City of Brisbane
The City of Brisbane is a local government area that has jurisdiction over the inner portion of the metropolitan area of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. Brisbane is located in the county of Stanley and is the largest city followed by Ipswich with bounds in part of the county. Unlike LGAs in the other mainland state capitals, which are responsible only for the central business districts and inner neighbourhoods of those cities, the City of Brisbane administers a significant portion of the Brisbane metropolitan area, serving half of the population of the Brisbane Greater Capital City Statistical Area; as such, it has a larger population than any other local government area in Australia. The City of Brisbane was the first Australian LGA to reach a population of more than one million, its population is equivalent to the populations of Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory combined. In 2016–2017, the council administers a budget of over $3 billion, by far the largest budget of any LGA in Australia.
The City derives from cities and shires that merged in 1925. The main offices and Central Library of the Council are at 266 George Street known as Brisbane Square. Brisbane City Hall houses the Council Chamber, the offices of the Lord Mayor and Deputy Mayor and reception rooms and the Museum of Brisbane; as of the election on 19 March 2016, the twenty-six wards, their councillors and their party affiliations were: The City of Brisbane includes the following settlements: Total: 19 Total: 48 Total: 54 Total: 28 Total: 43 Total: 4 The Government of Queensland created the City of Brisbane with a view to uniting the Brisbane metropolitan area under a single planning and governance structure. The City of Brisbane Act 1924 received assent from the Governor on 30 October 1924. On 1 October 1925, 20 local government areas of various sizes were abolished and merged into the new city, namely: Cities: Brisbane South Brisbane Towns: Hamilton Ithaca Sandgate Toowong Windsor Wynnum Shires: Balmoral Belmont Coorparoo Enoggera Kedron Moggill Sherwood Stephens Taringa Tingalpa Toombul YeerongpillyThe Council assumed responsibility for several quasi-autonomous government authorities, such as the Brisbane Tramways Trust.
The Brisbane City Council maintains the Brisbane Local Heritage Register, a list of nominated sites that satisfy the Council's heritage criteria. The City of Brisbane is governed by the Brisbane City Council, the largest local council in Australia; the Brisbane City Council has its power divided between a Lord Mayor, a parliamentary-style council of twenty-six councillors representing single-member wards of 23,000 voters, a Civic Cabinet comprising the Lord Mayor, the Deputy Mayor and the chairpersons of the seven standing committees drawn from the membership of Council. Due to the City of Brisbane's status as the country's largest LGA, the Lord Mayor is elected by the largest single-member electorate in Australia. Like all mayors in Queensland, he has broad executive power; the seven standing committees of Council are: City Planning Committee Environment and Sustainability Committee Establishment and Coordination Committee Field Services Committee Finance and Economic Development Committee Infrastructure Committee Lifestyle and Community Services Committee Public and Active Transport CommitteeFollowing local government elections on 28 April 2012, the Lord Mayor and 18 councillors are members of the Liberal National Party while 7 are from the Labor Party with 1 independent.
Graham Quirk of the LNP, was elected Lord Mayor in his own right on 28 April 2012 after having been appointed to the Lord Mayoralty in April 2011 when Campbell Newman resigned to make an successful bid to become Premier of Queensland. His Deputy Mayor was Adrian Schrinner of the LNP; the day-to-day management of Council's operations is the responsibility of the chief executive officer, Colin Jensen. Elections are held every four years with ballots for the Lord Mayoralty and the individual councillors being held simultaneously. Voting is compulsory for all eligible electors; the election in March 2004 resulted in the unusual situation of Liberal Lord Mayor Campbell Newman co-existing with a Labor majority on Council and a Labor Deputy Mayor, though this resulted in remarkably few conflicts over civic budgets and Council policy. The LNP gained a 5.5% swing on the councillor votes in the March 2008 election, resulting in the Liberals taking control of the council as well. Graham Quirk won re-election as Lord Mayor in 2012 with 61.94% of the vote and the LNP gained an additional 3 wards.
The last election was held on 19 March 2016. Lord Mayor Graham Quirk defeated Labor's candidate Rod Harding. Following Quirk's resignation in March 2019, Adrian Schrinner was selected as Lord Mayor; the Brisbane City Council is incorporated under the City of Brisbane Act 1924, while other local governments in Queensland are governed by the Local Government Act 1993. Council meetings are held at Level 2, City Hall, 64 Adelaide Street, Brisbane City every Tuesday at 2pm except during recess and holiday periods; this temporary venue is in use due to the restoration work being performed on the traditional venue Brisbane City Hall. Meetings are open to the public. Brisbane City Council aims to be carbon neutral by 2026 via the reduction of emissions and carbon offsetting; the motto of the City of Brisbane is Meliora sequimur, Latin. The
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
In Greek mythology, a phoenix is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again. Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. According to some sources, the phoenix dies in a show of flames and combustion, although there are other sources that claim that the legendary bird dies and decomposes before being born again. There are different traditions concerning the lifespan of the phoenix, but by most accounts the phoenix lived for 500 years before rebirth. Herodotus, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif. In ancient Greece and Rome, the phoenix was associated with Phoenicia, a civilization famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells. In the historical record, the phoenix "could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, the Empire, consecration, life in the heavenly Paradise, Mary, the exceptional man, certain aspects of Christian life".
