The Mountain States form one of the nine geographic divisions of the United States that are recognized by the United States Census Bureau. It is a subregion of the Western United States; the Mountain States are considered to include: Arizona, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming. The words "Mountain States" refer to the US States which encompass the US Rocky Mountains; these are oriented north-south through portions of the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Arizona and Nevada, as well as other parts of Utah and New Mexico, have other smaller mountain ranges and scattered mountains located in them as well. Sometimes, the Trans-Pecos area of West Texas is considered part of the region; the land area of the eight states together is some 855,767 square miles. The Mountain West is one of the largest and most diverse regions in the United States. Most regional boundaries of the Mountain West are looked at the area from the High Plains to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range; the southern and northern portions of the Mountain West are split into two separate regions.
The southern portion is called the Southwest region, while the northern portion is included in either the Northwest states or called the "Northern Rockies". Together with the Pacific States of Alaska, Hawaii and Washington, the Mountain States constitute the broader region of the West, one of the four regions the United States Census Bureau formally recognizes; the terrain of the Mountain West is more diverse than any other region in the United States. Its physical geography ranges from some of the highest mountain peaks in the continental United States, to large desert lands, rolling plains in the eastern portion of the region; the Mountain West states contain all of the major deserts found in North America. The Great Basin Desert is located in all of Nevada, western Utah, southern Idaho. Portions of the Mojave Desert are located in California, but over half of the desert is located in southern Nevada, in the Mountain West. Meanwhile, the Sonoran Desert is located in much of Arizona, the Chihuahuan Desert is located in most of southwestern and southern New Mexico, including White Sands and Jornada del Muerto.
Colorado has scattered desert lands in the southern and northwestern portions of the state, including the expansive San Luis Valley. Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona have other smaller desert lands, part of the Colorado Plateau; the Painted Desert is located in northern and northeastern Arizona, the San Rafael Desert is located in eastern Utah. New Mexico has other desert lands located in the northwest. Colorado has large desert lands on the Colorado plateau in the northwestern and southern parts of the state; these desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as Royal Gorge, Great Sand Dunes National Park, the San Luis Valley, Dove Creek, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, the Roan Plateau, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado National Monument, the Grand Mesa. The San Luis Valley is the largest high valley desert in the world. In the far-eastern portions of the Mountain West are the High Plains, a portion of the Great Plains; these plains consist of flat rolling land, with scattered buttes and forests located in these areas.
The High Plains receive little rainfall, sit at high elevations about 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Many people view the High Plains as the point where one begins to enter the greater Mountain West region; the Mountain West has some of the highest mountain peaks in America. Some of the more famous mountains in the Mountain West are Mount Elbert, Pikes Peak, Blanca Peak, Longs Peak, Kings Peak, Wind River Peak, Cloud Peak, Wheeler Peak, Truchas Peak, Granite Peak, Borah Peak, Humphreys Peak; the climate of the Mountain West is one of the more diverse climates in the United States. The entire region features a semi-arid to arid climate, with some alpine climates in the mountains of each state; some parts of the tall mountains can receive large amounts of snow and rain, while other parts of the region receive little rain, no snow at all. The High Plains in the eastern portion of the region receive moderate snowfalls, but little rain; the states of Nevada and Arizona are filled with desert lands and scattered mountain ranges.
Much of Nevada receives little to no snow in the southern portion of the state, while northern Nevada can receive large amounts of snow in and around the mountains, in the desert lands in Nevada. Arizona receives little rain or snow, but high elevations in and near mountains receive large amounts of rain and snow. Northern and northeastern Arizona display characteristics of a "High Desert", where the summers are hot and dry, while the winters can become cold, it can snow as well. Utah is generally large desert lands, with mountains as well. However, the desert lands in Utah receive significant snowfall, there are large amounts of snowfall on and around the mountains. Colorado and New Mexico have similar climates. Both states can receive significant snowfalls off the mountains, while the mountains in both states receive large amounts of snow; however and southwestern New Mexico does not receive much snow at all, similar to southern Nevada and southern Arizona. The desert lands found in northeastern Arizona, eastern Utah, northern New Mexico, western and southern Colorado are gener
James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He was the first sitting member of Congress to be elected to the presidency, remains the only sitting House member to gain the White House. Garfield entered politics as a Republican in 1857, he served as a member of the Ohio State Senate from 1859 to 1861. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, fought in the battles of Middle Creek and Chickamauga, he was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th District. Throughout Garfield's extended congressional service after the Civil War, he supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but favored a moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, gave the presidential nomination speech for him.
When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get enough votes to secure the nomination, delegates chose Garfield as a compromise on the 36th ballot. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a low-key front porch campaign and narrowly defeated Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield's accomplishments as president included a resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, purging corruption in the Post Office, appointing a U. S. Supreme Court justice, he enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, civil rights for African Americans, he proposed substantial civil service reforms. On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D.
C. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker; the wound was not fatal for Garfield, but he succumbed on September 19, 1881. Guiteau was executed for the murder of Garfield in June 1882. Historians forgo listing Garfield in rankings of U. S. presidents due to the short duration of his presidency. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19, 1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Ohio. Orange Township had been in the Western Reserve until 1800, like many who settled there, Garfield's ancestors were from New England, his ancestor, Edward Garfield immigrating from Hillmorton, England, to Massachusetts in around 1630. James' father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York, came to Ohio to woo his childhood sweetheart, Mehitabel Ballou, only to find her married, he instead wed her sister Eliza, born in New Hampshire. James was named for an older brother. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, a decision that would help shape their youngest son's life.
Abram Garfield died that year. James was her favorite child, the two remained close for the rest of his life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her second husband, Warren Belden, a then-scandalous divorce was awarded against her in 1850. James took his mother's side and when Belden died in 1880, noted the fact in his diary with satisfaction. Garfield enjoyed his mother's stories about his ancestry his Welsh great-great-grandfathers and his ancestor who served as a knight of Caerffili Castle. Poor and fatherless, Garfield was mocked by his fellow boys, throughout his life was sensitive to slights, he escaped through reading. He left home at age 16 in 1847. Rejected by the only ship in port in Cleveland, Garfield instead found work on a canal boat, responsible for managing the mules that pulled it; this labor would be used to good effect by Horatio Alger, who penned Garfield's campaign biography in 1880. After six weeks, illness forced Garfield to return home and, during his recuperation, his mother and a local education official got him to promise to postpone his return to the canals for a year and go to school.
Accordingly, in 1848, he began in nearby Chester Township. Garfield said of his childhood, "I lament that I was born to poverty, in this chaos of childhood, seventeen years passed before I caught any inspiration... a precious 17 years when a boy with a father and some wealth might have become fixed in manly ways." At Geauga Academy, which he attended from 1848 to 1850, Garfield learned academic subjects he had not had time for. He shone as a student, was interested in languages and elocution, he began to appreciate the power a speaker had over an audience, writing that the speaker's platform "creates some excitement. I love agitation and investigation and glory in defending unpopular truth against popular error." Geauga was co-educational, Garfield was attracted to one of his fellow students, Lucretia Rudolph, whom he married. To support himself at Geauga, he worked as a teacher; the need to go from town to town to find a place as a teacher disguste
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
1864 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1864, the 20th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864. In the midst of the American Civil War, incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party defeated the Democratic nominee, former General George B. McClellan, by a wide margin of 221-21 electoral votes, with 55% of the popular vote. For the election, the Republican Party and some Democrats created the National Union Party to attract War Democrats. Despite some intra-party opposition from Salmon Chase and the Radical Republicans, Lincoln won his party's nomination at the 1864 National Union National Convention. Rather than re-nominate Vice President Hannibal Hamlin, the convention selected Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a War Democrat, as Lincoln's running mate. John C. Frémont ran as the nominee of the Radical Democracy Party, which criticized Lincoln for being too moderate on the issue of racial equality, but Frémont withdrew from the race in September.
