by liquified lard oil which gave way to kerosene in 1880. At the turn of the century, an incandescent vapor lamp was used, followed by electric lights in 1919. From 1912 to 1940 a falling weight mechanism rotated a metal shutter around the light causing the beam to be cut off to seaward for 10 out of every 30 seconds, thereafter a timed flasher provided the on/off characteristic. In 1874 Lighthouse Avenue in Pacific Grove, named for the Point Pinos Lighthouse, was out to ferry supplies. The point was a part of the 2, 667-acre Rancho Punta de Pinos Mexican land grant made to José María Armenta in 1833, and regranted to José Abrego in 1844. In 1850, after the Mexican-American War and the American acquisition of Alta California, the government purchased 25 acres of the Rancho Punta de los Pinos for this purpose, with an additional 67 acres being purchased on.
Construction began in 1853, but difficulties with the delivery of the lenses, the first lightkeeper was Charles Layton, appointed to the post at $1,000 per year. He was killed in 1855 while serving as a member of the posse chasing the notorious outlaw. He was succeeded by his widow, who remained head lightkeeper until 1860, robert Louis Stevenson wrote of visiting lightkeeper Allen Luce in 1879 after a long walk through the woods from Monterey, praising Luces hospitality, piano playing, ship models and oil paintings
Pacific Grove, California
Pacific Grove is a coastal city in Monterey County, California in the United States. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2013 population at 15,504, Pacific Grove is located between Point Pinos and Monterey. Pacific Grove is known for its Victorian homes, Asilomar State Beach, the city is endowed with more historical houses per capita than anywhere else in California. Seventy-five percent of the homes in Pacific Grove are considered historical, some of them have been turned into bed and breakfast inns. The city is known as the location of the Point Pinos Lighthouse. The Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History and Pacific Grove Art Center are located in the historic downtown, Pacific Grove was the main filming location for Roger Spottiswoodes 1989 film Turner & Hooch as well as A Summer Place, starring Sandra Dee. In prehistoric times the Rumsen were one of the linguistically distinct Ohlone groups of the Monterey Bay Area who inhabited the area now known as Pacific Grove and this tribe subsisted with hunting and gathering in what has been deduced as a biologically rich Monterey Peninsula.
In time, the butterflies, fragrant pines and fresh sea air brought others to the Pacific Grove Retreat to rest, the initial camp meeting of the Pacific Coast branch of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle was held in Pacific Grove in June 1879. Modeled after the Methodist Sunday school teachers training camp established in 1874 at Chautauqua Lake, New York, in November 1879, after the summer campers returned home, Robert Louis Stevenson wandered into the deserted campgrounds, I have never been in any place so dreamlike. Indeed, it was not so much like a town as like a scene upon the stage by daylight. The Pacific Grove post office opened in 1886, closed that year, Pacific Grove, like Carmel-by-the-Sea and Monterey, became an artists haven in the 1890s and subsequent period. Artists of the En plein air school in both Europe and the United States were seeking a venue which had natural beauty, so that Pacific Grove was a magnet for this movement. William Adam was an English painter who first moved to Monterey, at about the same time Eugen Neuhaus, a German painter, arrived in Pacific Grove with his new bride.
The Asilomar Conference Grounds are located at the edge of Pacific Grove. Asilomar opened in 1913 as a YWCA summer retreat it now belongs to the California State Park System, thirteen buildings on these grounds were designed by the architect Julia Morgan, who designed Hearst Castle. For a number of years, John Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove owned by his father, the cottage still stands on a quiet side street at 147 11th St. without any plaque or special sign, virtually overlooked by most Steinbeck fans. Another Steinbeck related house is at 222 Central Ave, which was his grandmothers house, a golden statue of Steinbeck in the front yard stood for years before it was removed. In Steinbecks book Sweet Thursday, a chapter is dedicated to describing a rivalry that arose among the residents over the game of roque
Asilomar State Marine Reserve
Asilomar State Marine Reserve is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles, the SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, the Asilomar State Marine Reserve was established in September 2007 by the California Department of Fish and Game. The reserve helps protect some of the central coast’s most heavily used, Asilomar SMR is located off the coast of the Monterey Peninsula, at the southern end of Monterey Bay. It covers an area of 1.51 square miles, the reserve is directly offshore from Asilomar State Beach. Asilomar SMR is the westernmost of four protected areas bordering the Monterey Peninsula. It is adjacent to the Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, further east are the Lovers Point State Marine Reserve and the Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area.
All four areas are included within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, click here for a virtual tour The Monterey Peninsula includes extensive tidepools brimming with life. Its sandy beaches are used by pupping harbor seals, and dense kelp beds offshore provide shelter for sea otters, the Asilomar SMR provides habitat for a variety of marine life, and includes kelp forest, rocky intertidal, and soft and hard bottom. The exhibit includes many of the native to the nearby marine protected areas. The aquarium houses sea otters, intertidal wildlife, and occasionally sea turtles, in addition to diving and visiting the aquarium, people enjoy the Monterey Bay by kayaking, whale watching, charter fishing, bird watching and walking on the beach. Asilomar State Beach, adjacent to the reserve, offers a.75 mile walking trail, California’s marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted, similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have already detected gradual improvements in fish size and number.
Local scientific and educational institutions involved in the include the Hopkins Marine Station, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Research methods include hook-and-line sampling, scuba diver surveys, and the use of Remote Operated Vehicle submarines, californias MPAs Asilomar State Beach Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, refers to the plants and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe, shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats, oceans provide about 99 percent of the living space on the planet. The earliest vertebrates appeared in the form of fish, which live exclusively in water, some of these evolved into amphibians which spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Other fish evolved into mammals and subsequently returned to the ocean as seals. Plant forms such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems and particularly phytoplankton, are key primary producers forming the general foundation of the ocean food chain.
Marine vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways, fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, otters, some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes. However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Altogether there are 230,000 documented marine species, including over 16,000 species of fish, there is no life without water, which has been characterised as the solvent of life. The Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi referred to water as the mater und matrix, the abundance of water on earths surface is a unique feature that distinguishes earth from other planets in the Solar System. Earths hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all surfaces in the world, including inland seas, rivers.
The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 10,911.4 m, the mass of the oceans is approximately 1. 35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earths total mass. The oceans cover an area of 3. 618×108 km2 with a depth of 3682 m. If all of Earths crustal surface was at the elevation as a smooth sphere. About 97. 5% of the water is saline, the remaining 2. 5% is fresh water, Most fresh water, about 68. 7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers
Lovers Point State Marine Reserve
Lovers Point State Marine Reserve is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles, the SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, Lovers Point State Marine Reserve was established in September 2007 by the California Department of Fish & Game. It was one of 29 marine protected areas adopted during the first phase of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative is a collaborative public process to create a statewide network of marine protected areas along the California coastline. Click here for a virtual tour Lovers Point SMR is located off the coast of the Monterey Peninsula and it covers an area of.30 sq. miles. The reserve is directly offshore from Lovers Point Park, a local park. Lovers Point SMR is one of four protected areas bordering the Monterey Peninsula.
It is between Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, farther to the west is Asilomar State Marine Reserve. All four areas are included within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. This marine protected area is bounded by the high tide line. 36°37. 25’ N. lat. 121°53. 78’ W. long, 36°37. 38’ N. lat. 121°53. 85’ W. long. 36°37. 60’ N. lat. 121°54. 75’ W. long, and 36°37. 60’ N. lat. 121°54. 91’ W. long. The Monterey Peninsula includes extensive tidepools brimming with life and its sandy beaches are used by pupping harbor seals, and dense kelp beds offshore provide shelter for sea otters. The Lovers Point SMR provides habitat for a variety of marine life, the Monterey Bay Aquarium is a major tourist attraction featuring a 28-foot living kelp forest. The exhibit includes many of the native to the nearby marine protected areas. The aquarium houses sea otters, intertidal wildlife, and occasionally sea turtles, in addition to diving and visiting the aquarium, people enjoy the Monterey Bay by kayaking, whale watching, charter fishing, bird watching and walking on the beach.
Lovers Point is where the Kelp Krawlers, an open water swimming group. California’s marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean, activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted
A rocky shore is an intertidal area of seacoasts where solid rock predominates. Rocky shores are biologically rich environments, and are a natural laboratory for studying intertidal ecology. Due to their accessibility, they have been well studied for a long time. There are a number of factors that favour the survival of life on rocky shores. Temperate coastal waters are mixed by waves and convection, maintaining adequate availability of nutrients, the sea brings plankton and broken organic matter in with each tide. The high availability of light and nutrient levels means that productivity of seaweeds. Human actions can benefit rocky shores due to nutrient runoff, despite these favourable factors, there are a number of challenges to marine organisms associated with the rocky shore ecosystem. Generally, the distribution of species is limited by salinity, wave exposure, desiccation. The constant threat of desiccation during exposure at low tide can result in dehydration, many species have developed adaptations to prevent this drying out, such as the production of mucous layers and shells.
Many species use shells and holdfasts to provide stability against strong wave actions, there are a variety of other challenges such as temperature fluctuations due to tidal flow, changes in salinity and various ranges of illumination. Other threats include predation from birds and other organisms, as well as the effects of pollution. The Ballantine Scale is a defined scale for measuring the degree of exposure level of wave action on a rocky shore. Devised in 1961 by W. J. Ballantine, at the department of Queen Mary College, London. The species present in the littoral zone therefore indicate the degree of the shores exposure, the scale runs from an extremely exposed shore, to an extremely sheltered shore. Tidal movements of water creates zonation patterns along rocky shores from high to low-tide, the area above the high-tide mark is the supralittoral zone which is virtually a terrestrial environment. The area around the mark is known as the intertidal fringe. Between the high and low-tide marks is the intertidal or littoral zone, below the low-tide mark is the sublittoral or subtidal zone.
Rocky shores are exposed to many forms of pollution, in particular related to oil spills
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp. They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth, smaller areas of anchored kelp are called kelp beds. Kelp forests occur worldwide throughout temperate and polar coastal oceans, in 2007, kelp forests were discovered in tropical waters near Ecuador. Physically formed by brown macroalgae, kelp forests provide a unique, over the last century, they have been the focus of extensive research, particularly in trophic ecology, and continue to provoke important ideas that are relevant beyond this unique ecosystem. For example, kelp forests can influence coastal oceanographic patterns and provide ecosystem services. However, the influence of humans has often contributed to kelp forest degradation, of particular concern are the effects of overfishing nearshore ecosystems, which can release herbivores from their normal population regulation and result in the overgrazing of kelp and other algae. This can rapidly result in transitions to barren landscapes where relatively few species persist, the term kelp refers to marine algae belonging to the order Laminariales.
Though not considered a taxonomically diverse order, kelps are highly diverse structurally and functionally, the most widely recognized species are the giant kelps, although numerous other genera such as Laminaria, Lessonia and Eisenia are described. Many marine mammals and birds are found, including seals, sea lions, sea otters, terns, snowy egrets, great blue herons. Frequently considered an ecosystem engineer, kelp provides a physical substrate, in algae, the body of an individual organism is known as a thallus rather than as a plant. The stipe is analogous to a plant stalk, extending vertically from the holdfast, the fronds are leaf- or blade-like attachments extending from the stipe, sometimes along its full length, and are the sites of nutrient uptake and photosynthetic activity. In addition, many species have pneumatocysts, or gas-filled bladders. These structures provide the necessary buoyancy for kelp to maintain a position in the water column. The environmental factors necessary for kelp to survive include hard substrate, high nutrients, water flow and turbulence facilitate nutrient assimilation across kelp fronds throughout the water column.
Water clarity affects the depth to which sufficient light can be transmitted, in ideal conditions, giant kelp can grow as much as 30-60 cm vertically per day. Some species, such as Nereocystis, are annuals, while others such as Eisenia are perennials, in perennial kelp forests, maximum growth rates occur during upwelling months and die-backs correspond to reduced nutrient availability, shorter photoperiods, and increased storm frequency. Kelps are primarily associated with temperate and arctic waters worldwide, the region with the greatest diversity of kelps is the northeastern Pacific, from north of San Francisco, California, to the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Although kelp forests are unknown in tropical waters, a few species of Laminaria have been known to occur exclusively in tropical deep waters
Monterey was founded in 1770 by missionary Junípero Serra and explorer Gaspar de Portolà. Portolà erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port against an expected Russian trading, at the same time, Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo, second in the chain of Spanish Missions of California. Originally near the presidio, the moved a few miles south to its current location in Carmel. Monterey served as the capital of upper Las Californias and Alta California from 1777 to 1848, under the flags of Spain, independent Mexico, the city was originally the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state, and Californias Historic Landmark Number One. Built in 3 phases, construction on the Custom House began in 1814 under the Spanish, Monterey was the site of the July 7,1846, Battle of Monterey during the Mexican-American War. It was on this date that John D. Sloat, Commodore in the United States Navy, raised the U. S.
flag over the Monterey Custom House, in addition, many California firsts occurred in Monterey. These include Californias first theater, brick house, publicly funded school, public building, public library, and printing press, which printed The Californian, Colton Hall, built in 1849 by Walter Colton, was originally a public school and government meeting place. It hosted Californias first constitutional convention, today it houses a museum, while adjacent buildings serve as the seat of local government. The Monterey post office opened in 1849, the city has a noteworthy history as a center for California painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Such painters as Arthur Frank Mathews, Armin Hansen, Xavier Martinez, Rowena Meeks Abdy, in November 1995, California Governor Pete Wilson proclaimed Monterey as The Language Capital of the World. Pacific Grove was founded in 1875 by a group of Methodists who modeled the town after Ocean Grove, in time, the butterflies, fragrant pines and fresh sea air brought others to the Pacific Grove Retreat to rest and meditate.
The initial meeting of the Pacific Coast branch of the Chautauqua Literary, modelled after the Methodist Sunday school teachers’ training camp established in 1874 at Lake Chautauqua, N. Y. this location became part of a nationwide educational network. In November 1879, after the summer campers returned home, Robert Louis Stevenson wandered into the deserted campgrounds, indeed, it was not so much like a deserted town as like a scene upon the stage by daylight, and with no one on the boards. Today, Stevenson School in nearby Pebble Beach is named after the author, the Pacific Grove post office opened in 1886, closed that year, and was re-opened in 1887. Pacific Grove, like Carmel-by-the-Sea and Monterey, became a haven in the 1890s. Artists of the En plein air school in both Europe and the United States were seeking a venue which had natural beauty, so that Pacific Grove was a magnet for this movement. English painter William Adam and other artists moved to Pacific Grove in the early 1900s, for a number of years, John Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove owned by his father, who was Monterey County Treasurer