The Pacific Scandal was a political scandal in Canada involving bribes being accepted by 150 members of the Conservative government in the attempts of private interests to influence the bidding for a national rail contract. As part of British Columbia's 1871 agreement to join the Canadian Confederation, the government had agreed to build a transcontinental railway linking the Pacific Province to the eastern provinces; the scandal led to the resignation of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, a transfer of power from his Conservative government to a Liberal government led by Alexander Mackenzie. One of the new government's first measures was to introduce secret ballots in an effort to improve the integrity of future elections. After the scandal broke, the railway plan collapsed and the proposed line was not built. An different operation built the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Pacific. For a young and loosely defined nation, the building of a national railway was an active attempt at state-making, as well as an aggressive capitalist venture.
Canada, a nascent country with a population of 3.5 million in 1871, lacked the means to exercise meaningful de facto control within the de jure political boundaries of the acquired Rupert's Land. Moreover, after the American Civil War the American frontier expanded west with land-hungry settlers, exacerbating talk of annexation. Indeed, sentiments of Manifest Destiny were abuzz in this time: in 1867, year of Confederation, US Secretary of State W. H. Seward surmised that the whole North American continent "shall be, sooner or within the magic circle of the American Union". Therefore, preventing American investment into the project was considered as being in Canada's national interest, thus the federal government favoured an "all Canadian route" through the rugged Canadian Shield of northern Ontario, refusing to consider a less costly route passing south through Wisconsin and Minnesota. However, a route across the Canadian Shield was unpopular with potential investors, not only in the United States but in Canada and Great Britain, the only other viable source of financing.
For would-be investors, the objections were not based on politics or nationalism but economics. At the time, national governments lacked. For the First Transcontinental Railroad, the United States government had made extensive grants of public land to the railway's builders, inducing private financiers to fund the railway on the understanding that they would acquire rich farmland along the route, which could be sold for a large profit. However, the eastern terminus of the proposed Canadian Pacific route, unlike that of the First Transcontinental, was not in rich Nebraskan farmland, but deep within the Canadian Shield. Copying the American financing model whilst insisting on an all-Canadian route would require the railway's backers to build hundreds of miles of track across rugged shield terrain at considerable expense before they could expect to access lucrative farmland in Manitoba and the newly created Northwest Territories. Many financiers, who had expected to make a quick profit, were not willing to make this sort of long-term commitment.
The Montreal capitalist Hugh Allan, with his syndicate Canada Pacific Railway Company, sought the lucrative charter for the project. The problem lay in that Allan and Macdonald and secretly, were in cahoots with American financiers such as George W. McMullen and Jay Cooke, men who were interested in the rival American undertaking, the Northern Pacific Railroad. Two groups competed for the contract to build the railway, Hugh Allan's Canada Pacific Railway Company and David Lewis Macpherson's Inter-Oceanic Railway Company. On April 2, 1873, Lucius Seth Huntington, a Liberal Member of Parliament, created an uproar in the House of Commons, he announced he had uncovered evidence that Allan and his associates had been granted the Canadian Pacific Railway contract in return for political donations of $360,000. In 1873, it became known that Allan had contributed a large sum of money to the Conservative government's re-election campaign of 1872. Allan had promised to keep American capital out of the railway deal, but had lied to Macdonald over this vital point, Macdonald discovered the lie.
The Liberal party, at this time the opposition party in Parliament, accused the Conservatives of having made a tacit agreement to give the contract to Hugh Allan in exchange for money. In making such allegations, the Liberals and their allies in the press presumed that most of the money had been used to bribe voters in the 1872 election; the secret ballot considered a novelty, had not yet been introduced in Canada. Although it was illegal to offer, solicit or accept bribes in exchange for votes, effective enforcement of this prohibition proved impossible. Despite Macdonald's claims that he was innocent, evidence came to light showing receipts of money from Allan to Macdonald and some of his political colleagues. More damaging to Macdonald was when the Liberals discovered a telegram, through a former employee of Allan, thought to have been stolen from the safe of Allan's lawyer, John Abbott; the scandal proved fatal to Macdonald's government. Macdonald's control of Parliament was tenuous following the 1872 election.
In a time when party discipline was not as strong as it is today, once Macdonald's culpability in the scandal became known he could no longer expect to retain the confidence of the House o
Jeff Hooker is a retired U. S. soccer forward who coaches the University of Denver women's soccer team. Hooker earned twelve caps, scoring one goal, with the U. S. national team between 1984 and 1987 and was a member of the 1984 U. S. Olympic soccer team, he played professionally in American Professional Soccer League. Hooker attended Walnut High School in Walnut, California where he played on the school's boys soccer team, he is tied for fifth on the California state high school list for most assists in a season. Hooker attended and played soccer at UCLA for three seasons between 1983 and 1987, he played as a freshman, but redshirted the 1984 season to play for the U. S. in the 1984 Summer Olympics. He was injured in 1985 while playing with the national team and did not play for UCLA during the school's run to the NCAA championship, he got back on the field for UCLA in 1986. In 1987, he played his last season for UCLA, but did not complete his bachelor's degree until 1992. Over his three seasons with the Bruins, Hooker played in 51 games, scoring 20 goals and assisting on 11 other.
Hooker's reputation at the high school level led to his selection for the U. S. U-20 national team at the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship in Mexico, he scored in his first game in that tournament, a 2–3 loss to Uruguay and earned three junior national team caps. Hooker earned his first cap with the U. S. national team in an October 9, 1984 victory over El Salvador. That day, both he and fellow rookie Jacques LaDouceur became one of the few first game tandems to score in a game, which the U. S. won 3–1. Hooker played thirteen games for the U. S. B-Team which at the time formed the core of the U. S. Olympic Team, World University Team and Pan American Team. In 1986, Hooker played a single season as a forward with the San Diego Nomads of the Western Soccer Alliance during the collegiate off-season. After leaving UCLA, he went on to play for the Los Angeles Heat of the WSA in 1988 and 1989, his second season with the team saw him rise to sixth on the alliance's points list with 19 on 7 goals and 5 assists.
