Chesterfield County, South Carolina
Chesterfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,734, its estimated 2015 population had declined a little to 46,017, its county seat is Chesterfield. The largest town in the county is Cheraw. Chesterfield County is part of the Charlotte Metropolitan Area, it is located north of the Midlands, on its border with North Carolina. The county was erected in 1785, but was part of what was known as Cheraws District until 1800, at which time Chesterfield became a district itself. Under the post-American Civil War state constitution of 1867, passed during the Reconstruction era, South Carolina districts became counties with home rule; the county is named for Chesterfield County in Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 806 square miles, of which 799 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Anson County, North Carolina - north Richmond County, North Carolina - northeast Union County, North Carolina - northwest Marlboro County - east Darlington County - southeast Kershaw County - southwest Lancaster County - west Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 42,768 people, 16,557 households, 11,705 families residing in the county.
The population density was 54 people per square mile. There were 18,818 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.34% White, 33.22% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 2.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,557 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.60% were married couples living together, 16.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,483, the median income for a family was $36,200. Males had a median income of $30,205 versus $20,955 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,233. About 16.70% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,734 people, 18,173 households, 12,494 families residing in the county; the population density was 58.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,482 housing units at an average density of 26.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.8% white, 32.6% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.3% were American, 6.8% were English, 6.0% were German, 5.9% were Irish.
Of the 18,173 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,979 and the median income for a family was $41,225. Males had a median income of $35,965 versus $26,881 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,162. About 17.6% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. In the South Carolina House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 53rd House district and is represented by Republican Ritchie Yow. In the South Carolina Senate, Chesterfield is located in Senate district 27 and represented by Democrat, former 2010 candidate for governor, Vincent Sheheen.
In the US House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 7th Congressional District. As of the 2012 House elections, it is represented by Republican Tom Rice, who comes from Horry County. Chesterfield County was located in South Carolina's 5th Congressional District, one of the seats that the Democrats lost to the Republicans during the 2010 election; the county's youth are provided with an education through the Chesterfield County School District. The South Point Christian School is a private school located in Pageland and offers Kindergarten through 12th grade. Northeastern Technical College has branches in Cheraw. Central High School, Pageland Cheraw High School, Cheraw Chesterfield High School, Chesterfield McBee High School, McBee Chesterfield/Ruby Middle School, Chesterfield/Ruby Long Middle School, Cheraw New Heights Middle School, Jefferson Cheraw Intermediate School, Cheraw Edwards Elementary School, Chesterfield Jefferson Elementary School, Jefferson McBee Elementary School, McBee Pageland Elementary School, Pageland Plainview Elementary School, Plainview Ruby Elementary School, Ruby Cheraw Primary School, Cheraw Pet
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
South Carolina Highway 207
South Carolina Highway 207 is a primary state highway in the state of South Carolina. It is within the boundaries of Chesterfield County and serves to connect the city of Pageland, South Carolina to the city of Monroe, North Carolina via North Carolina Highway 207. Starting at the intersection of Elm Street and McGregor Street, it travels northwest for 9.2 miles to the North Carolina state line, where it continues on as NC 207 towards Monroe. The entire route is two lanes and travels through farmland; the road was established in 1940 as a new primary route from Pageland to the North Carolina state line. By 1942, it was extended southeast to SC 151. In 1948, it was recommissioned in 1949 after NC 207 was established; the entire route is in Chesterfield County. Media related to South Carolina Highway 207 at Wikimedia Commons
U.S. Route 601
U. S. Route 601 is a north–south United States highway that runs for 316.3 miles from U. S. Route 321, near Tarboro, South Carolina, to U. S. Route 52, in Mount Airy, North Carolina. US 601 begins at US 321 near SC and intersects with such highways as US 278 in Hampton. Beginning in Bamberg US 601 has an overlap with US 301 intersects US 78. Within the vicinity of Orangeburg, the overlap with US 301 ends at US 21 it encounters Interstate 26 at Exits 145A and 145B. In the vicinity of Lugoff, US 601 encounters Interstate 20 at exit 92 near begins another short overlap with US 1 which last until Camden where that concurrency is replaced by US 521 which last longer than the previous one, ending in Kershaw; the route joins SC 9 three miles west of Pageland leaves SC 9 when it arrives in downtown Pageland before crossing the North Carolina border. After crossing the north–South Carolina border, US 601 intersects with such highways as US 74 in Monroe, which it shares a short concurrency with until the interchange with the northern terminus of NC 207.
Just as it leaves the city limits, it runs past the site of a future interchange with the Monroe Bypass. Traveling north along what is now known as "Concord Highway" it encounters another intersection with the NC 24/NC 27 overlap in Midland and an interchange with NC 49 south of Concord. In Concord, it joins US 29 which it overlaps until Interstate 85 at Exit 58 and runs along the interstate until it reaches Salisbury, at exit 75 joins a brief concurrency with US 70. In Mocksville, the road has a short concurrency with US 64 beginning at the western terminus of US 158, after leaving that overlap encounters Interstate 40 at exit 170. Further north it has an interchange with US 421 in Yadkinville, Interstate 74 at exit 11 near White Plains, terminates at US 52 in Mount Airy. Established in 1927 as an original US Highway. In 1932, US 601 was extended north into North Carolina, replacing SC 96. In North Carolina US 601 was placed on concurrency with all of NC 80, from the South Carolina state line, near McFarlan, to downtown Mount Airy.
