Paclitaxel, sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, it is given by injection into a vein. There is an albumin-bound formulation. Common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, allergic reactions, muscle pains, diarrhea. Other serious side effects include heart problems, increased risk of infection, lung inflammation. There are concerns. Paclitaxel is in the taxane family of medications, it works by interference with the normal function of microtubules during cell division. Paclitaxel was first isolated in 1971 from the Pacific yew and approved for medical use in 1993, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$7.06–13.48 per 100 mg vial. This amount in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 66.85 GBP.
It has been made from precursors, more through cell culture. Paclitaxel is approved in the UK for ovarian, lung, prostate, melanoma and other types of solid tumor cancers as well as Kaposi's sarcoma, it is recommended in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance of June 2001 that it should be used for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients unsuitable for curative treatment, in first-line and second-line treatment of ovarian cancer. In September 2001, NICE recommended paclitaxel should be available for the treatment of advanced breast cancer after the failure of anthracyclic chemotherapy, but that its first-line use should be limited to clinical trials. In September 2006, NICE recommended paclitaxel should not be used in the adjuvant treatment of early node-positive breast cancer. In 2018, it is approved in the United States for the treatment of breast, ovarian, Kaposi's sarcoma and non-small-cell lung cancers. Albumin-bound paclitaxel is an alternative formulation where paclitaxel is bound to albumin nanoparticles.
Much of the clinical toxicity of paclitaxel is associated with the solvent Cremophor EL in which it is dissolved for delivery. Abraxis BioScience developed Abraxane, in which paclitaxel is bonded to albumin as an alternative delivery agent to the toxic solvent delivery method; this was approved by the FDA in January 2005 for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within six months of adjuvant chemotherapy. It has since been approved for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas as well. Synthetic approaches to paclitaxel production led to the development of docetaxel. Docetaxel has a similar set of clinical uses to paclitaxel, it is marketed under the brand name Taxotere. Taxanes, including paclitaxel, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, baccatin III, paclitaxel C, 7-epipaclitaxel, have been found in the leaves and shells of hazel; the finding of these compounds in shells, which are considered discarded material and are mass-produced by many food industries, is of interest for the future availability of paclitaxel.
Paclitaxel is used as an antiproliferative agent for the prevention of restenosis of coronary and peripheral stents. Paclitaxel drug-eluting stents for coronary artery placement are sold under the trade name Taxus by Boston Scientific in the United States. Paclitaxel drug-eluting stents for femoropopliteal artery placement are available. Common side effects include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, change in taste, thinned or brittle hair, pain in the joints of the arms or legs lasting two to three days, changes in the color of the nails, tingling in the hands or toes. More serious side effects such as unusual bruising or bleeding, redness or swelling at the injection site, hand-foot syndrome, change in normal bowel habits for more than two days, chills, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, severe exhaustion, skin rash, facial flushing, female infertility by ovarian damage, chest pain can occur. Neuropathy may occur. Dexamethasone is given prior to paclitaxel infusion to mitigate some of the side effects.
A number of these side effects are associated with the excipient used, Cremophor EL, a polyoxyethylated castor oil, allergies to cyclosporine and other drugs containing polyoxyethylated castor oil may increase the risk of adverse reactions to paclitaxel. Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs. Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, cell division. Unlike other tubulin-targeting drugs, such as colchicine, that inhibit microtubule assembly, paclitaxel stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects it from disassembly. Chromosomes are thus unable to achieve a metaphase spindle configuration; this blocks the progression of mitosis and prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers apoptosis or reversion to the G0-phase of the cell cycle without cell division. The ability of paclitaxel to inhibit spindle function is attributed to its suppression of microtubule dynamics, but other studies have demonstrated that suppression of dynamics occurs at concentrations lower than those needed to block mitosis.
