Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Brolo is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 130 kilometres east of Palermo and about 60 kilometres west of Messina. Brolo borders the following municipalities: Ficarra, Piraino, Sant'Angelo di Brolo; until 1960 the economy was based on agriculture, the main produces including olives and lemons. Now the economy is based on buildings houses and some summer tourism. During the Roman era Brolo was called Brolium, meaning "garden" or "Park" in Latin, was crossed by the Via Valeria. In the Middle Ages it had a castle on the sea, around which from the 11th century, a fishermens' settlement arose. Bianca Lancia and wife of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen lived in the castle during the 13th century according to some historians. Brolo was the scene of an amphibious landing during the Battle of Sicily in World War II. Www.brolo.it/
Castelmola is a comune in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 170 kilometres east of Palermo and about 40 kilometres southwest of Messina. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,107 and an area of 16.4 square kilometres. Castelmola borders the following municipalities: Gaggi, Mongiuffi Melia, Taormina
Mandanici is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 170 kilometres east of Palermo and about 30 kilometres southwest of Messina. Mandanici borders the municipalities of Fiumedinisi, Nizza di Sicilia, Pagliara and Santa Lucia del Mela. Mandanici, a small centre in the Province of Messina, was founded in a broad valley on the slopes of Pizzo Luci at the foot of the Peloritani, its origin is uncertain, but it is claimed that it was founded by Greek colonists during the Chalkidean migration. More secure evidence exists from the period of Norman rule, as it was recorded in the royal historian Don Rocco Pirri's Sicilia Sacra. Today, Mandanici's historical cultural importance is attested by the duomo, with its frescoes and amazing wooden roof and terracotta columns from local sources. Trinità la Madonna del Cesto, the paintings of Subba, the Norman churches. Another monument of historical value is the church of SS. Salvatore from the seventeenth century, restored and designated a Museo Etnocintropologico.
The local library is full of books on medicine and theology from the sixteenth century. In addition to pastoralism and agriculture in general, the local economy is involved in the production of high quality olive oil; the oil of the Mandanici has achieved recognition as a product of excellence due to its high percentage of oleic acid and low overall acidity. It has been recognised by the University of Bari as among the best in Italy because in addition to its taste, it contains a great deal of monounsaturated fats and large amounts of vitamins. Solvents are not used during the pressing process, so it is an organic product; the Mandanicese kitchen offers the typical dishes based on chicken cooked on the grill in a wood-fired oven. Mandanicese macaroni, made by hand and prepared with tomato and local antipastos, is famous and is served to tourists in the local restaurants. Mandanici is located ten kilometres from the rail line for Roccalumera and from the SS 114, whence it is accessed by the Roccalumera-Mandanici local trains.
It lies on the slopes of the Peloritani at the centre of an arc from Monte Scuderi that includes the summit of Mualio at an altitude of 417 metres. Emilio Argiroffi, politician, painter Sicilia Antica: Gruppo Folkrorico Mandanicese
Capo d'Orlando is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina, southern Italy, one of the main centers of the mountain and coastal Nebrodi area. After the destruction of the Greek colony of Agathyrnum by the Roman Republican Army, the only settlement was a tiny fisherman's village. In 1925 Capo d'Orlando was elevated to the status of Comune, as before it was included in the territory of Naso. A railway station was made during the Fascist era in the early 20th century. During this century the population and tourist development grew. Tourism is one of the main resources of the local economy; the town has a small marina for both fishing and tourist boats alike that offers transportation to and from the Aeolian islands during the summer season and 14 km of beaches, rocky shores that face the deep blue Tyrrenian sea making it an ideal spot to enjoy the summertime, early fall and late springtime. The location of Capo d'Orlando is very peculiar because for a town that faces the sea, it is very close to Nebrodi Mountain Regional Environmental Park: a large extension of temperate woods, where is possible to hike to lakes, rivers and tiny historical villages where everyone can enjoy the best of traditional Sicilian food and wine.
There are banks and commercial business firms along with several fair sized factories located nearby such as "Porte IMIC", "irritec" and "siplast". Another economic factor is exploitation of the extensive presence of orange of lemon fields throughout the area. Capo d'Orlando is home to Orlandina Basket. Conversano, Italy Vittorio Sindoni Capo d'Orlando Lighthouse Capo d'Orlando's info
Caronia is a town and comune on the north coast of Sicily, in the province of Messina, about half way between Tyndaris and Cephaloedium. The town has 3,555 inhabitants. Kale Akte derived its name from the beauty of the neighboring country, its beauty and fertility had attracted the particular attention of the Zanclaeans, who in consequence invited the Samians and Milesians to establish themselves on this part of the Sicilian coast. Events, turned their attention elsewhere, they ended with occupying Zancle itself. At a period the project was resumed by the Sikel leader Ducetius, after his expulsion from Sicily by Syracuse and his exile at Corinth, returned at the head of a body of colonists from the Peloponnese; the date given by Diodorus is 446 BC, but in another passus the same author says that Ducetius colonised Kale Akte in 440 BC, the same year he died. In addition, recent excavations at Caronia, the site of the Hellenistic and Roman town Kale Akte, have revealed only sparse remains from the 5th century BC, show that a Sikel settlement existed here in the early 5th century BC.
It is possible that Ducetius founded the colony on the site of this existing Sikel settlement, just as he had done at Menai and Paliké. Some scholars have hypothesised that Ducetius returned without the consent of Syracuse, but this is improbable, he must have had the permission of Syracuse to end the exile at Corinth, he brought according to Diodorus Corinthian settlers for the colonising project at Kale Akte. Syracuse would have had an interest of establishing an allied Sikel-Greek colony on the north coast, without risking too much in a hostile Sikel-dominated area. There are little subsequent account of its fortunes, it appears to have been in Cicero's time a considerable municipal town. Silius Italicus speaks of it as abounding in fish, litus piscosa Calacte and its name, though omitted by Pliny, is found in Ptolemy, as well as in the Antonine Itineraries; the distances given in the Tabula Peutingeriana, coincide with the site of the modern town of Caronia, on the shore below which Fazello tells us that ruins and vestiges of an ancient city were still visible in his time.
Cluverius, who visited Caronia, speaks with admiration of the beauty and pleasantness of this part of the coast, littoris excellens amoenitas et pulchritudo, which rendered it worthy of its ancient name. The Greek rhetorician Caecilius of Caleacte, who flourished in the time of Augustus, was a native of Caleacte, whence he derived the surname of Calactinus. In 2004–2005 and 2014 two series of unusual fires were reported in the village of Canneto, 136 kilometres west of Messina. Official investigations suggested that all of these fires were cases of arson and arrests were made in 2015. However, persistent speculation has ascribed the fires to other supernatural causes. From January to August 2004, including a television, a cooker and vacuum cleaner, were reported to have caught fire spontaneously. Fires reportedly struck wedding presents and a piece of furniture. At least one person was said to have observed an unplugged electrical cable ignite spontaneously; the outbreaks continued after ENEL, the Italian power utility, cut off the town's power supply.
In 2008 investigators concluded. Mysterious fires again occurred in mid-2014. On March 5, 2015 police arrested and charged Giuseppe Pezzino, 26, with arson, conspiracy to commit fraud, sounding a false alarm in association with the mysterious fires, his father, Antonino Pezzino, has been implicated. The Italian military police had installed hidden cameras in the streets after the fires started again. Video captured about 40 incidents implicating Giuseppe. Further evidence was gathered by phone taps; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea; the city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as Ziz. Palermo became a possession of Carthage. Two Greek colonies were established, known collectively as Panormos or "All-Port"; as Panormus, the town became part of Empire for over a thousand years. From 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital; the Arabs shifted the Greek name into Bal ` the root for Palermo's present-day name. Following the Norman reconquest, Palermo became the capital of a new kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily and the capital of the Holy Roman Empire under Emperor Frederick II and King Conrad IV; the population of Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, while its metropolitan area is the fifth most populated in Italy with around 1.2 million people.
In the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, panormiti; the languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language and the Palermitano dialect of the Sicilian language. Palermo is Sicily's cultural and tourism capital, it is a city rich in history, art and food. Numerous tourists are attracted to the city for its good Mediterranean weather, its renowned gastronomy and restaurants, its Romanesque and Baroque churches and buildings, its nightlife and music. Palermo is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services and agriculture. Palermo has an international airport, a significant underground economy. In fact, for cultural and economic reasons, Palermo was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy and Europe, it is the main seat of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale.
The city is going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro-Mediterranean area. Roman Catholicism is important in Palermitano culture; the Patron Saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia. The area attracts significant numbers of tourists each year and is known for its colourful fruit and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò and Capo. Palermo lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto and Oreto rivers; the basin was named the Conca d'Oro by the Arabs in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a mountain range, named after the city itself; these mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea. Palermo is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea from Monte Pellegrino. Palermo experiences a hot-summer subtropical Mediterranean climate, mild with moderate seasonality. Summers are long and dry due to the domination of subtropical high pressure system, while winters experience moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather due to the polar front.
Temperatures in autumn and spring are mild. Palermo is one of the warmest cities in Europe, with an average annual air temperature of 18.3 °C, it's one of the warmest cities in Italy. It receives 2,530 hours of sunshine per year. Snow is a rare occurrence having snowed about a dozen times since 1945. Since the 1940s to nowadays there have been at least five times when considerable snowfall has occurred. In 1949 and in 1956, when the minimum temperature went down to 0 °C, the city was blanketed by some centimetres of snow. Snowfalls occurred in 1981, 1986, 1999 and 2014; the average annual temperature of the sea is above 19 °C. In the period from November to May, the average sea temperature exceeds 18 °C and in the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds 21 °C. Palermo is surrounded by mountains; some districts of the city are divided by the mountains themselves. It was difficult to reach the inner part of Sicily from the city because of the mounts; the tallest peak of the range is La Pizzuta, about 1,333 metres high.
However the most important mount is Monte Pellegrino, geographically separated from the rest of the range by a plain. The mount lies right in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Monte Pellegrino's cliff was described in the 19th century by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as "the most beautiful promontory in the world", in his essay "Italian Journey". Today both the Kemonia are covered up by buildings. However, the shape of the former watercourses can still be recognised today, because the streets that were built on them follow their shapes. Today the only waterway not drained yet is the Oreto river that divides the downtown of the city from the western uptown and the industrial districts. In the basins there were, many seasonal torrents that helped formed swampy plains, reclaimed during history.