It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
Tungsten, Northwest Territories
The townsite of Tungsten is located at Cantung Mine in the Northwest Territories. It is accessible from Watson Lake, Tungsten was built in 1961 and the tungsten mine went into operation in 1962 as a large open pit mine in the Mackenzie Mountains. It originally consisted of small bungalow houses. Total population of Tungsten during the 1960s was approximately 120 persons, in 1968 families were housed in 28 units. Because of extremely good wages and benefits, turnover rates for the operation were quite low. Families benefited from the K-8 Grade school, and a K-9 system, during the summer months, because of the open pit operation and townsite population grew to 160. In the mid-1970s, the townsite expanded to include a trailer court, an 80-man bunkhouse was added in 1983. The town and mine were serviced by a road to Watson Lake. In 1979 the estimated population had reached 506,200 of whom were employees, by the fall of 1982, there were 450 residents and about 100 children were enrolled at Tungsten School.
The community had a telephone exchange operated by Northwestel, area code 403. By 1986, it was estimated that only 280 people were living at Tungsten, the Cantung Mine closed in May 1986, and the townsite was closed. A year or two later, the exchange, with only a handful of active lines on obsolescent electromechanical equipment, was shut down. Although the mine reopened in 2002, the nature of the mine had changed so there was no longer an operating townsite with families. The mine closed again in 2003, following an investment by the Kaska Dena Council in the Yukon in December 2004 the mine was reopened in 2005. The original bungalow houses remain to this day, along with the school, the community has the distinction of being the only place in the Northwest Territories that is on Pacific Time rather than Mountain Time. Cantung Mine Tungsten Airport North American Tungsten
Dawson Creek is a city in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. The municipality of 24.37 square kilometres had a population of 11,583 in 2011, Dawson Creek derives its name from the creek of the same name that runs through the community. The creek was named after George Mercer Dawson by a member of his survey team when they passed through the area in August 1879. Once a small farming community, Dawson Creek became a regional centre after the terminus of the Northern Alberta Railways was extended there in 1932. The community grew rapidly in 1942 as the US Army used the terminus as a transshipment point during construction of the Alaska Highway. In the 1950s, the city was connected to the interior of British Columbia via a highway and railway through the Rocky Mountains, since the 1960s, growth has slowed. Dawson Creek is located in the dry and windy prairie land of the Peace River Country, as the seat of the Peace River Regional District and a service centre for the rural areas south of the Peace River, the city has been called the Capital of the Peace.
It is known as the Mile 0 City, referring to its location at the end of the Alaska Highway. It has a heritage village, an art gallery. Annual events include a fair and rodeo. The community that formed by the creek was one of many farming communities established by European-Canadian settlers moving west through the Peace River Country, when the Canadian government began issuing homestead grants to settlers in 1912, the pace of migration increased. With the opening of a few stores and hotels in 1919, after much speculation by land owners and investors, the Northern Alberta Railways built its western terminus 3 km from Dawson Creek. The golden spike was driven on 29 December 1930, and the first passenger train arrived on 15 January 1931, the arrival of the railway and the construction of grain elevators attracted more settlers and business to the settlement. The need to provide services for the growing community led Dawson Creek to incorporate as a village in May 1936. A small wave of refugees from the Sudetenland settled in the area in 1939 as World War II was beginning, the community exceeded 500 people in 1941.
Upon entering the war, the United States decided to build a transportation corridor to connect the US mainland to Alaska, in 1942, thousands of US Army personnel and contractors poured into the city – the terminal of rail transport – to construct the Alaska Highway. The highway was completed in less than a year, even after the workers involved in its construction departed, Dawson Creek became a RCAF station during WWII, in September 1944. The station disbanded in March 1946, by 1951, Dawson Creek had more than 3,500 residents
West Wendover, Nevada
West Wendover is a small city in Elko County, United States. The population was 4,410 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Elko micropolitan area. West Wendover is located on the border of Nevada and the western edge of the Great Salt Lake Desert and is contiguous with Wendover, Utah. Interstate 80 runs just north of the cities, while Interstate 80 Business runs through the two cities, West Wendover began to develop in the 1930s and 1940s with the introduction of legalized gambling in the State of Nevada. William Bill Smith founded a small service station that provided a needed rest to weary travelers crossing the desert terrain of western Utah. Today this facility is known as the Wendover Nugget, through the 1970s and 1980s, West Wendover began to emerge as a destination resort. Additional business arrived constructing more casinos and other establishments as well as recreational venues such as the Toana Vista Golf Course. As growth continued to spiral up, the citizens of West Wendover, Nevada, a township of Elko County, on July 1,1991, the city of West Wendover, came into existence.
Amber S Holt named the city seal of West Wendover encouraging people to, in October 1999, the U. S. Department of Transportation moved West Wendover out of the Pacific Time Zone due to the strong economic ties between West Wendover and neighboring Utah. This made the city of West Wendover the only portion of Nevada legally in the Mountain Time Zone, the unincorporated towns of Jackpot, Mountain City, and Owyhee in northern Elko County observe Mountain Time, but only on an unofficial basis. West Wendover has thrived under a lucrative gambling industry in Nevada, just footsteps away, Utah has decayed with almost no business tax base. Residents in both cities have voted to annex Wendover into Nevada, saying they are one community that has been divided for too long, some politicians in both the State of Utah and the State of Nevada have endorsed the idea. However, the politicians in Wendover, placed a permanent halt to the process through a vote on November 15,2006. The motion made was to halt the annexation process, the vote was a tie with two Council Members voting to halt the process and two Council Members supporting the continuation of the process.
The tie vote was broken up by a vote of Wendover, West Wendover had decided to halt any further work after Wendover, indicated they were going to discuss and make a decision on proceeding. Article IV, Section 3 of the U. S, constitution requires that any change in state boundaries be approved by the U. S. Congress as well as by the two state legislatures. West Wendover is located at 40°44′22″N 114°4′11″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.5 sq mi, all land. As of the 2010 United States census West Wendover had a population of 4,410, as of the census of 2000, there were 4,721 people,1,363 households, and 1,046 families residing in the city
Energy Policy Act of 2005
The act, described by proponents as an attempt to combat growing energy problems, changed US energy policy by providing tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types. The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed, effective February 2006, in Congressional bills, an authorization of a discretionary program is a permission to spend money IF money has been appropriated, while an appropriation is the provision of funds so it can be spent. The authorizations above will not get carried out if money is never appropriated for them, the bill amends the Uniform Time Act of 1966 by changing the start and end dates of daylight saving time, beginning in 2007. Clocks were set one hour on the second Sunday of March instead of on the first Sunday of April. Clocks were set one hour on the first Sunday in November, rather than on the last Sunday of October. Lobbyists against this provision included the U. S and this section of the act is controversial, some have questioned whether daylight saving results in net energy savings. §179D includes full and partial tax deductions for investments in energy efficient commercial building that are designed to increase the efficiency of energy-consuming functions.
Up to $.60 for lighting, $.60 for HVAC and $.60 for building envelope, interior lighting may be improved using the Interim Lighting Rule, which provides a simplified process to earn the Deduction, capped at $0. 30-$0. 60/square foot. Improvements are compared to a baseline of ASHRAE2001 standards, to obtain these benefits the facilities/energy division of a business, its tax department, and a firm specializing in EPAct 179D deductions needed to cooperate. IRS mandated software had to be used and an independent 3rd party had to certify the qualification, for municipal buildings, benefits were passed through to the primary designers/architects in an attempt to encourage innovative municipal design. The Commercial Buildings Tax Deduction expiration date had been extended twice, last by the Energy Improvement, with this extension, the CBTD could be claimed for qualifying projects completed before January 1,2014. The commercial building tax deductions could be used to improve the payback period of an energy improvement investment.
The deductions could be combined by participating in demand response programs where building owners agree to curtail usage at peak times for a premium. The most common qualifying projects were in the area of lighting.2 billion over the 2006-2010 period, the CBO did not attempt to estimate additional effects on discretionary spending. The CBO and the Joint Committee on Taxation estimated that the legislation would reduce revenues by $7.9 billion over the 2005-2010 period, the collective reduction in national consumption of energy is significant for home heating. The Act provided gible financial incentives for average homeowners to make positive changes to their homes. It made improvements to energy use more affordable for walls, windows, water heaters. Consumer spending, and hence the economy, was abetted
Tumbler Ridge is a district municipality in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies in northeastern British Columbia, and a member municipality of the Peace River Regional District. The municipality of 1,558 square kilometres, with its population of 2,710 people, incorporates a townsite and a large area of mostly Crown Land. Declining global coal prices after 1981, and weakening Asian markets in the late 1990s, made the towns future uncertain, the uncertainty dissuaded investment and kept the economy from diversifying. When price reductions were forced onto the mines, the Quintette mine was closed in 2000 production, the research centre and a dinosaur museum were funded in part by the federal Western Economic Diversification Canada to decrease economic dependence on the coal industry. In 2014, both operating coal mines were put into care and maintenance mode and this means the mines are effectively closed, but are still allowed to restart without needing to go through the process of getting a new mines act permit.
Economic diversification has occurred with oil and gas exploration, forestry. Archaeological evidence show a presence dating back 3,000 years. The nomadic Sekani, followed by the Dunneza and the Cree, periodically lived in temporary settlements around the future municipality. Formal exploratory and surveying expeditions were conducted by S. Prescott Fay, with Robert Cross and Fred Brewster in 1914, J. C. Gwillim in 1919, Edmund Spieker in 1920, and John Holzworth in 1923. Spieker coined the name Tumbler Ridge, referring to the mountains northwest of the future town, permanent settlers were squatters, five families by 1920, who maintained trap lines. In the 1950s and 1960s, oil and natural gas exploration and logging was conducted through the area, and 15 significant coal deposits were discovered. Coal prices rose after the 1973 oil crisis leading to 40 government studies examining the viability of accessing the coal, given the 1,130 km to the nearest port and the mountainous barrier. With these coal deposits in mind, a agreement was signed in 1981 by two Canadian mining companies, a consortium of Japanese steel mills, and the governments of British Columbia.