The Democrats were divided between the Copperheads, who favored immediate peace with the Confederacy, War Democrats, who wished to continue the war. The 1864 Democratic National Convention nominated McClellan, a War Democrat, but adopted a platform advocating peace with the Confederacy, which McClellan rejected. Despite his early fears of defeat, Lincoln won strong majorities in the popular and electoral vote as a result of the recent Union victory at the Battle of Atlanta; as the Civil War was still raging, no electoral votes were counted from any of the eleven southern states that had joined the Confederate States of America. Lincoln's re-election ensured. Lincoln's victory made him the first president to win re-election since Andrew Jackson in 1832, as well as the first Northern president to win re-election. Lincoln was assassinated less than two months into his second term, he was succeeded by Andrew Johnson, who had to work toward emancipation of all slaves; because Lincoln was elected on the National Union ticket, as the name the Republican Party used during the Civil War, he is technically the most-recent individual outside of the Republican or Democratic parties to win a presidential election.
The Presidential election of 1864 took place during the American Civil War. According to the Miller Center for the study of the presidency, the election was noteworthy for occurring at all, an unprecedented democratic exercise in the midst of a civil war. A group of Republican dissidents who called themselves Radical Republicans formed a party named the Radical Democracy Party and nominated John C. Frémont as their candidate for president. Frémont withdrew and endorsed Lincoln. In the Border States, War Democrats joined with Republicans as the National Union Party, with Lincoln at the head of the ticket; the National Union Party was a temporary name used to attract War Democrats and Border State Unionists who would not vote for the Republican Party. It faced off including Peace Democrats; the 1864 presidential election conventions of the parties are considered below in order of the party's popular vote. National Union candidates: Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant, Commanding General from Illinois As the Civil War progressed, political opinions within the Republican Party began to diverge.
Senators Charles Sumner and Henry Wilson from Massachusetts wanted the Republican Party to advocate constitutional amendments to prohibit slavery and guarantee racial equality before the law. Not all northern Republicans supported such measures. Democratic leaders hoped that the radical Republicans would put forth their own ticket in the election; the New York World interested in undermining the National Union Party, ran a series of articles predicting a delay for the National Union Convention until late in 1864 to allow Frémont time to collect delegates to win the nomination. Frémont supporters in New York City established a newspaper called the New Nation, which declared in one of its initial issues that the National Union Convention would be a "nonentity". Before the election, some War Democrats joined the Republicans to form the National Union Party. With the outcome of the Civil War still in doubt, some political leaders, including Salmon P. Chase, Benjamin Wade, Horace Greeley, opposed Lincoln's re-nomination on the grounds that he could not win.
Chase himself became the only candidate to contest Lincoln's re-nomination but he withdrew in March when a slew of Republican officials, including some within the state of Ohio upon whom Chase's campaign depended, endorsed Lincoln for re-nomination. Lincoln was still popular with most members of the Republican Party, the National Union Party nominated him for a second term as president at their convention in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 7–8, 1864; the party platform included these goals: "pursuit of the war, until the Confederacy surrendered unconditionally. It praised the use of black troops and Lincoln's management of the war. Andrew Johnson, the former senator from and current military governor of Tennessee, was named as Lincoln's vice presidential running-mate; the choice of Andrew Johnson as Lincoln's running mate was a politically calculated move by the Republican Party to ensure the electoral votes of the border states. Others who were considered for the nomination, at one point or another, were former Senator Daniel Dickinson, Major General Benjamin Butler, Major General William Rosecrans, Joseph
James Buchanan Jr. was the 15th president of the United States, serving prior to the American Civil War. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the 17th United States secretary of state and had served in the Senate and House of Representatives before becoming president. Buchanan was born in Pennsylvania, to parents of Ulster Scots descent, he became a prominent lawyer in Lancaster and won election to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a Federalist. In 1820, Buchanan won election to the United States House of Representatives becoming aligned with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. After serving as Jackson's Minister to Russia, Buchanan won election as a senator from Pennsylvania. In 1845, he accepted appointment as President James K. Polk's Secretary of State. A major contender for his party's presidential nomination throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Buchanan won his party's nomination in 1856, defeating incumbent President Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the 1856 Democratic National Convention.
