The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Workhorse Group Incorporated is an American manufacturing company based in Cincinnati, Ohio focused on manufacturing electrically powered delivery and utility vehicles. The company was founded in 1998 by investors who took over the production of General Motors' P30/P32 series stepvan and motorhome chassis. By 2005 they were taken over by Navistar International, selling them diesel engines since before. Navistar shuttered the plant in 2012, to cut costs after having suffered heavy losses. In March 2015 AMP Electric Vehicles took over Workhorse Custom Chassis, changing the company name to Workhorse Group Incorporated, began offering a range of electrically powered delivery vans; as of 2016, the company offers the familiar W62 chassis and a newer, narrow-tracked version called the W88. Their first product was the P-series, based on the Chevrolet/GMC P30-series stepvan/mobile home chassis. An earlier version was the W42 chassis, they were managerially involved with the construction of Navistar's eStar electric van, until it too was cancelled in early 2013.
Workhorse briefly offered an integrated chassis/body model called the MetroStar, hearkening back to the long-lived International Harvester Metro Van line. There were the low-floor bus chassis, as well as a rear-engined recreational vehicle chassis called the UFO. In November 2016, Workhorse announced that they were working on an electrically powered pickup truck, called the W-15. North Carolina's Duke Energy has stated that it will buy 500 of the vehicles, the city of Orlando is interested, it is scheduled to have a battery range of 80 miles. A gasoline range extender supplies further range. In December 2018, Workhorse announced that they were debuting its SureFly, an electric vertical take off and landing octocopter at the 2019 North American International Auto Show; the SureFly would be built for Air medical services, military organizations, agricultural customers, for urban commuting. Multi-stop truck Navistar International Official website
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Arbeit macht frei
Arbeit macht frei is a German phrase meaning "work sets you free". The slogan is known for appearing on the entrance of other Nazi concentration camps; the expression comes from the title of an 1873 novel by German philologist Lorenz Diefenbach, Arbeit macht frei: Erzählung von Lorenz Diefenbach, in which gamblers and fraudsters find the path to virtue through labour. The phrase was used in French by Auguste Forel, a Swiss entomologist and psychiatrist, in his Fourmis de la Suisse. In 1922, the Deutsche Schulverein of Vienna, an ethnic nationalist "protective" organization of Germans within the Austrian empire, printed membership stamps with the phrase Arbeit macht frei. According to visitcracow.com: “In the 1930s, they promoted programs against unemployment through this sentence. The slogan Arbeit macht frei was placed at the entrances to a number of Nazi concentration camps; the slogan's use was implemented by SS officer Theodor Eicke at Dachau concentration camp and copied by Rudolf Höss at Auschwitz.
The slogan can still be seen at several sites, including over the entrance to Auschwitz I where the sign was erected by order of commandant Rudolf Höss. The Auschwitz I sign was made by prisoner-labourers including master blacksmith Jan Liwacz, features an upside-down B, interpreted as an act of defiance by the prisoners who made it. In 1933 the first political prisoners were being rounded up for an indefinite period without charges, they were held in a number of places in Germany. The slogan was first used over the gate of a "wild camp" in the city of Oranienburg, set up in an abandoned brewery in March 1933, it can be seen at the Dachau, Gross-Rosen, Theresienstadt camps, as well as at Fort Breendonk in Belgium. It has been claimed; the slogan appeared at the Flossenbürg camp on the left gate post at the camp entry. The original gate posts survive in another part of the camp. Primo Levi describes seeing the words illuminated over a doorway at Monowitz. In 1938 the Austrian political cabaret writer Jura Soyfer and the composer Herbert Zipper, while prisoners at Dachau Concentration Camp, wrote the Dachaulied, or The Dachau Song.
They had spent weeks marching in and out of the camp's gate to daily forced labour, considered the motto Arbeit macht frei over the gate an insult. The song repeats the phrase cynically as a "lesson" taught by Dachau. In The Kingdom of Auschwitz, Otto Friedrich wrote about Rudolf Höss, regarding his decision to display the motto so prominently at the Auschwitz entrance: He seems not to have intended it as a mockery, nor to have intended it as a false promise that those who worked to exhaustion would be released, but rather as a kind of mystical declaration that self-sacrifice in the form of endless labour does in itself bring a kind of spiritual freedom; the signs are prominently displayed, were seen by all prisoners and staff—all of whom knew, suspected, or learned that prisoners confined there would only be freed by death. The signs' psychological impact was tremendous; the Arbeit Macht Frei sign over the Auschwitz I gate was stolen in December 2009 and recovered by authorities in three pieces.
