Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
The Cenepa War known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory near the border between the two countries. The two nations had signed a border treaty following the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941, but Ecuador disagreed with the treaty as it applied to the Cenepa and Paquisha areas, in 1960 Ecuador declared the treaty null and void. Mediation efforts of Argentina, Brazil and the United States paved the way for the opening of diplomatic conversations that led to the signing of a definitive peace agreement on 26 October 1998; the peace agreement was followed by the formal demarcation of the border on 13 May 1999 and the end of the multi-national MOMEP troop deployment on 17 June 1999 which put an end to one of the longest territorial disputes in the Western Hemisphere. It is, as of 2018, the most recent military conflict in the Americas between countries contesting sovereignty over territory.
The Cenepa War was the most recent military clash between Ecuador and Peru over a long-standing territorial dispute that dated back to the first decades of the 19th century, when both countries came into being after the Wars of Independence of the Spanish colonies in South America. In modern times there were three previous military confrontations: War Ecuadorian-Peruvian 1858, a full-scale war in 1941, a brief clash in 1981, both of which had seen the Peruvian military forces prevailing over the Ecuadorian military. Most of the fighting of the Cenepa war was centered around the control of several outposts located on the headwaters of the Cenepa River, a highland area covered with dense Amazonian jungle, inside a 78 km-long strip of territory where the process of demarcation between Ecuador and Peru remained stalled since 1951. One of the outposts causing the dispute, called Tiwintza by the Ecuadorians, Tiwinza by the Peruvians, came to symbolize the war because of the bitter clashes that took place around it, the emotional importance that both sides attached to its possession.
The conflict continued until the signing of a ceasefire and the eventual separation of forces, supervised by the MOMEP, a multinational mission of military observers from the "guarantor" countries of the 1942 Rio Protocol: Argentina, Brazil and the USA. The Cenepa war ended up producing far-reaching consequences for relations between Peru; the military outcome of the brief conflict, no vindicating the Ecuadorian armed forces after the disappointing results of the war of 1858, 1941, 1981, by calling to the attention of the Peruvians the need for a resolution of a problem, paved the way for a definitive settlement of the border issues. Thus, in the aftermath of the war, both nations, brokered by the "guarantors" of the Rio Protocol, entered into a long and difficult negotiation process that concluded with the signing of a Peace Treaty in 1998, the closing of the hitherto un-demarcated stretch of common border, deep in the Amazonian rainforest. Following the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941, both countries had signed in 1942 a Peace Treaty known as the Rio Protocol.
This treaty — brokered by the USA, Brazil and Argentina, which became known as the "guarantors" of the peace settlement — had the main purpose of defining the hitherto badly defined borders between Ecuador and Peru. The process of demarcation, begun in mid-1942, came to a halt in 1948, when populist Ecuadorian President José María Velasco Ibarra declared the Protocol impossible to implement in the area of the Cordillera del Cóndor, claiming inconsistencies between the instructions of the Protocol and the geographical realities on the ground. Peru contested this view, stating that such discrepancies had been solved in an arbitration that had taken place in 1945, that all that had to be done was to close the border following the guidelines of the Protocol and the ruling of the 1945 arbitration By the beginning of the 1950s, the situation had come to a deadlock. For the next 46 years, a 78 km-long strip of unpopulated, little explored territory, deep in the Amazonian rainforest and inaccessible by land, was left undemarcated, serving as a flashpoint for recurrent diplomatic and military crisis between Ecuador and Peru.