At the higher therapeutic concentrations, paclitaxel appears to suppress microtubule detachment from centrosomes, a process activated during m
Wanted is a 2004 Indian Malayalam-language thriller film directed by Murali Nagavally and written by Priyadarshan. It is a remake of the 2003 Telugu film Aithe; the film stars Madhu Warrier, Aravind Akash and Nishanth Sagar. The film did moderately at the box-office. Wanted movie revolves around Unni, Nandu and Chupran who are friends who are unemployed but have a lot of liabilities in life. Unni aspires to become a police officer. Mani is a loner, willing to take any risk in life to make fast money and Chupran is taunted by his parents at home. Anu is in their gang and she needs money for her father's heart operation. Meanwhile, Mohammed Ibrahim, a dreaded don, wanted by the Mumbai police, flees to Kerala and lands in the same city. There is a sum of Rs 75 Lakhs announced on his head by the police but Ibrahim hatches a plan to escape from India, by hijacking a plane with a union minister in it, he promises money to the young gang and seeks their help but in a fantastic twist in the aircraft, they kidnap Ibrahim for the bounty he carries!
But little do they realise that the criminals were hand-in-glove with the state police who try to track the youngsters. Now there is Narayana Swamy, a sincere and efficient CBI officer from Mumbai, out to track down Ibrahim. Mohanlal as CBI Officer Narayana Swamy Madhu Warrier as Unni Aravind Akash as Nandu Nishanth Sagar as Mani Aniyappan as Chupran Sujitha as Anu Sreenivasan as Khadar Vijayaraghavan as Nambiar Captain Raju as City Police Commissioner Innocent as Unni's Uncle Jagathy Sreekumar as Adv. Supru Murthy Venu Nagavalli as A. C. P Krishnadas Vijayakumar as C. I Sreekanth Sukumari as Unni's Mother Bharath Gopi as Anu’s Father Adithya Menon as Mohammed Ibrahim’s Friend Nivia Rebin as Unni's Lover Manka Mahesh as Sivakami Abu Salim as Police Officer T. P. Madhavan as Politician Krishna Prasad as Ramu Deepika Mohan as Nandu’s Mother Wanted on IMDb
La Choy is a brand name of canned and prepackaged American Chinese food ingredients. The brand was purchased in 1990 from Beatrice Foods by ConAgra Foods during the LBO firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts' dismantling of the company and is still a property of ConAgra; the company was founded in 1922 by Dr. Ilhan New founder of Yuhan Corporation in South Korea, Wally Smith from the University of Michigan; the first product, canned mung bean sprouts, was sold in Smith's Detroit, grocery store. New left the company for personal reasons in 1930, Smith was killed by lightning in 1937. Regardless, the company flourished. By the late 1930s, management at the firm had developed a comprehensive line of food products, including bean sprouts, soy sauce, kumquats, water chestnuts, brown sauce, bamboo shoots, chow mein noodles; the company had capitalized on the growing fascination Americans had with the Orient, including an different type of cuisine. In 1937, the company built its first manufacturing facility in Detroit, featuring 60,000 square feet of production space.
To reduce overhead costs and maintain profitability during World War II, management decided to relocate the company from its facility in Detroit about 90 mi to Archbold, Ohio. Selling its Detroit plant to the federal government for the production of munitions, the proceeds from the sale enabled the company to start a new era in its history. On June 23, 1957, three principals of the La Choy company, all from Archbold, appeared as contestants on the TV panel show What's My Line; as all three men had Irish surnames, they managed to stump the panel. A popular advertising jingle from the 1970s included the slogan "LaChoy makes Chinese food swing American." Early in his career, Jim Henson created a series of television commercials from 1965-1967 featuring a Full-Bodied Muppet character called Delbert the La Choy Dragon which used the catchphrase "quick cooked in dragon fire" to describe the product. Delbert was accompanied in commercials by a timid character named Mert. Delbert was one of Oz's few full-bodied Muppet performances, since he didn't like performing in their costumes.
Mein gon Chop suey Chow mein sandwich Official website La Choy at ConAgra Foods