Buchanan and his running mate, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, defeated Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 election. Shortly after his election, Buchanan lobbied the Supreme Court to issue a broad ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he endorsed as president, he allied with the South in attempting to gain the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. In the process, he alienated both Republican abolitionists and Northern Democrats, most of whom supported the principle of popular sovereignty in determining a new state's slaveholding status, he was called a "doughface", a Northerner with Southern sympathies, he fought with Douglas, the leader of the popular sovereignty faction, for control of the Democratic Party. In the midst of the growing sectional crisis, the Panic of 1857 struck the nation. Buchanan indicated in his 1857 inaugural address that he would not seek a second term, he kept his word and did not run for re-election in the 1860 presidential election.
Buchanan supported the North during the Civil War and publicly defended himself against charges that he was responsible for the war. He died in 1868 at age 77, was the last president to be born in the eighteenth century, he is the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Buchanan wished and aspired to be a president who would rank in history with George Washington, by using his tendencies toward neutrality and impartiality. Historians fault him, for his failure to address the issue of slavery and the secession of the southern states, bringing the nation to the brink of civil war, his inability to address the divided pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans with a unifying principle on the brink of the Civil War has led to his consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Historians who participated in a 2006 survey voted his failure to deal with secession as the worst presidential mistake made. James Buchanan Jr. was born in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, in Franklin County, on April 23, 1791, to James Buchanan, Sr. a businessman and farmer, Elizabeth Speer, an educated woman.
His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent, his father having emigrated from Milford, County Donegal, Ireland, in 1783. One of eleven siblings, Buchanan was the oldest child in the family to survive infancy. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, in 1794 the family moved to Mercersburg itself. Buchanan's father became the wealthiest person in town, having attained success as a merchant and real estate investor. Buchanan attended the village academy and, starting in 1807, Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Though he was nearly expelled at one point for poor behavior, he pleaded for a second chance and subsequently graduated with honors on September 19, 1809; that year, he moved to Lancaster, which, at the time, was the capital of Pennsylvania. James Hopkins, the most prominent lawyer in Lancaster, accepted Buchanan as a student, in 1812 Buchanan was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar after an oral exam. Though many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg, after it became the capital of Pennsylvania in 1812, Lancaster would remain Buchanan's home town for the rest of his life.
Buchanan's income rose after he established his own practice and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year. Buchanan handled various types of cases, including a high-profile impeachment trial in which he defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin. Buchanan began his political career in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a member of the Federalist Party; the legislature met for only three months a year, Buchanan's notoriety as a legislator helped him earn clients for his legal practice. Like his father, Buchanan believed in federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, a national bank, he emerged as a strong critic of the leadership of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812. When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore after enlisting as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers or light dragoons. Buchanan is the only president with military experience who did not, at some point, serve as an officer.
An active Freemason, he was the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. By 1820, the F
1868 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1868 was the 21st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1868. In the first election of the Reconstruction Era, Republican nominee Ulysses S. Grant defeated Democrat Horatio Seymour, it was the first presidential election to take place after the conclusion of the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Incumbent President Andrew Johnson had succeeded to the presidency in 1865 following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican. Johnson, a War Democrat from Tennessee, had served as Lincoln's running mate in 1864 on the National Union ticket, designed to attract Republicans and War Democrats. Upon accession to office, Johnson clashed with the Republican Congress over Reconstruction policies and was nearly removed from office. Johnson received some support for another term at the 1868 Democratic National Convention, after several ballots, the Democratic convention nominated Governor Seymour of New York; the 1868 Republican National Convention unanimously nominated General Grant, the highest-ranking Union general at the end of the Civil War.
The Democrats criticized the Republican Reconstruction policies, "campaigned explicitly on an anti-black, pro-white platform," while Republicans campaigned on Grant's popularity and the Union victory in the Civil War. Grant decisively won the electoral vote. In addition to his appeal in the North, Grant benefited from votes among the newly enfranchised freedmen in the South, while the temporary political disfranchisement of many Southern whites helped Republican margins; as three of the former Confederate states were not yet restored to the Union, their electors could not vote in the election. It was the first election in which African Americans could vote in the Reconstructed Southern states, in accordance with the First Reconstruction Act. Reconstruction and civil rights of former slaves was a hotly debated issue in the Union. Grant supported the Reconstruction plans of the Radical Republicans in Congress, which favored the 14th Amendment, with full citizenship and civil rights for freedpeople, including suffrage for adult freedmen.
The Democratic platform condemned "Negro supremacy," and demanded a restoration of states' rights, including the right of southern states to determine for themselves whether to allow suffrage for adult freedmen. By 1868, the Republicans felt strong enough to drop the Union Party label, but wanted to nominate a popular hero for their presidential candidate; the Democratic Party controlled many large Northern states that had a great percentage of the electoral votes. General Ulysses S. Grant announced he was a Republican and was unanimously nominated on the first ballot as the party's standard bearer at the Republican convention in Chicago, held on May 20–21, 1868. House Speaker Schuyler Colfax, a Radical Republican from Indiana, was nominated for vice-president on the sixth ballot, beating out the early favorite, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio; the Republican platform supported black suffrage in the South as part of the passage to full citizenship for former slaves. It agreed to let northern states decide individually.
It opposed using greenbacks to redeem U. S. bonds, encouraged immigration, endorsed full rights for naturalized citizens, favored Radical Reconstruction as distinct from the more lenient policy of President Andrew Johnson. The Democratic National Convention was held in New York City between July 4, July 9, 1868; the front-runner in the early balloting was George H. Pendleton, who led on the first fifteen ballots, followed in varying order by incumbent president Andrew Johnson, Winfield Scott Hancock, Sanford Church, Asa Packer, Joel Parker, James E. English, James Rood Doolittle, Thomas A. Hendricks; the unpopular Johnson, having narrowly survived impeachment, won sixty-five votes on the first ballot, less than one-third of the total necessary for nomination, thus lost his bid for election as president in his own right. Meanwhile, the convention chairman Horatio Seymour, former governor of New York, received nine votes on the fourth ballot from the state of North Carolina; this unexpected move caused "loud and enthusiastic cheering," but Seymour refused, saying, I must not be nominated by this Convention, as I could not accept the nomination if tendered.
My own inclination prompted me to decline at the outset. It is impossible with my position, to allow my name to be mentioned in this Convention against my protest; the clerk will proceed with the call. By the seventh ballot Pendleton and Hendricks had emerged as the two front-runners, with Hancock the only other candidate with much support by this point. After numerous indecisive ballots, the names of John T. Hoffman, Francis P. Blair, Stephen Johnson Field were placed in nomination. None of these candidates, gained substantial support. For twenty-one ballots, the opposing candidates battled it out: the East battling the West for control, the conservatives battling the radicals. Pendleton's support collapsed after the 15th ballot, but went to Hancock rather than Hendricks, leaving the convention still deadlocked; the two leading candidates were determined. Seymour still hoped it would be Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, but on the twenty-second ballot, the chairman of the Ohio delegation announced, "at the unanimous request and demand of the delegation I place Horatio Seymour in nomination with twenty-one votes-against his inclination, but no longer against his honor."
Seymour had to wait for the rousing cheers to die
1900 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1900 was the 29th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1900. In a re-match of the 1896 race, Republican President William McKinley defeated his Democratic challenger, William Jennings Bryan. McKinley's victory made him the first president to win consecutive re-election since Ulysses S. Grant had accomplished the same feat in 1872. McKinley and Bryan each faced little opposition within their own party. Although some Gold Democrats explored the possibility of a campaign by Admiral George Dewey, Bryan was re-nominated at the 1900 Democratic National Convention after Dewey withdrew from the race. McKinley was unanimously re-nominated at the 1900 Republican National Convention; as Vice President Garret Hobart had died in 1899, the Republican convention chose New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt as McKinley's running mate. The return of economic prosperity and recent victory in the Spanish–American War helped McKinley to score a decisive victory, while Bryan's anti-imperialist stance and continued support for bimetallism attracted only limited support.
McKinley won 51.6 % of the popular vote. The election results were similar to those of 1896, though McKinley picked up several Western states and Bryan picked up Kentucky. McKinley was succeeded by Roosevelt; the 926 delegates to the Republican convention, which met in Philadelphia on June 19–21, re-nominated William McKinley by acclamation. Thomas C. Platt, the "boss" of the New York State Republican Party, did not like Theodore Roosevelt, New York's popular governor though he was a fellow Republican. Roosevelt's efforts to reform New York politics – including Republican politics – led Platt and other state Republican leaders to pressure President McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his new vice- presidential candidate, thus filling the spot left open when Vice President Garret Hobart died in 1899. By electing Roosevelt vice president, Platt would remove Roosevelt from New York state politics. Although Roosevelt was reluctant to accept the nomination for vice president, which he regarded as a trivial and powerless office, his great popularity among most Republican delegates led McKinley to pick him as his new running mate.
Quite unexpectedly, Roosevelt would be elevated to the presidency in September 1901, when McKinley was assassinated in Buffalo, New York. After Admiral George Dewey's return from the Spanish–American War, many suggested that he run for president on the Democratic ticket. Dewey, had angered some Protestants by marrying the Catholic Mildred McLean Hazen in November 1899 and giving her the house that the nation had given him following the war, his candidacy was almost plagued by a number of public relations gaffes. Newspapers started attacking him as naïve after he was quoted as saying the job of president would be easy, since the chief executive was following orders in executing the laws enacted by Congress, that he would "execute the laws of Congress as faithfully as I have always executed the orders of my superiors." Shortly thereafter, he admitted never having voted in a presidential election before, mentioning that the only man he would have voted for, had he voted, would have been Grover Cleveland.
He drew more criticism when he offhandedly told a newspaper reporter that, "Our next war will be with Germany."Dewey's campaign was met with a level of pessimism by Gold Democrats on whose support his campaign depended. Some threw their support to Bryan, since they believed him to be the stronger candidate; as early as three days into his candidacy, his campaign having been damaged by the aforementioned missteps, rumors abounded regarding Dewey's impending withdrawal which proved false. Further injuries, were made when it became clear that the Democratic Party leaders of Vermont were hostile to Dewey and wholly committed to Bryan. Ohio went for Bryan, though with the caveat there that some leaders suggested that all mention to silver in the party platform be dropped. By May 5, John Roll McLean, the brother-in-law of and effective campaign manager for Dewey, defected from the campaign and was considered to now be silently supporting Bryan. By May 17, Dewey recognized that there was little chance for him to gather enough delegates among the Western and Southern states to keep Bryan from attaining two-thirds of the delegates at the convention, publicly commenting that he no longer knew why he had decided to run for president at all.
After this there was a major boom for his nomination as vice president on the ticket alongside Bryan. William Jennings Bryan was faced with little real opposition. Bryan won at the 1900 Democratic National Convention held at Kansas City, Missouri, on July 4–6, garnering 936 delegate votes for the nomination. Source: US President – D Convention. Our Campaigns.. Official or speculated candidates for the vice-presidential nomination: As the nation's third largest party, the Populists had made an organizational decision in 1896 to "fuse" with the Democratic Party on the national level - their identity kept separate by the nomination of two different candidates for vice-president. At the state level, local Populist parties were left at liberty to proceed. In the Plains states, the Populists fused with the Democrats, in some states replaced them entirely. In the South, the Populists fused with the Republican Party; the end result, though Bryan