While Peru held to the view that the border in the undermarcated area ran along the heights of the Condor range, Ecuador insisted that there was no technical basis for considering that mountain range as the border between the two nations, hinting at the idea that the spirit of the Protocol, which had never mentioned the Cóndor range by name, would require the location of the border markers along the Cenepa river to the east of the range. The Ecuadorian stance had a symbolic meaning of its own: the Cenepa river was a small tributary of the Marañón river, in turn a tributary of the Amazon river, to which Ecuador had always claimed the right for a sovereign access. Just as in the Paquisha Incident of 1981, the Cenepa War was caused by the installation by Ecuador, since 1994, of border outposts on the Cenepa River basin in eastern Cordillera del Condor, with the names of Cueva de los Tayos, Base Sur and Tiwinza. Tensions along the Condor range had been running high following a crisis that arose in July 1991 over the location of a Peruvian outpost called "Pachacútec" inside a zone that, while 60 km north of the delimited and undemarcated area, had its own problems regarding the location of a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
2017 Ecuadorian general election
General elections were held in Ecuador on 19 February 2017 alongside a referendum on tax havens. Voters elected National Assembly. Incumbent President Rafael Correa of the PAIS Alliance was not eligible for re-election, having served two terms. In the first round of the presidential elections, PAIS Alliance candidate Lenín Moreno received 39% of the vote. Although he was more than 10% ahead of his nearest rival, Guillermo Lasso of the Creating Opportunities party, Moreno was just short of the 40% threshold required to avoid a run-off; as a result, a second round was held on 2 April. In the second round Moreno was elected President with 51.16% of the vote. Following nearly a decade of political volatility in Ecuador, characterized by impeachments, economic crises, public unrest, Raphael Correa, the nation’s previous president, began his ascendance to power. During his 2006 campaign Correa established the PAIS Alliance, a coalition of leftist organizations, the same party of current president Lenin Moreno.
Lenin Moreno served as Correa’s vice president. Throughout his campaign and during his presidency Correa mobilized populist rhetoric to gain support, framing himself in opposition to the former political elite and current economic elite: Correa used the terms “neoliberal night” and “partyarchy” to refer to those groups and characterized his own movement as a “citizen’s revolution”. Correa’s success was part of a larger wave of leftist movements in Latin American that began around the turn of century referred to as the “pink tide.” Other countries that elected left-leaning presidents in the early 2000s include Argentina and Brazil, among others. One of the most significant events that took place during Correa’s time in office was the ratification of a new constitution in 2008. Correa advocated for the new constitution and his supporters welcomed it, citing a focus on civil rights and social programs for the impoverished. However, the constitution was met with much opposition, as its detractors feared that the document would give too much economic authority to the executive and believed its elimination of term limits would benefit Correa himself, although a provision on the amendment assured the law would not be put into action until after his presidency had ended.
Guillermo Lasso, a former banker ran for president in 2013, but lost to Correa by more than 30% of the vote in the first round. In both his first and second bids for president, Lasso was aligned with the Creating Opportunities Party, a conservative-leaning party that formed in 2012 and focused on celebrating the market, eliminating taxes, as well as advocating for an independent judiciary and free speech. With Correa ineligible for re-election, his supporters formed an organisation Rafael Contigo Siempre to campaign for a constitutional amendment to allow him to run again. With signatures from 8% of the electorate required to hold a referendum, a total of 1.2 million were collected. However, Correa would not run again. Instead, on 2 October 2016 the PAIS Alliance nominated Lenín Moreno, Correa's vice president from 2007 to 2013, as its candidate, with incumbent vice president Jorge Glas as his running mate. Moreno was challenged by a former banker. A central issue in the presidential election was corruption.
Moreno proposed an anti-corruption law, while Lasso proposed a Truth Commission, which would be created with assistance from the United Nations. The two main candidates had different visions for the country. Lasso said before the elections that he would not allow Julian Assange to continue living in the Ecuadorian embassy in London; the President was elected using a modified two-round system, with a candidate required to get over 50% of the vote, or get over 40% of the vote and be 10% ahead of their nearest rival to be elected in the first round. The President is limited to two consecutive four-year terms; the 137 members of the National Assembly were elected by three methods: 15 were elected from a nationwide constituency, 116 were elected in 31 districts, six elected from three two-member constituencies representing Ecuadorians living overseas. Elections are by open list proportional representation, with the 15 seats national seats allocated using the Webster method and the rest using the d'Hondt method.
Voting was over 65 and people classed as illiterate. Members of the National Assembly are limited to two four-year terms, either consecutive or not. There are gender quotas for the party lists, meaning there is alternation between women. There are no quotas for minority representation. Parties have to receive at least 5% of the vote in national elections in order to maintain their legal registration; the first-round count was delayed for four days, far longer than usual, raising suspicions from the Lasso camp. In past years, the first-round results were known on election day. Election officials blamed the delays on "numerical inconsistencies" in some ballots. Moreno maintained a consistent lead throughout the count. However, by the fourth day of co
United Cities and Local Governments
United Cities and Local Governments. United Cities and Local Governments was founded in 2004, when the existing local government organisations - the International Union of Local Authorities and the United Towns Organisations – united their respective global networks of cities and national associations of local governments in a single organisation. United Cities and Local Governments' headquarters, the World Secretariat, is based in Barcelona, Spain. UCLG is the largest organization of sub-national governments in the world, with over 240,000 members in over 140 UN Member States and understands itself as the united voice and world advocate of democratic local self-government, de facto representing over half the world's population, the cities and association members of UCLG are present in over 120 UN Member States across seven world regions: The organization's activities include hosting meetings of mayors and other local and regional leaders, advocacy for the interests of local and regional governments at the UN, international peer-to-peer training on local policies and practices.
The organisation's stated mission and your work programme is: To be the united voice and world advocate of democratic local self-government, promoting its values and interests, through cooperation between local governments, within the wider international community. His work programme focuses on: Increasing the role and influence of local government and its representative organisations in global governance. UCLG's origins go back to 1913, when the Union Internationale des Villes was set up at the International Congress of the Art of Building Cities and Organising Community Life in Ghent, Belgium; the establishment of the UIV, a permanent office for communication and documentation on municipal issues, marked the birth of the international municipal movement. The association had a Provisional Council of 30 members and its first seat was in Brussels. In 1928, the UIV changed its name to the International Union of Local Authorities. In 1948, IULA's secretariat moved from Ghent to The Hague in the Netherlands, where it remained until 2004.
The United Towns Organisation was set up in 1957 in France. It was known as the World Federation of Twin Cities. In 1984 President of the Regional Council of Ile-de-France, Michel Giraud, convened the first Metropolis Congress; the constituent Congress of Metropolis was held in Montreal in April 1985, was attended by 14 founding member cities: Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Buenos Aires, Colombo, Ile-de-France, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York and Turin. The Metropolis secretariat was established in Montreal, moving to Barcelona under the presidency of Mayor of Barcelona, Joan Clos, in 2000. In 2004, three international associations of local and regional governments – the International Union of Local Authorities, United Towns Organisation, Metropolis – agreed to come together to form a single organization at UCLG's founding congress. UCLG is a membership organization with a federal structure, its members include their national associations. UCLG's governing bodies are made up of locally elected leaders, chosen by their peers in elections by UCLG members.
UCLG's President for the 2016-2019 mandate is Parks Tau, President of the South African Local Government Association. Africa Section Asia Pacific Section Eurasia Section Europe Section - Council of European Municipalities and Regions Middle East and West Asia Section Latin American Coordination of Local Authorities for Unity in Diversity North America Section Metropolitan Section Forum of Regions UCLG's main policy-making body is the World Council, it meets once every three years. The UCLG Executive Bureau is made up of 115 members, it carries out the decisions of the World Council. The presidency of the UCLG world network is made up of the President, six Co-Presidents, the Treasurer and the Deputy Treasurer; the presidency for the 2016-2019 period is:President: Parks Tau, President of the South African Association of Local Governments Co-Presidents: Tahir Akyürek, Mayor of the Metropolitan Municipality of Konya Ada Colau, Mayor of Barcelona Wen Guohui, Mayor of Guangzhou Anne Hidalgo, Mayor of Paris Roland Ries, Mayor of Strasbourg Mauricio Rodas Espinel, Mayor of Quito Treasurer: Berry Vrbanovic, Mayor of Kitchener Deputy Treasurer: Mohamed Sadiki, Mayor of Rabat UCLG facilitates the Global Taskforce of Local and Regional Governments, a coordination and consultation mechanism that brings together the major international networks of local governments to undertake joint advocacy work relating to global policy processes.
The Global Taskforce was set up in 2013 to bring the perspectives of local and regional governments to the SDGs, climate change agenda and New Urban Agenda, in particular. As well as UCLG, Global Taskforce participants include C40 Cities; the United Nations Advisory Committee of Local Authorities was establish
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website