California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Mechanization and Modernization Agreement 1960
The Mechanization and Modernization Agreement of 1960 was an agreement reached by California longshoremen unions: International Longshore and Warehouse Union, the International Longshoremen's Association, the Pacific Maritime Association. This agreement applied to workers on the Pacific Coast of the United States, the West Coast of Canada and Hawaii; the original agreement was contracted for five years and would be in effect until July 1, 1966 Prior to the 1940s, the majority of cargo movement in ports were done by hand and required a large number of skilled workers. There were some new technologies that were introduced in order to aid in the movement of shipments, such as rope slings, dollys and cranes that helped longshoremen take large loads off of ships. However, longshoremen were still needed as they were skilled to maximize the space in each container; the methods of cargo movement differed between each port on the Pacific Coast. Depending on the size of the cargo and what was being shipped, many ports required extensive manual labor of dock workers while others required the use of specialized mechanical cranes to hoist large truck containers off of ships.
After World War II, the demand for a more efficient way of loading and unloading cargo brought new technology to ports that would require less workers to move shipments. Harry Bridges current leader of the ILWU, designed the Mechanization and Modernization Agreement was signed on October 18, 1960, it distinguished between 3 classes of lonsgshoremen workers. Depending on the level of worker, each worker could guarantee a certain set of benefits. "A" men: These men were registered longshoremen and had ILWU membership. They held preference for dispatch in ports and could claim full benefits as mentioned in the M&M Agreement. "B" men: These men were registered to the ILWU. Although they couldn't claim benefits as mentioned in the M&M Agreement, they could claim benefits mentioned in contracts, such as welfare and vacations benefits. If the "A" men list were to be exhausted, "B" men would be the next group to gain employment preference. Casual: They are not recognized as being attached to any aspect of the longshoremen industry and would only work peak days when the "A" men and "B" men lists were exhausted.
These men could not claim any benefits as mentioned in the M&M Agreement. The M&M Agreement guaranteed employment security for the basic workforce, which were registered union members. If there were to be a decent decline in employment due to modernization, there would be a decline in the employment of "B" men and Casual workers in order to prevent the loss of employment to the basic workforce. However, the ILWU asked that the Agreement shorten weekly work shifts from 40 hours to 35 hours per week in order to accommodate the basic workforce and maintain equal wages among workers. Employers would be able to introduce new technology and device that would improve the ports productivity and reduce the number of labor forces needed. Although the M&M Agreement, provided employment security for ILWU members, it failed in preventing the Longshoremen's Strike of 1971; the M&M Agreement failed to adapt to the introduction of technology and containerization at ports. The introduction of technology reduced the need for labor by up to 90% and employers preferred to employ permanent workers rather than other, thus creating an imbalance between workers and wages.
Dock jobs were being placed outside of port areas and jobs were now being disputed between different unions. Whereas, employers of longshoremen were continuing making a profit from the reduction of labor. In July 1971, 12,000 longshoremen walked out on California ports. Without support from Harry Bridges, the ILWU leader, a Los Angeles court ordered all workers back to work. Although Bridges, attempted to reconcile with workers by creating a new contract, the contract failed to live up to expectations and "B" men and Casual workers were unemployed. Since the Mechanization and Modernization Agreement, the ILWU had attempted to bring other unorganized, nonunion waterfront occupations into the union as a means to counteract new technology at ports; the ILWU has since expanded its jurisdiction. Although organization of these occupations was met with employer resistance, the ILWU managed to absorb new jurisdiction; the Mechanization and Modernization Agreement of 1960, provided job security to members, but did not extend its benefits to those outside of the ILWU
International Longshore and Warehouse Union
The International Longshore and Warehouse Union is a labor union which represents dock workers on the West Coast of the United States and Alaska, in British Columbia, Canada. It represents hotel workers in Hawaii, cannery workers in Alaska, warehouse workers throughout the West and bookstore workers in Portland, Oregon; the union was established in 1937 after the 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike, a 3-month-long strike that culminated in a 4-day general strike in San Francisco and the Bay Area. It disaffiliated from the AFL-CIO on August 30, 2013. In 2014, the San Francisco Chronicle described the ILWU today as "the aristocrat of the working class. Union officials claim that pay numbers are inflated because they do not include "casuals", part-time workers who are not registered ILWU members, do not receive benefits and earn less, with the minimum being $29.49 per hour. Longshoremen on the West Coast ports had either been unorganized or represented by company unions since the years after World War I, when the shipping companies and stevedoring firms had imposed the open shop after a series of failed strikes.
Longshoremen in San Francisco the major port on the coast, were required to go through a hiring hall operated by a company union, known as the "blue book" system for the color of the union's membership book. The Industrial Workers of the World had attempted to organize longshoremen and fishermen in the 1920s. A number of former IWW members and other militants, such as Harry Bridges, an Australian-born sailor who became a longshoreman after coming to the United States, soon joined the International Longshoremen's Association, when passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 led to an explosion in union membership in the ILA among West Coast longshoremen; those activists, known as the "Albion Hall group" after their usual meeting place in San Francisco, made contacts with like-minded activists at other ports. They pressed demands for a coastwide contract, a union-run hiring hall and an industrywide waterfront federation and led the membership in rejecting the weak "gentlemen's agreement" that the conservative ILA leadership had negotiated with the employers.
When the employers offered to arbitrate, but only on the condition that the union agree to the open shop, the union struck every West Coast port on May 9, 1934. The strike was a violent one: When strikers attacked the stockade in which the employers were housing strikebreakers in San Pedro, California on May 15, the employers' private guards shot and killed two strikers. Similar battles broke out in San Francisco and Oakland, Portland and Seattle, Washington; when the employers made a show of force in order to reopen the port in San Francisco, a pitched battle broke out on the Embarcadero in San Francisco between police and strikers. Two strikers were killed on July 5 by a policeman's shotgun blast into a crowd of picketers and onlookers; this incident is commemorated every year by ILWU members. When the National Guard moved in to patrol the waterfront, the picketers pulled back; the San Francisco and Alameda County Central Labor Councils voted to call a general strike in support of the longshoremen, shutting down much of San Francisco and the Bay Area for four days, ending with the union's agreement to arbitrate the remaining issues in dispute.
The union won most of its demands in that arbitration proceeding. Those it did not win outright it gained through hundreds of job actions after the strikers returned to work, as the union wrested control over the pace of work and the employer's power to hire and fire from the shipping and stevedoring companies through the mechanism of hiring halls. Union members engaged in a number of sympathy strikes in support of other maritime unions' demands; the union commenced the "March Inland", in which it organized the many warehouses that received the goods that longshoremen handled, both in the ports themselves and further removed from them, shortly after the successful conclusion of the 1934 strike. The union organized warehouses throughout the United States; this "March Inland" was crucial in improving the working conditions and quality of life with each union it assimilated. For example, the Weighers' and Warehousemens' Union was one such union based in Oakland, that became a part of the ILWU, prior to the assimilation "warehouse workers suffered low wages, high job insecurity and frequent speed-ups."
Happening during the Great Depression, this March Inland helped many workers without much power to have greater control in their working environments because they were now part of a greater and more powerful entity. The union led efforts to form Maritime Federation of the Pacific, which brought all of the maritime unions together for common action; that federation helped the sailors' union win the same sort of contract after a long strike in 1936 that the ILA had achieved in 1934. Rivalries between the two unions, soon broke the federation apart; the ILWU established strong unions on the docks in Hawaii during this time. In the next decade, despite the concerted opposition of the employers, the military and most of the political establishment, it organized sugar and pineapple workers there; the ILWU's work changed the political climate in Hawaii, confronting the hold on power that the Big Five had exercised for half a century. The ILWU backed the Cannery and Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union, a communist-controlled union headquartered in San Jose.
CAWIU had considerable success organizing farm and cannery workers in the S