Optical margin alignment
Optical margin alignment outdents letters like A, V, W, Y, punctuation into the margins to align the text border optically. Some users remark that it makes the text margin look crooked, but this is because text frames or margin guides are visible. If text frames are not visible, e.g. in print preview, or when printed, the edge of a block of text looks more if optical margin alignment is enabled. From the earliest days of machine printing and Drop Capitals were indented into the margin, as can be seen in the pages of the Gutenberg Bible in the British Library. Word-processing software lacks this attention to detail that could be achieved when manually setting type page by page, but professional page layout software like InDesign and Serif PagePlus can now achieve this with a fine level of adjustment over which letters to indent into the margin and by how much, it is designed to be used for body text, not for table text, or headlines. It works well for block quotes, which benefit from “hung punctuation.”
The “Smart Quotes” are outdented 100% into the margin or paragraph indent, so that subsequent lines of text align with the first character in the quotation. The optimal values used for the outdents is font dependent. A typeface that has capital A, V, W, Y with vertical sides, needs no outdents for these letters, but the capital T and punctuation will still benefit from using Optical Margin Alignment. If text has narrow gutters between columns, table borders, or any straight edge such as an image near to the edge of the text, Optical Margin Alignment should not be used because the proximity of the straight line will break the optical illusion; this technique is sometimes called hanging punctuation, as it is useful for punctuation marks such as comma and the like. However, margin kerning, the slight shifting of certain characters at the margins so the margins look smooth, is a more general concept, as it can be usefully applied to certain letters as well; these values may be suitable for common seriffed fonts like Palatino, or Garamond.
Other fonts may need different values. Hanging punctuation Microtypography Micro-typographic Extensions of pdfTEX in Practice - Hàn Thé Thành, University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Optical Margin Alignment in InDesign -
LibreOffice is a free and open-source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation. It was forked from OpenOffice.org in 2010, an open-sourced version of the earlier StarOffice. The LibreOffice suite comprises programs for word processing, the creation and editing of spreadsheets, slideshows and drawings, working with databases, composing mathematical formulae, it is available in 115 languages. LibreOffice uses the international ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument file format as its native format to save documents for all of its applications. LibreOffice supports the file formats of most other major office suites, including Microsoft Office, through a variety of import/export filters. LibreOffice is available for a variety of computing platforms, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, as well as in the form of an online office suite LibreOffice Online, it is the default office suite of most popular Linux distributions. It is the most developed free and open-source office suite, with 50 times the development activity of Apache OpenOffice, the other major descendant of OpenOffice.org.
The project was announced and a beta released on 28 September 2010. Between January 2011 and October 2011, LibreOffice was downloaded 7.5 million times. The project claims 120 million unique downloading addresses from May 2011 to May 2015, excluding Linux distributions, with 55 million of those being from May 2014 to May 2015; the Document Foundation developers target LibreOffice for Microsoft Windows and macOS. Community ports for FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and Mac OS X 10.5 PowerPC receive support from contributors to those projects, respectively. LibreOffice is installable on OpenIndiana via SFE. Predecessors of LibreOffice, back to StarOffice 3, have run on Solaris with SPARC CPUs that Sun Microsystems made. Unofficial ports of LibreOffice, versions now obsolete, have supported SPARC. Current unofficial ports of LibreOffice 5.2.5 run only on Intel-compatible hardware, up to for Solaris 11. In 2011, developers announced plans to port LibreOffice both to Android and to iOS. A beta version of a document viewer for Android 4.0 or newer was released in January 2015.
The LibreOffice Impress Remote application for various mobile operating systems allows for remote control of LibreOffice Impress presentations. LibreOffice Online is the online office suite edition of LibreOffice, it allows for the use of LibreOffice through a web browser by using the canvas element of HTML5. Development was announced at the first LibreOffice Conference in October 2011, is ongoing; the Document Foundation, IceWarp, Collabora announced a collaboration to work on its implementation. A version of the software was shown in a September 2015 conference, the UK Crown Commercial Service announced an interest in using the software. On 15 December 2015, Collabora, in partnership with ownCloud, released a technical preview of Libreoffice Online branded as Collabora Online Development Edition. In July 2016, Nextcloud and Collabora partnered to bring CODE to Nextcloud users. By October 2016, Collabora had released nine updates to CODE; the first source code release of LibreOffice Online was done with LibreOffice version 5.3 in February 2017.
