A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education or a secondary school. In the United States, "college" may refer to a constituent part of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, but "college" and "university" are used interchangeably, whereas in the United Kingdom, South Asia, Southern Africa and Canada, "college" may refer to a secondary or high school, a college of further education, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher education provider that does not have university status, or a constituent part of a university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the modern educational context - nowadays the most common use of "college" - there are various other meanings derived from the original Latin term, such as Electoral college.
Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to: a constituent part of a collegiate university, for example King's College, Cambridge, or of a federal university, for example King's College London a liberal arts college, an independent institution of higher education focusing on undergraduate education, such as Williams College or Amherst College a liberal arts division of a university whose undergraduate program does not otherwise follow a liberal arts model, such as the Yuanpei College at Peking University an institute providing specialised training, such as a college of further education, for example Belfast Metropolitan College, a teacher training college, or an art college In the United States, college is sometimes but a synonym for a research university, such as Dartmouth College, one of the eight universities in the Ivy League A sixth form college or college of further education is an educational institution in England, Northern Ireland, The Caribbean, Norway, Brunei, or Southern Africa, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, BTEC, HND or its equivalent and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs.
In Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title. In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent primary and secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School and The King's School, Parramatta are considered colleges. There has been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria, some state high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School. In Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, some older ones. In New South Wales, some high schools multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges".
In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high school, the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college. In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes", a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation; this is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational and ability levels. Some private secondary schools choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless; some secondary schools elsewhere in the country ones within the separate school system, may use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
In New Zealand the word "college" refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. In South Africa, some secondary schools private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title, thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In Sri Lanka the word "college" refers to a secondary school, which signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limit
Sanathnagar is an industrial and residential Area in Hyderabad City, India, is one of the most densely populated suburbs in India. In the past, a part of it served as a residential area for officers and workers in the industries located there; the residential area is known as SRT quarters. It has since grown to include neighboring localities such as Czech Colony, parts of BK Guda, Subhash Nagar Colony, Tulisi Nagar, Jayaprakash Nagar Colony, the ESI area; the industrial area of Sanathnagar includes small and medium-scale chemical, pharmaceutical and mechanical industries. It has large pharmaceutical companies like Bright Star Rubber, Divi's, Gland Pharma Limited, Lamco along with several major automobile service centers. GM Motors, TATA Motors, Chevrolet, Bajaj, Skoda, Mercedes-Benz are located here; the main branch of the post office is located in this industrial area. The engineering companies Voltas and Allwyn were located in Sanathnagar, along with automobile manufacturer Ashok Leyland. Now with Bakelyte Hylam made a residential property and developed by Lodha Group, a gated community is coming up at Sanathnagar with the name CASA Paradiso.
Swamy Talkies, an age-old cinema theater, has been converted into a apartments. Major national banks such as the State Bank of India, HDFC, State Bank of Hyderabad, Andhra Bank and big retail stores like D-Mart, Agro Mech Industries,Metalika Industries & Steel Untesils manufacturing unit, Metal Industries are located here. Urbanization can be seen in areas like the Czech colony, in other pockets of this suburb; the Sunday Market located at Sanathnagar-Erragadda main road is one of the busiest, selling all kinds of second hand goods and many other miscellaneous items. The early schools set up in this area include Covells High School, the first school established in 1964, it was followed in 1965 by St. Theresa's Girls High School. Hindu Public School is the largest school in Sanathnagar. Other schools located in this suburb are the Rose Buds High School, Neena High School,Crescent Convent High School, Vasistha Vidyalaya, Vidyanjali High School, Rainbow School, Gautami Vidya Dhamam, Jai Bharati School and the Little Scholars School.
The Hindu college for women is a prominent college in the suburb. Crescent convent school established in 1996. St. Theresa's Hospital is one of the oldest hospitals in the area; this hospital has undergone renovations to accommodate more wards. The government owned ESI hospital is present here. A chest hospital, a TB hospital, a hospital for mental health are among the other government institutions located near the suburb, providing health care for the poor; the citizens of this area are peaceful, come from different backgrounds and a variety of religions. The Hanuman temple at Czech colony is one of the famous sites of Hinduism. Bhadrakali mata temple near sanathnagar bus stop is one and only kali mata temple in sanathnagar and surrounding areas. Christianity was brought to this area by the Salesian missionaries. Famous churches in the area include St. Theresa's Church, Baptist Church, St. Paul's Church at Czech Colony; the Masjid close to the bus depot is a famous one known as Jafri Masjid. Apart from this there are few other Masjids such as Masjid-e-Ibrahimia.