An alternative of using work camps staffed by people from Dawson Creek, massive initial investments were required as planning for the new town began in 1976 with the objective of having a fully functioning town ready before residents arrived. Coordinated through the provincial Ministry of Municipal Affairs the town, regional infrastructure, when the municipality was incorporated in April 1981 the area was completely forested. During that year building sites and roadways were cleared and in the winter the water, in 1982, houses and other buildings were constructed. Full production at the mines was reached the following year and this was done because Deans wife was expecting and he wanted his child to have something different to say about her birthplace. He wanted her to be able to say that a settlement had created for her and that she was
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, the Columbia River delineates much of Oregons northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary. The parallel 42° north delineates the boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14,1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, the capital of Oregon is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents. Portland is Oregons most populous city, with 632,309 residents, Portlands metro population of 2,389,228 ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the states most densely populated area, the tall conifers, mainly Douglas fir, along Oregons rainy west coast contrast with the lighter-timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east.
Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers, stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, deserts and meadows. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood is the states highest point, Oregons only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae. Because of its landscapes and waterways, Oregons economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing. It is the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states, Technology is another one of the states major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the states largest public corporation with a revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon.
There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon, in his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote, The rout. is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon
Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico, before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2, or 3. 57% of the mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U. S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California and its northern limit is the U. S. state of California. The state has an population of 3,165,776 much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south. Over 75% of the lives in the capital city, Mexicali, in Ensenada. Other important cities include San Felipe and Tecate, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the cheaper cost of living compared to San Diego.
There is a significant population from Central America, many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America. Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico and its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo and this mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean, in the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe. To the east of the range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert, the state is home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California, the Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are on the Pacific Shore.
On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep, the first people came to the peninsula at least 11,000 years ago. At that time two main groups are thought to have been present on the peninsula. In the south were the Cochimí, in the north were several groups belonging to the Yuman language family, including the Kiliwa, Kumeyaay and Quechan
Hyder is a census-designated place in Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, United States. The population was 87 at the 2010 census, Hyder has achieved notice as a point in Alaska accessible to automobile and motorbike travelers in Canada and the United States who want to say that they have been to Alaska. Hyder is the easternmost town in Alaska and it sits about 2 miles from Stewart, British Columbia by road, and 75 miles from Ketchikan by air. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 14.8 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 97 people,47 households, the population density was 6.5 people per square mile. There were 72 housing units at a density of 4.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93 White, and 4 from two or more races, there was 1 Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19 of all households were made up of individuals and 3 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.81.
In the CDP, the population was out with 18 under 18,11 from 18 to 24,16 from 25 to 44,45 from 45 to 64. The median age was 46 years, there were 44 females and 53 males, of them 34 females were age 18 and over, as were 45 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $11,719, males had a median income of $56,250 versus $13,750 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $11,491, there were 44. 4% of families and 54. 1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 81. 0% under 18, and 50. 0% over 64. Stewart, British Columbia immediately borders Hyder and is accessible by road via International Street, outside of the town site, NFD-88 heads in a northerly direction winding through the Tongass National Forest, and enters the outer extent of Stewarts municipal limits continuing as Granduc Road. There are few roads, and no roads connect Hyder to any other Alaskan communities. The AMHS ferry that once connected Hyder to Ketchikan stopped running in the 1990s, mail at Hyder Seaplane Base as the only public transportation between Hyder and the rest of Alaska.
Electricity is maintained by the Tongass Power and Light Company and supplied by BC Hydro as part of a contract with the town. While most of Alaska is in area code 907, Hyder shares the Stewart 636 exchanges in area code 250, telus operates the network allowing local calls from Hyder to be placed to Stewart, while the Alaska Telephone Company handles billing and customer service. Alaska State Troopers patrol the town, but are not located in town, there is a small volunteer EMS team in Hyder, but there are no fire services in town
The Northwest Territories is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 and its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission. The Northwest Territories are bordered by Canadas two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south. The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the era to indicate where it lay in relation to Ruperts Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory, in Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, beautiful land. There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut, one proposal was Denendeh, as advocated by the former premier Stephen Kakfwi, among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory Bob – began as a prank, in the end a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name Northwest Territories.
This name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canadas north-central and it possibly meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has an area of 1,183,085 km2. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island and its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north, the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with highs in the mid teens Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C, extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, in the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, and lows can reach into the low negatives.
In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C, thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are extremely rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower, the Territory has a fairly dry climate due to the mountains in the west
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565