A detailed 60-page report in June 2015 compared the progress of the LibreOffice project with the related project Apache OpenOffice. It showed that "OpenOffice received about 10% of the improvements LibreOffice did in the period of time studied." LibreOffice can use the GStreamer multimedia framework in Linux to render multimedia content such as videos in Impress and other programs. Visually, LibreOffice used the large "Tango style" icons that are used for the application shortcuts, quick launch icons, icons for associated files and for the icons found on the toolbar of the LibreOffice programs in the past, they were used on the toolbars and menus by default. LibreOffice integrated multiple icon themes to adapt the look and feel of specific desktop environment, such as Colibre for Windows, Elementary for GNOME. LibreOffice ships with a modified theme which looks native on GTK-based Linux distributions, it renders fonts via Cairo on Linux distributions. With version 6.2, LibreOffice includes a Ribbon-style GUI, called Notebookbar, including three different views.
This feature has been included as an experimental feature in LibreOffice 6. LibreOffice has a feature similar to WordArt called Fontwork; the LibreOffice project uses a dual LGPLv3 / MPL 2.0 license for new contributions to allow the license to be upgraded. Since the core of the OpenOffice.org codebase was donated to the Apache Software Foundation, there is an ongoing effort to get all the code rebased to ease future license updates. At the same time, there were complaints that IBM had not in fact released the Lotus Symphony code as open source, despite having claimed to, it was reported that some LibreOffice developers wanted to incorporate some code parts and bug fixes which IBM fixed in their OpenOffice fork. LibreOffice supports third-party extensions; as of July 2017, the LibreOffice Extension Repository lists more than 320 extensions. Another list is maintained by the Apache Software Foundation and another one by the Free Software Foundation. Extensions and scripts for LibreOffice can be written in C++, Java, CLI, Pytho
PageStream is a desktop publishing software package by Grasshopper LLC available for a variety of operating systems, including Windows, Linux and Amiga. The software was released under the name Publishing Partner for the Atari ST in 1986. Autotracing application BME included. Official website Pagestream.net PageStream files
Ventura Publisher was the first popular desktop publishing package for IBM PC compatible computers running the GEM extension to the DOS operating system. The software was developed by Ventura Software, a small software company founded by John Meyer, Don Heiskell, Lee Jay Lorenzen, all of whom met while working at Digital Research, it ran under an included run-time copy of Inc.'s Graphics Environment Manager. The first version of Ventura Publisher was released in 1986. Ventura Publisher was distributed worldwide by Xerox from its first shipment in 1986 until Ventura Software sold the source code to Xerox in 1990; the original Ventura Software ceased operations in February 1990, a new Ventura Software Inc. was formed at that time, an affiliated company of Xerox. The developers from the original company worked with the new Xerox Ventura Software company to produce Version 3.0 Gold. This was released in late 1990. Besides DOS/GEM, it was available for Win16, OS/2; the three founders of the original Ventura Software no longer worked on the product after November 1990.
Version 4.0 was released in 1991. The last version released by Ventura Software Inc. was 4.1.1 in 1993. Ventura Publisher had some text editing and line drawing capabilities of its own, but it was designed to interface with a wide variety of word processing and graphics programs rather than to supplant them. To that end, text was stored in, loaded from, saved back to word processor files in the native formats of a variety of word processors, including WordPerfect and early versions of Microsoft Word, rather than being incorporated into the chapter files; this allowed users to continue using their favorite word processors for major text changes, spelling checks, so forth. Paragraphs other than default body text were tagged with descriptive tagnames that were user-defined, characters and attributes that have no native equivalent in a given word processor were represented with standardized sequences of characters; when working with the files outside of Ventura Publisher, these paragraph tags and special character and attribute codes could be changed, the same as any other text.
These tags looked much like HTML tags. Ventura Publisher was the first major typesetting program to incorporate the concept of an implicit "underlying page" frame, one of the first to incorporate a strong "style sheet" concept, it produced documents with a high degree of internal consistency, unless overridden by the user. Its concepts of free-flowing text, paragraph tagging, codes for attributes and special characters anticipated similar concepts inherent in HTML and XML, its concept of "publication" files that tie together "chapter" files gave it the ability to handle documents hundreds of pages in length as as a four-page newsletter. The major strengths of the original DOS/GEM edition of Ventura Publisher were: Its ability to run, with reasonable response times, on a wide range of hardware Its ability to produce, by default, documents with a high degree of internal consistency Its automatic re-export of text to word-processor-native formats Its ability to print to a wide variety of devices, including PostScript, PCL, InterPress laser printers and imagesetters, as well as certain popular dot-matrix printers.