The modern English noun phoenix derives from Middle English phenix, itself from Old English fēnix. A once-common typological variant is phœnix. Old English fēnix was borrowed from Medieval Latin phenix, derived from Classical Latin phoenīx; the Classical Latin phoenīx represents Greek φοῖνιξ phoinīx.. In ancient Greece and Rome, the phoenix was sometimes associated with the similar-sounding Phoenicia, a civilization famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells. A late antique etymology offered by the 6th- and 7th-century CE archbishop Isidore of Seville accordingly derives the name of the phoenix from its purple-red hue; because the costly purple dye was associated with the upper classes in antiquity and with royalty, in the medieval period the phoenix was considered "the royal bird". In spite of these folk etymologies, with the deciphering of the Linear B script in the 20th century, the original Greek φοῖνιξ was decisively shown to be derived from Mycenaean Greek po-ni-ke, itself open to a variety of interpretations.
Classical discourse on the subject of the phoenix points to a potential origin of the phoenix in Ancient Egypt. In the 19th century scholastic suspicions appeared to be confirmed by the discovery that Egyptians in Heliopolis had venerated the Bennu, a solar bird observed in some respects to be similar to the Greek phoenix. However, the Egyptian sources regarding the bennu are problematic and open to a variety of interpretations; some of these sources may have been influenced by Greek notions of the phoenix, rather than the other way around. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, gives a somewhat skeptical account of the phoenix: have another sacred bird called the phoenix which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed it is a great rarity in Egypt, only coming there once in five hundred years, when the old phoenix dies, its size and appearance, if it is like the pictures, are as follow:– The plumage is red golden, while the general make and size are exactly that of the eagle. They tell a story of what this bird does, which does not seem to me to be credible: that he comes all the way from Arabia, brings the parent bird, all plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the Sun, there buries the body.
In order to bring him, they say, he first forms a ball of myrrh as big as he finds that he can carry. Such is the story; the phoenix is sometimes pictured in ancient and medieval literature and medieval art as endowed with a halo, which emphasizes the bird's connection with the Sun. In the oldest images of phoenixes on record these nimbuses have seven rays, like Helios. Pliny the Elder describes the bird as having a crest of feathers on its head, Ezekiel the Dramatist compared it to a rooster. Although the phoenix was believed to be colorful and vibrant, sources provide no clear consensus about its coloration. Tacitus says; some said that the bird had peacock-like coloring, Herodotus's claim of the Phoenix being red and yellow is popular in many versions of the story on record. Ezekiel the Dramatist declared that the phoenix had red legs and striking yellow eyes, but Lactantius said that its eyes were blue like sapphires and that its legs were covered in yellow-gold scales with rose-colored talons.
Herodotus, Pliny and Philostratus describe the phoenix as similar in size to an eagle, but Lactantius and Ezekiel the Dramatist both claim that the phoenix was larger, with Lactantius declaring that it was larger than an ostrich. The Old English Exeter Book contains an anonymous 677-line 9th-century alliterative poem consisting of a paraphrase and abbreviation of Lactantius, followed by an explication of the Phoenix as an allegory for the resurrection of Christ. Dante refers to the phoenix in Inferno Canto XXIV: In the play Henry VIII by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, the King says in Act V Scene v, in flattering reference to his young daughter Elizabeth: Scholars have observed analogues to the phoenix in a variety of cultures; these analogues include the Hindu garuda and gandaberunda, the Russian firebir
Paddington is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Australia located 2 kilometres west of the Brisbane CBD. As is common with other suburbs in the area, Paddington is located on a number of steep ridges and hills, it was settled in the 1860s. Many original and distinctive Queenslander homes can be found in the suburb. Houses are built on stumps, owing to the steep nature of their blocks. Between 2005 and 2010, the median house price has risen over 50% to $1,000,000. In the 2011 census the population of Paddington was 7,987, 47.8 % male. The median age of the Paddington population was 32 years of age, 5 years below the Australian median. 73.6% of people living in Paddington were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 86% of people spoke only English at home. Paddington lies in a valley in the foothills of Mount Coot-tha The area is hilly with many peaks and gullies. Most of the retail is located along the ridgetops which contain the main roads of Caxton Street, Given Terrace and Latrobe Terrace.
Proceeding north west along Caxton Street there is a gentle downward slope on either side until Given Terrace is reached, colloquially referred to as "lower Paddington". At Given Terrace there is a slope that flows down to Rosalie on the left while on the right there is a steep drop to a gully which rises again to the Red Hill ridge; when Latrobe Terrace is reached, colloquially known as "upper Paddington", the road sticks to the ridgetop with gentle slopes on either side until moving uphill towards the suburb of Bardon. The suburb is predominantly residential, on small blocks of land by Queensland standards, with many workers cottages and Queenslander-style homes with corrugated iron roofs. Paddington includes the small locality of Rosalie; the suburb of Petrie Terrace lies to the east. By road: the main thoroughfares of Paddington are Caxton Street, Given and Enoggera Terraces. Most shops are located on Latrobe Terraces. By bus: Buses operated by Brisbane Transport continue to serve the suburb.
And in conditions free of traffic congestion a bus trip from the Brisbane CBD takes around ten minutes to upper Paddington. The Petrie Terrace State School, despite its name, is in Paddington and can be found nestled below St Brigid's Church, Red Hill and behind the fig trees near the Ithaca Swimming Pool. Paddington is otherwise serviced by a number of schools in the surrounding suburbs. Due to Paddington's proximity to the Brisbane CBD, tertiary institutions as the University of Queensland, Kelvin Grove campus of the Queensland University of Technology, the Queensland University of Technology itself, the Red Hill TAFE, as well as housing suitable for "share-housing" and the general culture of the area many young people students, live in the area; as a result, there are a number of night clubs on Given Terrace and Caxton Street including the Paddington Tavern, many smaller bars that change owners on a regular basis. The Paddington Tavern plays hosts to the "Sit Down Comedy Club" which over the years has hosted Arj Barker, Carl Barron, Dave Hughes, Eric Bana, Judith Lucy, Kitty Flanagan and Woodley, Mick Molloy, Rodney Rude, Ross Noble, Shane Bourne, Steady Eddy, The Umbilical Brothers and Wil Anderson amongst many others.
Paddington was one of the first, if not the first, suburbs to be gentrified, developed a coffee culture in the 1980s, still significant and vibrant today. Being an area with a large migrant population in the 1960s and 1970s, there are many restaurants in the area. Most of these coffee houses, small bars and restaurants are located along the Caxton Street – Given Terrace- Latrobe Terrace main road system that runs though Paddington. There are many art galleries in the area and many artists as well as musicians and budding writers live in the area. Traditional institutions like the Union Cooperative Society Ltd incorporating the Paddington Workers Club and the Brisbane Workers Community Centre exist, it is a member-owned organisation that aims to improve the social and economic well being of its members and their community and was formed in 1965 to protect the incomes of workers from rising prices by providing goods and services at the lowest possible cost. While the Cooperative has moved out of retail there is still a small bar which doubles as a live venue but otherwise it is now a financial organisation that cares for members' financial interests.
Senior citizens are catered for by the Brisbane West Senior Citizens Club at 132 Latrobe Terrace which host activities and respite services for senior citizens. The Centre for Multicultural Pastoral Care at 333 Given Terrace, established in 1949 and provides pastoral care for post World War II immigrants from traditionally Catholic countries; the nearby Brisbane Arts Theatre at 210 Petrie Terrace is a theatre company, producing plays for over 60 years. The smaller localities of Rosalie and Torwood has a thriving restaurant, café, gourmet culture along Baroona Road which hosts an annual Cheese Festival. Many houses along Caxton Street – Given Terrace – Latrobe Terrace were converted into small shops in the 1980s and accordingly Paddington has a vibrant shopping scene for speciality shops of all types including fashion, home wares
Kalinga is a suburb of Brisbane in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Kalinga is predominantly flat, with a mix of small apartment blocks and houses, with some older style Queenslanders still extant; the area borders with Kalinga Park. This area is notable for the original residence of Alfred Lutwyche, known as Kedron Lodge; the name Kalinga derives from Aboriginal word Ngalinnga from the Yuggera language, Turrbal dialect, meaning belonging to us. Between 1927 and 1962 an electric tram service operated by the Brisbane City Council served the suburb, branching off the Chermside line at Kedron Park Road; the name Kalinga had been in use for the area for many years as a neighbourhood within the suburb of Wooloowin, but it was not until 16 October 2015 that Kalinga was gazetted as a suburb, having been excised from Wooloowin following requests from local residents. Kalinga has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 100 Bertha Street: Kalinga Park 123 Nelson Street: Kedron Lodge Media related to Kalinga, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons "Kalinga".
Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland