Torchon lace is a bobbin lace, made all over Europe. It is continuous, with the pattern made at the same time as the ground. Torchon lace is notable for being coarse and strong, as well as its simple geometric patterns and straight lines, it does not use representational designs. Torchon lace was used by the middle classes for edging or insertion, to trim cotton and linen underwear, where it was ideal because of its strength and because it was inexpensive. Torchon lace was made from flax, but cotton is used as well, has been for a long time, it is made in strips 1 to 2 inches wide. Torchon lace has a gimp outlining the pattern; the gimp was first used in Sweden. Colored threads are used, but in general Torchon lace is white. Torchon lace is one of the oldest laces, is common to many lace-making regions such as Belgium, Italy, Saxony and Spain. Due to its simplicity, torchon lace is the first lace a lacemaker learns to make, has been since at least the 19th century, it only requires a few bobbins and uses thicker thread than other laces, which makes it easier to learn on.
It is the simplest of all the grounded laces. Beggar's lace is an alternative term for torchon lace. Though it is one of the oldest laces, torchon lace was not made in England until the late 19th century, at which point it was made in the East Midlands, thus it is not considered an English lace. By the early 20th century, machine-made copies were being made that were indistinguishable from the hand-made lace
Reticella is a needle lace dating from the 15th century and remaining popular into the first quarter of the 17th century. Reticella was a form of cutwork in which threads were pulled from linen fabric to make a "grid" on which the pattern was stitched using buttonhole stitch. Reticella used a grid made of thread rather than a fabric ground. Both methods resulted in a characteristic geometric design of squares and circles with various arched or scalloped borders. Books of patterns for reticella designed by Federico de Vinciolo and Cesare Vecellio were popular and were reprinted. Reticella developed into Punto in Aria. Berry, Robin L.: "Reticella: a walk through the beginnings of Lace" Kliot and Kaethe: The Needle-Made Lace of Reticella, Lacis Publications, Berkeley, CA, 1994. ISBN 0-916896-57-9. Montupet and Ghislaine Schoeller: Lace: The Elegant Web, ISBN 0-8109-3553-8. Ribeiro, Aileen: Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England, Yale, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10999-7 Vinciolo, Federico: Renaissance Patterns for Lace and Needlepoint, Dover Books, 1971.
ISBN 0-486-22438-4 Online facsimile of Vinciolo's Les Singuliers et Nouveaux Pourtaicts Reticella - Virtual Museum of Textile Arts
Chantilly lace is a handmade bobbin lace named after the city of Chantilly, France, in a tradition dating from the 17th century. The famous silk laces were introduced in the 18th century. Though called Chantilly lace, most of the lace bearing this name was made in Bayeux in France and Geraardsbergen, now in Belgium. Chantilly lace is known for its fine ground, outlined pattern, abundant detail; the pattern is outlined in a flat untwisted strand. The best Chantilly laces were made of silk, were black, which made them suitable for mourning wear. White Chantilly lace was made, both in linen and silk, though most Chantilly laces were made of silk; the black silk Chantilly lace became popular, there was a large market for it in Spain and the Americas. Chantilly and the Spanish laces were the most popular black laces. Little white Chantilly was made. Another notable thing about Chantilly lace is the use of a half-and-whole stitch as a fill to achieve the effect of light and shadow in the pattern, of flowers.
The background, or réseau, was in the form of a six pointed star, was made of the same thread as the pattern, unlike the otherwise similar blonde lace. The lace was produced in strips four inches wide, joined with a stitch that left no visible seam. Chantilly lace remained popular in the 19th century, when every fashionable lady had a black or white Chantilly shawl, made in Brussels or Ghent. In the 17th century, the Duchesse de Longueville organised the manufacture of lace at Chantilly, it has been produced from until the present day. It became popular because of the duchesse's patronage and Chantilly's proximity to Paris and came into fashion again during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI; when the French Revolution began in 1789, demand for the lace ceased. The lace-makers were seen as protégés of the royals, after Mme du Barry and Marie Antoinette were guillotined in 1793, the lace-makers of Chantilly were themselves killed. At this point production ceased. Napoleon I sponsored a revival of Chantilly lace between the years 1804 and 1815.
At this point production was concentrated in Normandy around the Bayeux area. While it was no longer being made in Chantilly, all of the old techniques and designs were used. Chantilly lace reached the height of its popularity around 1830 and was revived again in the 1860s, at which point it was made at Bayeux as well as at Geraardsbergen, in Belgium. In 1844, a machine was patented that made Valenciennes lace and black silk Chantilly lace, difficult to distinguish from the handmade lace. Chantilly lace – Virtual Museum of Textile Arts
Lepoglava is a town in Varaždin County, northern Croatia, located southwest of Varaždin, west of Ivanec and northeast of Krapina. A total of 8,283 people in the municipality lives in the following settlements: Lepoglava is best known for hosting the main Croatian prison. In 1854, a monastery of the Pauline Fathers was transformed by the authorities into a prison. In the twentieth century, the prison was used to intern political prisoners by the authorities of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Independent State of Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia. During WWII, the Lepoglava concentration camp is built by the Ustashe, around 1,000 prisoners were murdered there. Official website
Flanders lace was made in Flanders, well known for its bobbin lace. The supreme epoch of Flemish lace lasted from about 1550-1750; the lacemaking areas of Antwerp, Mechlin and Valenciennes are regarded as Flemish. They made mesh ground continuous lace. Brussels made part lace, non-continuous. Old Flanders lace began by making Torchon lace used early five-hole ground. Today, the term Flanders lace is more applied to a late 19th century revival of the five-hole grounded lace. Classical variations have pairs crossing at the tips of the rectangles, a modern variation crosses just threads what creates a more rectangular impression. Modern variations use less pins at the headside and footside. Both changes make the modern interpretation quicker to create but more vulnerable, but modern lacemakers tend to frame their work rather than apply it on clothing; the similar rose ground in Torchon lace uses four pins at the edges of the rectangles, Flanders uses just one pin in the centre. Names for the ground: five-hole ground cinq trou virgin ground fond à la vierge rose stitch or rose ground
Point de France
Point de France is a needle lace developed in the late 17th century. The lace is very rich and symmetrical; this expensive lace was popularized by the clergy. Most pieces of the 16th and 17th centuries are in museums
Honiton lace is a type of bobbin lace made in Honiton, Devon. Historical Honiton lace designs focused on scrollwork and depictions of natural objects such as flowers and leaves. Honiton lace is a part lace, its ornate sprigs or motifs, complex patterns were created separately and sewn into the net ground of the piece. Common sprigs include daisies, shamrocks, ivy leaves, lilies, convolvulus, briony, antwerp diamonds, trefoils and acorns; the art of making lace is rumored to have been brought to Honiton, England by Flemish refugees in the mid-to-late 16th century. An old tombstone in the town is inscribed with information about one James Rodge, described as a “bone lace seller” who died in 1617. In the early period, sprigs of various designs were worked separately from the net ground by hand put together near the end of production. Handmade Honiton lace became obsolete in light of the invention of machine-made net, much cheaper to produce. Historian Emily Jackson describes the design changes fostered by the convenience of this approach: “There was a curious wave of careless designing and inartistic method during the time of this depression, ugly patterns show ‘turkey tails,’ ‘frying pans,’ and hearts.
Not a leaf, nor a flower, was copied from nature.” Handmade lacework had a resurgence in popularity in the 19th century when Queen Victoria ordered a Honiton lace bridal dress. The revival happened so and demand was so great, that a cheaper-quality lace was produced in large quantities. Due to the massive demand, this cheaper work had simpler designs due to the necessary speed of production. Defining designs of lace at this time were “leaves, scrolls... look as natural as possible.”19th century Honiton lace incorporates a variety of stitches, including: whole stitch, stem stitch, lace stitch, fibre stitch, long plaitings, square plaitings, broad/cucumber plaitings, Honiton ground, star ground, Dame Joan ground, buckle stitch, Flemish stitch, turn-stitch, chequer stitch, fibre stitch, Antwerp diamond stitch