The application was acquired by Corel in 1993. It was repackaged and soon released as Corel Ventura 4.2 without any major change in the application, other than to drop all support for platforms other than Microsoft Windows. The first real Corel version was 5.0, released in 1994, made fundamental changes to both user interface and document structure. Because of this, because of escalating requirements of the various Corel versions, the original DOS/GEM edition still has a small number of die-hard users; the application was rewritten for the Win32 platform and was released in 1996, labeled Corel Ventura 7 so that it would match the version number of CorelDRAW. Corel Ventura 8 was released in 1998. Corel Ventura 10 The latest version is Corel Ventura 10, this version runs in Windows 10 with compatibility mode and copy "mfc42.dll" in programs corel folder. Run over linux ubuntu 18.10 / wine, inclusive in live USB mode. Output in PDF/X-1 and others standar modes; as an application with strengths in more structured documents, its main competitors are FrameMaker, InDesign and QuarkXPress.
"Desktop Publishing Using Ventura ™ on the IBM-PC". Don Busché, Saddleback College, with Bernice Glenn, Desktop Publishing and Design Consultant. 1989 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. Paperback, 270 pages. ISBN 0-13-202235-4 QuarkXPress Adobe FrameMaker Adobe InDesign Adobe PageMaker Microsoft Publisher Ready,Set,Go! Scribus Serif PagePlus Quark CopyDesk Quark Publishing System Timeworks Publisher / Publish-It! / KeyPublisher XTension Ventura Publisher brochure
Serif Ltd is a owned British developer and publisher of software. It provides software and associated products direct to customers through its website and contact centre in the United Kingdom, through retailers; the wider'Serif Group Ltd' operates a question and answer support website called CommunityPlus and a now closed gifts and gadgets website called Gizoo. Serif was founded in 1987 by a small team of software engineers, with the objective of creating lower-cost alternatives to existing Desktop Publishing software packages using the Microsoft Windows platform; the first Serif product to be released was called PageStar: a simple, low-cost advertisement layout program for Windows 2.0. This was expanded in 1990 with their follow-up, PagePlus, which would go on to win'Best Software' at the Computer Shopper Awards 2014. In subsequent years, this was accompanied by other software products in the'Plus' range, including DrawPlus, PhotoPlus, WebPlus, MoviePlus. In 1996, Serif was acquired by American company Vizacom.
The successor to their DrawPlus product, Affinity Designer was launched in 2014 for macOS. It was Serif's first product for macOS, had been written from scratch for it; this was followed in 2015 by Affinity Photo. In 2016, following the release of Affinity Designer and Affinity Photo for Windows, Serif ceased development for their'Plus' product range to focus on the Affinity product range; the successor to PagePlus, third Affinity application, Affinity Publisher, is set for release in 2018. There are no current plans by Serif to replace the WebPlus and MoviePlus product lines in the Affinity range; the following are all software packages, for the following applications: Affinity Designer: Vector graphic design software for macOS, Windows and iPad Affinity Photo: Digital image editing software for macOS, Windows and iPad PagePlus: Desktop publishing software for Windows DrawPlus: Graphic design software for Windows PhotoPlus: Digital image editing software for Windows WebPlus: Website design software for Windows MoviePlus: Digital video editing software for Windows Digital Scrapbook Artist: Digital scrapbooking software for Windows CraftArtist: Digital scrapbooking software for Windows PanoramaPlus: Image stitching software for Windows PhotoStack: Image editing and organisation software for Windows AlbumPlus: Image organizer software for Windows Scan and Share: Document mosaicing software for Windows FontManager: Font management software for Windows Official website Affinity website Serif CommunityPlus support website
C++ is a general-purpose programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C language, or "C with Classes". It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation, it is always implemented as a compiled language, many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Intel, IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications and performance-critical applications. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017.
The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++ 17 standard supersedes these with an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language. C++20 is the next planned standard, keeping with the current trend of a new version every three years. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++; the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development; when Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing.
Remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast and used; as well as C and Simula's influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing and default arguments. In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++", adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation, improved type checking, BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes. Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard; the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published; this work became the basis for the future standard. Feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, a boolean type. After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, further changes planned for 2020; as of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C. On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".
According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983; when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring its final name. Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles: It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful in real world programs; every feature should be implementable. Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, that style should be supported by C++. Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++, it should provide facilities for organising programs into separate, well-defined parts, provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0