He was named to the WSA First Team All Star team. In 1991, he joined the Colorado Foxes of the American Professional Soccer League, formed by the merger of the Western Soccer Alliance and the American Soccer League in 1990. Hooker remained with the Foxes during its glory years of 1991 to 1995; the team finished towards the top of the league's rankings and took the championship in 1992 and 1993. In 1991, Hooker scored 3 goals. In 1992, he played only 7 games. However, in the Professional Cup, he scored two goals with one coming in the Foxes 4–1 victory over the Tampa Bay Rowdies. In 1995, he scored 7 goals. There are no records for his other seasons with the Foxes. In 1992, besides playing professionally with the Colorado Foxes, Hooker became head coach of the University of Denver women's soccer team, guiding them to a Colorado Athletic Conference championship. In 2002 and 2003, Hooker was named the Sun Belt Conference coach of the year. In 1996 and 1997, he served as the school's men's soccer coach.
During those two seasons, he compiled a 20–12–4 record. FIFA: Jeff Hooker University of Denver Bio on Hooker
Labour of Love is the fourth studio album by British reggae band UB40, their first album of cover versions. Released in the UK on 12 September 1983, the album is best known for containing the song "Red Red Wine", a worldwide number-one single, but it includes three further UK top 20 hits, "Please Don't Make Me Cry", "Many Rivers to Cross" and "Cherry Oh Baby"; the album reached number one in the UK, New Zealand and the Netherlands and the top five in Canada, but only reached number 39 in the US on its original release, before re-entering the Billboard 200 in 1988 and peaking at number 14 as a result of "Red Red Wine"'s delayed success in the US. Following the record's success, UB40 have since released three further albums of cover versions under the Labour of Love title; the album consists of cover versions of ten of the group's favourite songs by reggae artists from the period 1969 to 1972. Guitarist Robin Campbell drew up a list of possible tracks which were whittled down to a final choice of ten following discussion among the band members.
Campbell told UK music magazine NME, "It's a collection of songs. We'd wanted to do it for years, we wanted it to be our first album... Why we recorded them was because they were part of an era for us, what we were into." In another interview with Melody Maker, drummer Jim Brown explained that the band were being pressured to deliver a new album, but didn't have enough original material completed, so it seemed an ideal time to revisit the idea of making an album of cover versions. UB40 had opened their own studio, the Abattoir, Campbell spoke about how the combination of not having to write songs and having their own studio in which to produce them had resulted in a happy environment during the album's recording: "We could relax with this. We experimented with several things like synthesised basslines, it was a lot more fun."The group were unaware during recording that the most famous track on the record had not been a reggae song. Ali Campbell told Billboard, "Nobody was as shocked as we were to find out that Neil Diamond wrote'Red Red Wine'...
To me, it was always a Tony Tribe song. He sang it." The album and 12" version of "Red Red Wine" included a toasted verse by Astro copied and included by Diamond in his live performances of the song. The band defended their decision to make an album of cover versions, stating that they had always wanted to make reggae for a wide audience. Robin Campbell said, "We set out in the first place to popularise reggae; that was our intention." His brother Ali added, "is play heavy dub reggae. But if we came straight out doing that, it would never have gotten on the radio. We commercialize our music all the time; the album was accompanied by a 30-minute film shot in black and white entitled Labour of Love and released on VHS video. It was written by Rose and the group's saxophone player Brian Travers; the story followed a fictional version of the lives of the band members, their relationships with family and girlfriends, their jobs in a junkyard, with all roles in the film played by the band and their friends.
The plot focused on the rivalry between two brothers trying to win the affections of the same girl. The film featured songs from the album as its soundtrack, the music videos for the singles "Red Red Wine", "Please Don't Make Me Cry" and "Cherry Oh Baby" were lifted directly from the film. Rose would go on to direct music videos for Frankie Goes to Hollywood and Bronski Beat before becoming a Hollywood movie director; the album's cover art was created by Ken Ansell of the Design Clinic and featured two collages of images that illustrated each of the songs on the album. It was the first time that UB40 had not had any input on the artwork on one of their albums, but they were on tour in the US at the time and Virgin Records, the parent company of UB40's DEP International label, could not afford to wait until they returned for the sleeve to be designed; as Ansell recounted to Classic Pop magazine in 2017, "We pitched the idea to Virgin of creating an illustration for each song so that as and when they were released as singles we would have ready-made images.
On their return the band liked the concept and we went ahead." Reviews of the album in the UK were positive. In Melody Maker Colin Irwin expressed his irritation at his fellow journalists' insistence on bringing up the band's left-wing political views in articles about them, saying, "UB40's mode of escape from these glib cliches is to make their own specialised version of Bowie's Pin-Ups or Ferry's These Foolish Things. Labour of Love is an album of songs that touched and inspired UB40 in their formative years and you know something? It's beautiful. What may appear to be a simple form of escapism has in fact galvanised this band, snatching them out of their confined introversion and opened their eyes to bold new horizons... To make comparisons with the originals is to miss the point. Sometimes you just have to step back to leap forward." Richard Cook of NME was more reserved, feeling that UB40's versions didn't always have the impact of the originals: "I think the Campbells' memories might be deceiving them.
The music of the era they recall was always far ruder and tougher and far more percussive than their honey-smooth treatments imply." However, he welcomed the change from the political stance of th