Anders Högström, a Swedish neo-Nazi, two Polish men were jailed as a result. The original sign is now in storage at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum and a replica was put over the gate in its place. On 2 November 2014, the sign over the Dachau gate was stolen, it was found on 28 November 2016 under a tarpaulin at a parking lot in Ytre Arna, a settlement north of Bergen, Norway's second-largest city. Extermination through labour Jedem das Seine, a motto used at the Buchenwald concentration camp. Media related to Arbeit Macht Frei at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of'Arbeit macht frei' at Wiktionary Rudy Owens: Photographs of Arbeit Macht Frei sign
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
The Grand Tour
The Grand Tour is a British motoring television series, conceived by Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond, James May, Andy Wilman, produced by Amazon Studios, launched on 18 November 2016, made for streaming from Amazon Prime Video. The programme's format is similar to that of the BBC series Top Gear: each episode is hosted by Clarkson and May, features a mixture of live-audience segments and pre-recorded films, focuses on reviews of cars, discussions on motoring topics, celebrity timed laps and special motoring challenges; the programme was conceived when Clarkson was dismissed from Top Gear, as a result of a disciplinary investigation by the BBC of his behaviour during and behind-the-scenes of the series of the programme, with Hammond and Wilman subsequently leaving the programme in the wake of his dismissal. All four were approached by Amazon Prime to create a brand new programme. Episodes are released weekly to those Amazon Prime Video accounts, repeats of the first series were made available on traditional broadcasters in late 2017.
Until the beginning of the second series, studio segments were filmed using a travelling tent in various countries, before it was decided to set it in a permanent location in the Cotswolds. As of December 2016 the show was made available to 195 more countries and various territories, has attracted favourable viewing figures after "The Holy Trinity" became Amazon Video's most watched premiere episode. Overall, the show has received positive reviews from critics; the programme operates on a similar format that Wilman, the show's producer, Clarkson and May, the show's presenters, all used during their tenure on Top Gear, though with significant differences to avoid clashing with their former motoring programme. Episodes consist of a mix of pre-recorded television films and live-audience segments. Pre-recorded films consist of car reviews and motoring challenges, episodes will either use a mix of one or both, with the latter either consisting of single or multi-parts. Challenges function in a similar format to those of Top Gear challenges - special races and testing out a unique vehicle based on a car, or buying cheap cars and determining, the best, with challenges denoted to the presenters by Wilman through text messages.
Examples of these challenges include building their own eco-friendly car chassis atop a Land Rover, racing through different forms of transportation. Like the specials of Top Gear, The Grand Tour features unique specials focused on a singular type of vehicle or class that the hosts use to travel along a route in a foreign locale. Car reviews, which remain a prominent part of the programme, are done on a similar format to Top Gear, in that one or more cars are reviewed by a single or multiple presenters, put through various tests to check out aspects of the car, with reviews filmed either around the United Kingdom or abroad, or took place upon a specially designed racetrack, created for The Grand Tour, much like the Top Gear Test Track. Timed laps of the reviewed car remain a part of the programme, though are driven by a specially trained driver who functions in a similar manner to Top Gear's "The Stig". In the first series, the cars were driven by former NASCAR driver Mike Skinner, contracted to operate under the name "The American" and portray a stereotypical redneck accent and viewpoints, making tangential speech and calling several things communist.
After the first series, Skinner was dropped due to poor reception from viewers on his appearance on the programme, leading him to be replaced by British racing driver Abbie Eaton for the second series. Studio segments are filmed within a large studio tent that can house an audience of around 300, with the presenters sat around a trestle table and the audience seated in front of them; the first series involved these segments being filmed within a travelling tent, set up in various countries, with audiences acquired for the locale used for filming of the studio segments, as part of an emphasis that the programme was on a Grand Tour around the world, but in the wake of Hammond's crash in Switzerland and Clarkson's pneumonia prior to the second series, the use of a travelling tent was dropped and a more fixed location was established, with studio segments for the second series onwards being filmed on the outskirts of Chipping Norton. These live-audience segments act as breaks between pre-recorded films and are based on a similar format the presenters used on Top Gear, but with unique versions created for The Grand Tour.
A continuously used segment based on a similar one for Top Gear, entitled "Conversation Street", focuses on the presenters discussing car news - this segment is introduced by a video introduction of silhouettes of the presenters discussing something, accompanied by a jazz piece called "Heavy Berry" by Scott Robinson, with a running gag on the programme being that this introduction features something different and comedic happening in each episode since it first premiered. Celebrities were not part of the programme to begin with due to concerns over legal issues from the BBC towards their involvement competing to the celebrity format used in Top Gear - to reflect this opinion, the programme created a humourous "celebrity" segment for the first series entitled "Celebrity Brain Crash", which involved look-alikes of popular celebrities getting humorously "killed" in an accident while making their way to the tent, reflecting this matter; this segment was dropped in response to complaints made by viewers, leading to the decision that celebrities would be a part of the program