The Eid gah near the Jafri Masjid is famous where Eid namaz are being offered. Sanathnagar is known for its municipal parks found all over its suburbs, creating a natural atmosphere. Laxmi Yadav Park, a notable recent addition, is now one of the most beloved parks in the area. Wide open spaces such as the Welfare Ground, Milad Ground, Vinayak Ground, Bhagat Singh park, Veer Savarkar Park and Nehru Ground provide good sporting avenues for the youth; the Sanathnagar-Fathenagar-Balkampet Flyover, providing a good aerial view of the Begumpet airport, is enjoyed by the public in the evenings. Welfare Ground was one of the biggest open fields for playing cricket; this ground looks like a small cricket stadium. In summer this is occupied with about 300-400 people playing cricket daily. Now it includes a swimming centre. Sanathnagar has a TSRTC bus terminal, linking it to all the major suburbs of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, along with a MMTS station providing local rail connectivity to parts of Hyderabad.
Metro Rail is accessible from erragadda. Sanathnagar consists of several other smaller localities such as Fathenagar, BK Guda, Ravindra Nagar Colony, part of Sanjiva Reddy Nagar, Czech Colony, Subhash Nagar Colony, Jayaprakash Nagar Colony, ESI; the Sanathnagar constituency is represented in the Telangana Legislative Assembly by Talasani Srinivas Yadav and 101 Constituency Corporator konalu Laxmi Reddy Sanathnagar has all the necessary stores ranging from book stores to medical stores. It is one of the largest market for retail fire works and 100 stores are available to public during Diwali season
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them. A typology of shopper types has been developed by scholars which identifies one group of shoppers as recreational shoppers, that is, those who enjoy shopping and view it as a leisure activity. Online shopping has become a major disruptor in the retail industry. Consumers can now search for product information and place product orders across different regions while online retailers deliver their products directly to the consumers' home, offices or wherever they want; the B2C process has made it easy for consumers to select any product online from a retailer's website and to have it delivered quickly. Using online shopping methods, consumers do not need to consume energy by physically visiting physical stores, but save time and the cost of travelling. A retailer or a shop is a business that presents a selection of goods and offers to trade or sell them to customers for money or other goods.
Shoppers' shopping experiences may vary, based on a variety of factors including how the customer is treated, the type of goods being purchased, mood. According to a 2000 report, in New York State, women purchase 80% of all consumer goods. In antiquity and fairs were established to facilitate the exchange of goods and services. People would shop for goods at a regular market in nearby towns. However, the transient nature of stalls and stall-holders meant the consumers needed to make careful inspection of goods prior to purchase. In ancient Greece, the agora served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods. Ancient Rome utilized a similar marketplace known as the forum. Rome had two forums. Trajan's Market at Trajan's forum, built around 100-110CE, was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with tabernae that served as retail shops, situated on four levels; the Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shopfront. In the Roman world, the central market served the local peasantry.
Those who lived on the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating their need to attend local markets. Shopping lists are known to have been used by Romans. One such list was discovered near Hadrian's wall written for a soldier. Archaeological evidence suggests that the British engaged in minimal shopping in the early Middle Ages. Instead, they provided for their basic needs through subsistence farming practices and a system of localised personal exchanges. However, by the late Middle Ages, consumers turned to markets for the purchase of fresh produce and fish and the periodic fairs where non-perishables and luxury goods could be obtained. Women were responsible for everyday household purchases, but most of their purchasing was of a mundane nature. For the main part, shopping was seen as a chore rather than a pleasure. Few permanent shops were to be found outside the most populous cities. Instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.
Itinerant vendors such as costermongers and peddlers operated alongside markets, providing the convenience of home delivery to households, to geographically isolated communities. In the more populous European cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. Specialist retailers such as mercers and haberdashers were known to exist in London, while grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines." However, these shops were primitive. As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths." The Medieval shopper's experience was different from that of the contemporary shopper. Interiors were dark and shoppers had few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Glazed windows in retail environments, were unknown during the medieval period. Goods were out on display; the service counter was unknown and instead, many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. In Britain, medieval attitudes to retailing and shopping were negative.
Retailers were no better than hucksters, because they resold goods, by buying cheaper and selling dearer, without adding value of national accounts. Added to this were concerns about the self-interest of retailers and some of their more unethical practices. Attitudes to spending on luxury goods attracted criticism, since it involved importing goods which did little to stimulate national accounts, interfered with the growth of worthy local manufacturers; the modern phenomenon of shopping for pleasure is linked to the emergence of a middle class in the 17th and 18th-century Europe. As standards of living improved in the 17th century, consumers from a broad range of social backgrounds began to purchase goods that were in excess of basic necessities. An emergent middle class or bourgeosie stimulated demand for luxury goods and began to purchase a wider range of luxury goods and imported goods, including: Indian cotton and calico; the act of shopping came to be seen as a pleasurable form of entertainment.
By the 17th-century, produce markets gave way to shops and shopping centres. The New Exchange, opened in 1609 by Robert Ceci
Secunderabad Junction railway station
The Secunderabad Junction railway station, is a major intercity railway station and a commuter rail hub in the Hyderabad urban area. In the city centre, the station is in the South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. Built in 1874 by the Nizam of Hyderabad during the British era, it was the main station of Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway until the Kachiguda railway station opened in 1916; the station was taken over by Indian Railways in 1951. Its main portico and concourse are influenced by Nizamesque architecture; the station, which resembles a fort, is a tourist attraction in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. It is connected by rail to all regions of India. About 170,000 passengers arrive at the station daily on 229 trains. On the Vijayawada–Wadi and Secunderabad-Manmad railway lines, it is the zone headquarters of the South Central Railway and the headquarters of the SCR's Secunderabad Division; the station has received ISO-9001 certification for quality management in ticket booking and luggage booking and platform management.
Indian Railways has proposed an upgrade to a world-class station. It is connected to nearly all the parts of the twin cities by the Hyderabad MMTS, Telangana State Road Transport Corporation buses and the Hyderabad Metro; the station was proposed in 1870, when the Nizam of Hyderabad decided to connect Hyderabad State with the rest of India. Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was formed as a private company, construction of the Secunderabad-Wadi line began that year; the line, which would connect Hyderabad with the British Raj's Great Indian Peninsula Railway main line at Wadi Junction, was funded by the Nizam. The Secunderabad-Wadi Line and the Secunderabad Railway Station were finished on 9 October 1874, introducing railways to Hyderabad; the station's main portico and concourse were influenced by Nizam-era architecture. Resembling a fort, it is a tourist attraction in the twin cities. Hyderabad State took over the railway in 1879. In 1871, the Secunderabad station was connected to the Singareni Collieries Company by a 146-mile line.
The Secunderabad-Wadi line was extended to Vijayawada Junction as the Vijayawada-Wadi line in 1889. A broad gauge connection between Vijayawada Junction and Chennai Central opened the following year, enabling rail travel between Hyderabad and Chennai; the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways was established in 1900 with the opening of the Manmad-Secunderabad metre gauge line, merged into the NGSR in 1930. In 1916, the Kachiguda railway station was built as NGSR headquarters and to regulate traffic at Secunderabad. Diesel rail cars manufactured by Ganz were tried for the first time in Hyderabad State by the NGSR in 1939. On 5 November 1951, Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was nationalized by the government of India and merged into the government-owned Indian Railways as part of the Ministry of Railways; the Secunderabad station was assigned to the Central Railway zone, with Victoria Terminus its headquarters. In 1966, the South Central Railway zone was formed with Secunderabad its headquarters (as well as the headquarters of Indian Railways' Secunderabad Division.
Rail Nilayam was built in 1972, the division headquarters was built in 1980. The Indian Railway Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications, one of IR's six centralised training institutes, was established in Secunderabad by the Ministry of Railways on 24 November 1957. to address the specialised training needs of railway staff and officers in railway signalling and telecommunications. In 1967, the Ajanta Express was introduced between Manmad via Secunderabad. With an average speed of 42.5 kilometres per hour, it was India's fastest metre gauge train at the time. The Secunderabad–Vijayawada Junction Golconda Express was introduced in 1969; the country's fastest steam train, with an average speed of 58 kilometres per hour. It was extended to Guntur. In February 1978, the Secunderabad Division was split into two divisions: Secunderabad and Hyderabad. Although an early computerised reservation system began at Secunderabad in July 1989, the 30 September 1989 introduction of SCR's computerised Passenger Reservation]] System at the station made reservations easier.
The system linked to New Delhi, Howrah and Chennai, preceded the CONCERT reservation system, developed at Secunderabad in September 1994 and implemented in January 1995. The Secunderabad–Mahbubnagar metre gauge section was converted to broad gauge in 1993, breaking an important north-south meter gauge freight connection north from Secunderabad; that year, the Secunderabad station was electrified towards Vijayawada Junction. The electric-locomotive shed in South Lallaguda, with a capacity of 100 locomotives, was built in 1995; the Rajdhani Express, which connects India's state capitals with New Delhi, was proposed in Andhra Pradesh between Secunderabad and the Hazrat Nizamuddin railway station in the 2001 Indian rail budget. The Secunderabad Rajdhani Express was introduced on 27 February 2002; the Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System, the state's first of its kind, was introduced in 2003 with two lines: Lingampally–Hyderabad railway station and Lingampally– Secunderabad. Another line was built between Falaknuma railway station.
SCR operated the last metre-gauge train on the Nizamabad–Manoharabad line on 30 June 2004, ending metre-gauge service to facilitate IR's broad-gauge track-conversion progr
Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System
The Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System known as MMTS, is a suburban rail system in Hyderabad, India. It is a joint partnership of the Government of Telangana and the South Central Railway, is operated by the latter; the first phase was opened to the public on 9th August 2003 with three lines between Falaknuma and Secunderabad and Secunderabad and Lingampally and Secunderabad with a total of 44 km of track. In May 2010, Indian Railways decided to take up the 107-km Phase-II project of the MMTS at an estimated cost of Rs. 641 crore. The Railway Board cleared the second phase after the state government agreed to fund two-thirds of the cost; the second phase, under construction, is scheduled to open in 2018. The first phase was completed at a cost of ₹1.78 billion and started its operations on 9 August 2003 by Deputy Prime Minister of India, L. K. Advani, it is said that the inauguration of the MMTS was the realisation of dream of having a mass transit system in Hyderabad. This project is expected to complement the fast growth of the city in the areas of information technology, health and tourism.
It spans a distance of 44 km, covering 27 stations and connects Secunderabad, Dabirpura, Falaknuma, Hitech city and Lingampally along few other routes like Bolaram and Umdanagar. MMTS trains from Lingampally to Falaknuma and from Falaknuma to Lingampally MMTS trains from Lingampally to Hyderabad and from Hyderabad to Lingampally MMTS trains from Falaknuma to Hyderabad and from Hyderabad to Falaknuma MMTS trains from Secunderabad to Lingampally and from Secunderabad to Hyderabad MMTS trains from Secunderabad to Falaknuma and from Secunderabad to Falaknuma These routes are operational and the number of services in that particular route is mentioned below: MMTS Hyderabad Enquiry, MMTS Complaints and MMTS suggestions. MMTS Hyderabad Passengers can write down their valuable suggestions and complaints to South Central Railway. HMDA planned for future phases for developing and expansion of MMTS to all routes of railways line in Hyderabad in Master Plan 2041 In May 2010, Indian Railways decided to take up the 107-km Phase-II project of the MMTS at an estimated cost of Rs. 641 crore.
The Railway Board cleared the Phase-II after the state government agreed to fund two-thirds of the cost. It will handle 3 lakh passengers a day. A 6 km stretch from Lingampally to RC Puram and Bolaram to Medchal stretch of 12.5 km is to begin in March 2018 and the Moula Ali to Ghatkesar stretch covering 12 km is scheduled to open in July 2018. Phase II has six segments: Secunderabad - Bolarum - Medchal Falaknuma - Umdanagar - Shamshabad Airport Secunderabad - Moulali - Ghatkesar Moulali - Sanathnagar chord line Kacheguda - Sitaphalmandi - Malkajgiri - Moulali chord line New stations under construction: Moula Ali HB Colony Neredmet Bhudevi Nagar Suchitra Center FerozgudaFuture Expansion: On International Women's Day 2012, S Satyavati became the first female driver of the South Central Railway when she independently drove an MMTS train, she piloted the'Matrubhumi Ladies Special Train' from Falaknuma to Lingampally suburban station
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee