Age of Discovery
It marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism. Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered during this period, from the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of settlers and invaders from a previously unknown continent. This represented one of the most-significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture and it allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world with the spread of missionary activity, becoming the worlds largest religion. The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, in 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbuss plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic and he landed on a continent uncharted by Europeans and seen as a new world, the Americas. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later.
In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered almost the whole of Siberia, another source was the Radhanite Jewish trade networks of merchants established as go-betweens between Europe and the Muslim world during the time of the Crusader states. Knowledge about the Atlantic African coast was fragmented and derived mainly from old Greek and Roman maps based on Carthaginian knowledge, the Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge. Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders, between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long range tributary missions under the command of Zheng He. The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, Maritime Southeast Asia, by 1400 a Latin translation of Ptolemys Geographia reached Italy coming from Constantinople.
The rediscovery of Roman geographical knowledge was a revelation, both for mapmaking and worldview, although reinforcing the idea that the Indian Ocean was landlocked, a prelude to the Age of Discovery was a series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land in the late Middle Ages. A series of Europeans took advantage of these to explore eastwards, most were Italians, as trade between Europe and the Middle East was controlled mainly by the Maritime republics. The close Italian links to the Levant raised great curiosity and commercial interest in countries which lay further east, christian embassies were sent as far as Karakorum during the Mongol invasions of the Levant, from which they gained a greater understanding of the world. The first of these travellers was Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, dispatched by Pope Innocent IV to the Great Khan, about the same time, Russian prince Yaroslav of Vladimir, and subsequently his sons Alexander Nevsky and Andrey II of Vladimir, travelled to the Mongolian capital.
Though having strong political implications, their journeys left no detailed accounts, other travellers followed, like French André de Longjumeau and Flemish William of Rubruck, who reached China through Central Asia. After returning, he dictated an account of his journeys to a scholar he met in Granada, the Rihla, between 1357 and 1371 a book of supposed travels compiled by John Mandeville acquired extraordinary popularity. These overland journeys had little immediate effect, the Mongol Empire collapsed almost as quickly as it formed and soon the route to the east became more difficult and dangerous
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
Prince Henry the Navigator
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu, better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discoveries. King John I was the founder of the House of Aviz, Henry encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta, the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian Peninsula. Henry is regarded as the patron of Portuguese exploration, Henry was the third surviving son of King John I and his wife Philippa, sister of King Henry IV of England. He was baptized in Porto, and may have been there, probably when the royal couple was living in the citys old mint, now called Casa do Infante. Another possibility is that he was born at the Monastery of Leça do Bailio, in Leça da Palmeira, Henry was 21 when he and his father and brothers captured the Moorish port of Ceuta in northern Morocco.
Ceuta had long been a base for Barbary pirates who raided the Portuguese coast, following this success, Henry started to explore the coast of Africa, most of which was unknown to Europeans. His objectives included finding the source of the West African gold trade and the legendary Christian kingdom of Prester John, at that time the ships of the Mediterranean were too slow and too heavy to make these voyages. This made the caravel largely independent of the prevailing winds, with the caravel, Portuguese mariners explored the shallow waters and rivers as well as the open ocean with wide autonomy. In 1419, Henrys father appointed him governor of the province of the Algarve, in 1425, his second brother the Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, made a tour of Europe. While largely a diplomatic mission, among his goals was to seek out material for his brother Henry. Peter returned from Venice with a current world map drafted by a Venetian cartographer. In 1431 he donated houses for the Estudo Geral to reunite all the sciences — grammar, rhetoric, music, for other subjects like medicine or philosophy, he ordered that each room should be decorated according to each subject that was being taught.
When John I died in 1433, Henrys eldest brother Edward became king and he granted Henry all profits from trading within the areas he discovered as well as the sole right to authorize expeditions beyond Cape Bojador. Henry held a monopoly on fishing in the Algarve. When Edward died eight years later, Henry supported his brother Peter for the regency during the minority of Edwards son Afonso V, Henry functioned as a primary organizer of the disastrous expedition to Tangier in 1437. Henrys younger brother Ferdinand was given as a hostage to guarantee that the Portuguese would fulfill the terms of the agreement that had been made with Çala Ben Çala. The Portuguese Cortes refused to approve the return of Ceuta in exchange for the Infante Ferdinand who remained in captivity until his death six years later, Prince Regent Peter had an important role and responsibility in the Portuguese maritime expansion in the Atlantic Ocean and Africa during his administration
The prow is the forward-most part of a ships bow that cuts through the water. The prow is the part of the bow above the waterline, the terms prow and bow are often used interchangeably to describe the most forward part of a ship and its surrounding parts. In old naval parlance, the prow was the battery of guns placed in the fore gun-deck
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
In the textile industry, a tow is a coarse, broken fibre, removed during processing flax, hemp, or jute. Flax tows are used as upholstery stuffing, and tows in general are frequently cut up to produce staple fibre. The very light color of flax tow is the source of the word towhead, in the composites industry, a tow is an untwisted bundle of continuous filaments, and it refers to man-made fibres, particularly carbon fibres. Tows are designated by the number of fibers they contain, for example, a 12K tow contains about 12,000 fibres
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method, the person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. The term scientist was coined by the theologian and historian of science William Whewell and this article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical and social realms. Philosophers aim to provide an understanding of fundamental aspects of reality and experience, often pursuing inquiries with conceptual, rather than empirical. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called applied science, an applied scientist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is conducting research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods. When science seeks to answer questions about aspects of reality it is sometimes called natural philosophy.
Science and technology have continually modified human existence through the engineering process, as a profession the scientist of today is widely recognized. Jurisprudence and mathematics are often grouped with the sciences, some of the greatest physicists have been creative mathematicians and lawyers. There is a continuum from the most theoretical to the most empirical scientists with no distinct boundaries, in terms of personality, interests and professional activity, there is little difference between applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Scientists can be motivated in several ways, many have a desire to understand why the world is as we see it and how it came to be. They exhibit a strong curiosity about reality, other motivations are recognition by their peers and prestige, or the desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of peoples health, the nations, the world, nature or industries. Scientists tend to be motivated by direct financial reward for their work than other careers.
As a result, scientific researchers often accept lower average salaries when compared with other professions which require a similar amount of training. The number of scientists is vastly different from country to country, for instance, there are only 4 full-time scientists per 10,000 workers in India while this number is 79 for the United Kingdom and the United States. According to the US National Science Foundation 4.7 million people with science degrees worked in the United States in 2015, across all disciplines, the figure included twice as many men as women. Of that total, 17% worked in academia, that is, at universities and undergraduate institutions, 5% of scientists worked for the federal government and about 3. 5% were self-employed. Of the latter two groups, two-thirds were men, 59% of US scientists were employed in industry or business, and another 6% worked in non-profit positions
It is the term for the graduated markings found on the traditional magnetic compass. The modern compass rose has eight principal winds, 8-point compass roses us the eight principal winds—that is, the four cardinal directions plus the four intercardinal or ordinal directions, at angles of difference of 45°. 16-point compass roses are constructed by bisecting the angles of the winds to come up with intermediate compass points, known as half-winds. The names of the half-winds are simply combinations of the winds to either side. 32-point compass roses are constructed by bisecting these angles, and coming up with quarter-winds at 11 1⁄4° angles of difference, north-by-east is one quarter wind from North towards East, Northeast-by-north is one quarter wind from Northeast toward North. Naming all 32 points on the rose is called boxing the compass, the 32-point rose has the uncomfortable number of 11 1⁄4° between points, but is easily found by halving divisions and may have been easier for those not using a 360° circle.
Using gradians, of which there are 400 in a circle, linguistic anthropological studies have shown that most human communities have four points of cardinal direction. The names given to these directions are usually derived from either locally-specific geographic features or from celestial bodies or from atmospheric features, most mobile populations tend to adopt sunrise and sunset for East and West and the direction from where different winds blow to denote North and South. The ancient Greeks originally maintained distinct and separate systems of points, the four Greek cardinal points were based on celestial bodies and used for orientation. The four Greek winds were confined to meteorology, both systems were gradually conflated, and wind names came to eventually denote cardinal directions as well. To restore balance, Timosthenes of Rhodes added two more winds to produce the classical 12-wind rose, and began using the winds to denote geographical direction in navigation, eratosthenes deducted two winds from Aristotles system, to produce the classical 8-wind rose.
The Romans adopted the Greek 12-wind system, and replaced its names with Latin equivalents, e. g. Septentrio, Auster, uniquely, Vitruvius came up with a 24-wind rose. According to the chronicler Einhard, the Frankish king Charlemagne himself came up with his own names for the classical 12 winds and he named the four cardinal winds on the roots Nord, Ost and Vuest. Intermediate winds were constructed as simple compound names of these four and these Carolingian names are the source of the modern compass point names found in nearly all modern west European languages. The following table gives an equivalence of the classical 12-wind rose with the modern compass directions. The sidereal compass rose demarcates the compass points by the position of stars in the night sky, arab navigators in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, who depended on celestial navigation, were using a 32-point sidereal compass rose before the end of the 10th century. The other thirty points on the rose were determined by the rising and setting positions of fifteen bright stars.
Reading from North to South, in their rising and setting positions, the true position of these stars is only approximate to their theoretical equidistant rhumbs on the sidereal compass
Leiria is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal. It is the capital of Leiria District, the population in 2011 was 126,879, in an area of 565.09 square kilometres. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leiria-Fátima, the region around Leiria has been inhabited for a long time, although its early history is obscure. The first evident inhabitants were the Turduli Oppidani, a Celtiberian tribe and this settlement was occupied by the Romans, who expanded it under the original Celtiberian name Collippo. The stones of the ancient Roman town were used in the Middle Ages to build much of Leiria, the name Leiria in Portuguese derives from leira meaning an area with small farming plots. It was occupied for a time by the Suebi in 414 until they were forced by the Romans to retreat to Galicia. Later the Moors occupied the area until it was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, south of Leiria in that period was the so-called no-mans land, until regions further south were permanently taken and re-populated by the Christians.
In 1142 Afonso Henriques gave Leiria its first foral to stimulate the colonisation of the region, both Afonso I of Portugal and Sancho I rebuilt the walls and the Leiria Castle to avoid new enemy incursions. Most of the population lived inside the city walls. The oldest church of Leiria, the Church of Saint Peter, built in style in the last quarter of the 12th century. During the Middle Ages the importance of the increased. The first of the held in Leiria took place in 1245. In the early 14th century, King Dinis I restored the tower of the citadel of the castle. He built a residence in Leiria, and lived for long periods in the town. The King ordered the plantation of the famous Pine Forest of Leiria near the coast, the wood from this forest would be used to build the ships used in the Portuguese Navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries. In the late 14th century, King John I built a palace within the walls of the castle of Leiria. This palace, with elegant gothic galleries that offered views of the town.
John I sponsored the rebuilding in late gothic style of the old Church of Our Lady of the Rock, towards the end of the 15th century the town continued to grow, occupying the area from the castle hill down to the river Lis