In 1934, NC 80 was expunged from US 601. In 1935, most of US 601 was replaced by the arrival of US 52. From Salisbury, North Carolina to Florence, South Carolina, the route was converted to US 52. Around 1952, US 601 was extended south from Salisbury. Starting with a concurrency with US 29 to Kannapolis, from there it followed US 29A to downtown Concord. Replacing NC 151, it continues south to the state line. In South Carolina, US 601 returns by replacing SC 151 from the border to Pageland. From there it replaced part of SC 265 to Kershaw. Between Kershaw and Camden, it overlaps with US 521, replacing SC 26 from Camden to Orangeburg in concurrency with US 301 to Bamberg. Replacing SC 36 to US 321, where it continues and ends with US 321 in Hardeeville. In 1965, US 601 was realigned on new road bypassing west of downtown Concord, leaving a business loop. In 1970, US 601 was realigned on new road bypassing east of Dobson. In 1974, US 601 was extended to Interstate 95 in Hardeeville. In 1979, US 601 was rerouted west of Salisbury, with concurrency with US 70.
In the late 1980s, US 601 was rerouted onto Interstate 85, in Salisbury from exit 68 to exit 74. In 1999, US 601 was truncated to its current northern terminus at US 52 in Mount Airy. Special routes of U. S. Route 601 Endpoints of US Highway 601
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like flowering plant originating in West Africa. It is cultivated for its fruit; the subdivision of this species into two varieties and citron melons, originated with the erroneous synonymization of Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai and Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. by L. H. Bailey in 1930. Molecular data including sequences from the original collection of Thunberg and other relevant type material, show that the sweet watermelon and the bitter wooly melon Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai are not related to each other. Since 1930, thousands of papers have misapplied the name Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai for the watermelon, a proposal to conserve the name with this meaning was accepted by the relevant nomenclatural committee and confirmed at the International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen in China in 2017. The bitter South African melon first collected by Thunberg has become naturalized in semiarid regions of several continents, is designated as a "pest plant" in parts of Western Australia where they are called pig melon.
Watermelon is a trailing vine in the flowering plant family Cucurbitaceae. The species was long thought to have originated in southern Africa, but this was based on the erroneous synonymization by L. H. Bailey of a South African species with the cultivated watermelon; the error became apparent with DNA comparison of material of the cultivated watermelon seen and named by Linnaeus and the holotype of the South African species. There is evidence from seeds in Pharaoh tombs of watermelon cultivation in Ancient Egypt. Watermelon is grown in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide for its large edible fruit known as a watermelon, a special kind of berry with a hard rind and no internal division, botanically called a pepo; the sweet, juicy flesh is deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties have been cultivated. The fruit can be eaten raw or pickled and the rind is edible after cooking. Considerable breeding effort has been put into disease-resistant varieties. Many cultivars are available.
In Botswana, this is known as an ingredient in the local dish bogobe jwa lerotse. Tswana: Lekatane, Makatane Afrikaans: Karkoer, Bitterwaatlemoen, Kolokwint, etc. English: Tsamma melon, Wild watermelon, etc. Nama: T’sama Zulu: Ikhabe, etc. Southern Sotho: Lehapu, etc. Former names: Kaffir melon The watermelon is an annual that has a prostrate or climbing habit. Stems are up to 3 m long and new growth has yellow or brown hairs. Leaves are 40 to 150 mm wide; these have three lobes which are themselves lobed or doubly lobed. Plants have both male and female flowers on 40-mm-long hairy stalks; these are yellow, greenish on the back. This plant is listed on the Threatened Species Programme of the South African National Biodiversity Institute; the watermelon is a large annual plant with long, trailing or climbing stems which are five-angled and up to 3 m long. Young growth is densely woolly with yellowish-brown hairs; the leaves are large, hairy pinnately-lobed and alternate. The plant has branching tendrils.
The white to yellow flowers grow singly in the leaf axils and the corolla is white or yellow inside and greenish-yellow on the outside. The flowers are unisexual, with male and female flowers occurring on the same plant; the male flowers predominate at the beginning of the season. The styles are united into a single column; the large fruit is a kind of modified berry called a pepo with a thick fleshy center. Wild plants have fruits up to 20 cm in diameter; the rind of the fruit is mid- to dark green and mottled or striped, the flesh, containing numerous pips spread throughout the inside, can be red or pink, yellow, green or white. The bitter wooly melon was formally described by Carl Peter Thunberg in 1794 and given the name Momordica lanata, it was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1916 by Japanese botanists Jinzō Matsumura and Takenoshin Nakai. The sweet watermelon was formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and given the name Cucurbita citrullus, it was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1836 by the German botanist Heinrich Adolf Schrader.
The bitter wooly melon is the sister species of Citrullus ecirrhosus Cogn. from South African arid regions, while the sweet watermelon is closer to Citrullus mucosospermus Fursa from West Africa and populations from Sudan. The watermelon is a flowering plant that originated in northeast Africa, where it is found growing wild. Citrullus colocynthis has sometimes been considered to be a wild ancestor of the watermelon. Evidence of the cultivation of both C. lanatus and C. colocynthis in the Nile Valley has been found from the second millennium BC onward, seeds of both species have been found at Twelfth Dynasty sites and in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. In the 7th century, watermelons were being cultivated in India, by the 10th century had reached China, today the world's single largest watermelon producer; the Moors introduced the fruit into Spain and there is evidence of it being cultivated in Córdoba in 961 and in Seville
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi