A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major
Photo manipulation involves transforming or altering a photograph using various methods and techniques to achieve desired results. Some photo manipulations are considered skillful artwork while others are frowned upon as unethical practices when used to deceive the public, such as that used for political propaganda, or to make a product or person look better. Depending on the application and intent, some photo manipulations are considered an art form because it involves the creation of unique images and in some instances, signature expressions of art by photographic artists. For example, Ansel Adams employed some of the more common manipulations using darkroom exposure techniques, such as burning and dodging a photograph. Other examples of photo manipulation include retouching photographs using ink or paint, double exposure, piecing photos or negatives together in the darkroom, scratching instant films, or through the use of software-based manipulation tools applied to digital images. There are a number of software applications available for digital image manipulation, ranging from professional applications to basic imaging software for casual users.
Photo manipulation dates back to some of the earliest photographs captured on glass and tin plates during the 19th century. The practice began not long after the creation of the first photograph by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce who developed heliography and made the first photographic print from a photoengraved printing plate. Traditional photographic prints can be altered using various methods and techniques that involve manipulation directly to the print, such as retouching with ink, airbrushing, or scratching Polaroids during developing. Negatives can be manipulated while still in the camera using double-exposure techniques, or in the darkroom by piecing photos or negatives together; some darkroom manipulations involved techniques such as bleaching to artfully lighten or wash-out parts of the photograph, or hand coloring for aesthetic purposes or to mimic a fine art painting. In the early 19th century and the technology that made it possible was rather crude and cumbersome. While the equipment and technology progressed over time, it was not until the late 20th century that photography evolved into the digital realm.
At the onset, digital photography was considered by some to be a radical new approach, was rejected by photographers because of its substandard quality. The transition from film to digital has been an ongoing process although great strides were made in the early 21st century as a result of advancing technology that has improved digital image quality while reducing the bulk and weight of cameras and equipment. An early example of tampering was in the early 1860s, when a photo of Abraham Lincoln was altered using the body from a portrait of John C. Calhoun and the head of Lincoln from a famous seated portrait by Mathew Brady – the same portrait, the basis for the original Lincoln five-dollar bill. Another is exampled in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue wherein it exposes a manipulated American Civil War photograph of General Ulysses S. Grant posing horseback in front of his troops at City Point, Virginia. Close observation of the photograph raises questions and brings to light certain details in the photograph that do not add up.
For example, Grant's head is set at a strange angle to his body, his uniform is of a different time period, his favorite horse Cincinnati did not have a left hind sock like the horse in the photograph, although his other horse Egypt did have a sock but on a different foot. With further research, three different photographs were discovered that explained the composite using Grant's head from one photograph, the body of Major General Alexander McDowell McCook atop his horse from another photograph, for the background, an 1864 photograph of Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher's Hill. In the 20th century, digital retouching became available with Quantel computers running Paintbox in professional environments, alongside other contemporary packages, were replaced in the market by Adobe Photoshop and other editing software for graphic imaging. Photo manipulation has been used to deceive or persuade viewers or improve storytelling and self-expression. Subtle and discreet changes can have a profound impact on how we interpret or judge a photograph, making it all the more important to know when or if manipulation has occurred.
As early as the American Civil War, photographs were published as engravings based on more than one negative. Joseph Stalin made use of photo retouching for propaganda purposes. On May 5, 1920 his predecessor Vladimir Lenin held a speech for Soviet troops that Leon Trotsky attended. Stalin had Trotsky retouched out of a photograph showing Trotsky in attendance. In a well known case of damnatio memoriae image manipulation, NKVD leader Nikolai Yezhov, after his execution in 1940, was removed from an official press photo where he was pictured with Stalin; the pioneer among journalists distorting photographic images for news value was Bernarr Macfadden: in the mid-1920s, his "composograph" process involved reenacting real news events with costumed body doubles and photographing the dramatized scenes—then pasting faces of the real news-personalities onto his staged images. In the 1930s, artist John Heartfield used a type of photo manipulation known as the photomontage to critique Nazi propaganda.
Some ethical theories have been applied to image manipulation. During a panel on the topic of ethics in image manipulation Aude Oliva theorized that cate
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief toward the reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Moral nihilists assert that there is no inherent morality, that accepted moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism may take epistemological, ontological, or metaphysical forms, meaning that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or reality does not exist; the term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence that one may develop upon realising there are no necessary norms, rules, or laws. Nihilism has been described as conspicuous in or constitutive of certain historical periods. For example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch and some religious theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity and many aspects of modernity represent a rejection of theism, that such rejection of theistic doctrine entails nihilism.
Nihilism has many definitions, thus can describe multiple arguably independent philosophical positions. Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that posits that concrete objects and physical constructs might not exist in the possible world, or that if there exist possible worlds that contain some concrete objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects. Extreme metaphysical nihilism is defined as the belief that nothing exists as a correspondent component of the self-efficient world; the American Heritage Medical Dictionary defines one form of nihilism as "an extreme form of skepticism that denies all existence." A similar skepticism concerning the concrete world can be found in solipsism. However, despite the fact that both deny the certainty of objects' true existence, the nihilist would deny the existence of self whereas the solipsist would affirm it. Both these positions are considered forms of anti-realism. Epistemological nihilism is a form of skepticism in which all knowledge is accepted as being untrue or as being impossible to confirm as true.
Mereological nihilism is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist, only basic building blocks without parts exist, thus the world we see and experience full of objects with parts is a product of human misperception. This interpretation of existence must be based on resolution; the resolution with which humans see and perceive the "improper parts" of the world is not an objective fact of reality, but is rather an implicit trait that can only be qualitatively explored and expressed. Therefore, there is no arguable way to measure the validity of mereological nihilism. Example: An ant can get lost on a large cylindrical object because the circumference of the object is so large with respect to the ant that the ant feels as though the object has no curvature. Thus, the resolution with which the ant views the world it exists "within" is a important determining factor in how the ant experiences this "within the world" feeling. Existential nihilism is the belief that life has value. With respect to the universe, existential nihilism posits that a single human or the entire human species is insignificant, without purpose and unlikely to change in the totality of existence.
The meaninglessness of life is explored in the philosophical school of existentialism. Moral nihilism known as ethical nihilism, is the meta-ethical view that morality does not exist as something inherent to objective reality. For example, a moral nihilist would say that killing someone, for whatever reason, is not inherently right or wrong. Other nihilists may argue not that there is no morality at all, but that if it does exist, it is a human construction and thus artificial, wherein any and all meaning is relative for different possible outcomes; as an example, if someone kills someone else, such a nihilist might argue that killing is not inherently a bad thing, or bad independently from our moral beliefs, because of the way morality is constructed as some rudimentary dichotomy. What is said to be a bad thing is given a higher negative weighting than what is called good: as a result, killing the individual was bad because it did not let the individual live, arbitrarily given a positive weighting.
In this way a moral nihilist believes. An alternative scholarly perspective is. Cooper writes, "In the widest sense of the word'morality', moral nihilism is a morality." Political nihilism follows the characteristic nihilist's rejection of non-rationalized or non-proven assertions. An influential analysis of political nihilism is presented by Leo Strauss; the Russian Nihilist movement was a Russian trend in the 1860s. After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, the Nihilists gained a reputation throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence for political change; the Nihilists expressed anger at what they described as the abusive nature of the Eastern Orthodox Church and of the tsarist monarchy, at the domination of the Russian economy by the aristocracy. Although the term Nihil
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Juhani Juice Leskinen, better known as Juice Leskinen, was one of the most prominent Finnish singer-songwriters of the late 20th century. From the early 1970s onward he released nearly 30 full-length albums, as well as writing song lyrics for dozens of Finnish artists. Several of Leskinen's songs have reached classic status in Finnish popular music, e.g. "Viidestoista yö", "Kaksoiselämää" and "Syksyn sävel". His early records are considered staples of the so-called Manserock movement of the mid-'70s. In addition to Leskinen's musical work, he extended his focus to poetry and playwriting with nine collections of verse and seven plays published. After moving to Tampere to study in 1970, Leskinen began his recording career in 1973 with the eponymous debut album of Juice Leskinen & Coitus Int. One more record, Per Vers, was made under the same band name, but from on he released records with several line-ups, most notably Juice Leskinen Slam and Juice Leskinen Grand Slam from the late 1970s until the mid 1980s.
Although concentrating more on poetry from the early 1990s, Leskinen still released new music every few years despite his failing health caused by years of unhealthy life habits. After the longest hiatus of his recording career, L marked Leskinen's 50th birthday in 2000, his last record, Senaattori ja boheemi, is a collaboration with Mikko Alatalo, a return to their partnership of the early 1970s. He wrote Nuku pommiin in 1982 for the Eurovision Song Contest. Juice Leskinen's most famous songs include "Viidestoista yö", "Musta aurinko nousee", "Marilyn", "Rakkauden ammattilainen" and "Norjalainen villapaita". Leskinen was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome in the early 2000's, he qualified 38th in the poll of the 100 Greatest Finns held during the summer of 2004. Leskinen died in 2006 after suffering from renal insufficiency and diabetes, he is buried in Kalevankangas cemetery, near the main gate. Leskinen has gained a considerable amount of posthumous recognition. A musical about Leskinen, titled Juice - taiteilijaelämää premiered in Tampere on 30 August 2011.
In 2015, two film companies announced plans for biography films. One of them was cancelled. In 2014 a biography of Juice was published, written by Antti Heikkinen, named Risainen elämä. Juice Leskinen 1950–2006 1973 Juice Leskinen & Coitus Int.: Juice Leskinen & Coitus Int 1974 Juice Leskinen & Coitus Int.: Per Vers, runoilija 1975 Juice Leskinen & Mikko Alatalo: Juice ja Mikko 1976 Juice: Keskitysleirin ruokavalio 1977 Juice: Lahtikaupungin rullaluistelijat 1978 Juice Leskinen Slam: Tauko I 1978 Välikausitakki: Välikausitakki 1979 Juice Leskinen Slam: Tauko II 1980 Juice Leskinen Slam: XV yö 1980 Juice Leskinen Slam: Kuusessa ollaan 1981 Juice Leskinen Slam: Ajan Henki 1981 Juice Leskinen: Dokumentti 1982 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Sivilisaatio 1983 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Deep Sea Diver 1983 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Boogieteorian alkeet peruskoulun ala-astetta varten - lyhyt oppimäärä 1984 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Kuopio-Iisalmi-Nivala 1985 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Pyromaani palaa rikospaikalle 1986 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Yölento 1987 Juice Leskinen: Minä 1990 Juice Leskinen: Sinä 1991 Juice Leskinen Grand Slam: Taivaan kappaleita 1992 Juice Leskinen Etc.: Simsalabim Jim 1993 Juice Leskinen: Haitaribussi 1996 Juice Leskinen: Kiveä ja sämpylää 2000 Juice Leskinen: L 2002 Juice Leskinen: Vaiti, aivan hiljaa 2004 Juice Leskinen & Mikko Alatalo: Senaattori ja boheemi 2005 Juice Leskinen & Mikko Alatalo: Klassikoiden ilta 2008 JuiceRemuDave – Live!
2015 Juice Leskinen & Ari Kankaanpää 1976 Singlet 1974–76 1977 Tähän saakka 1992 Sietämätön mies 1997 Kautta aikain 2000 Maamme 2003 Tuomaksen Evankeliumi 2006 Kautta aikain 2 2007 Syksyn sävel – Kaikki singlet 1974–2004 1981 Oikea valinta: Juice – 14 parasta puolta 1982 Parhaat 1982 Kokoelma 1983 Tupla: Ajan henki / Dokumentti 1984 Matka Suomeen 1986 Masters 1986 Parhaat 1987 Parhaat 1987 Juice Leskinen Slam 1988 Lauluja rakastamisen vaikeudesta 1989 Extra 1991 2 alkuperäistä 1991 Juicinfonia, esitt. The New Generation Orchestra, joht. Tuomas Lampela 1992 12 alkuperäistä 1993 12 alkuperäistä 1993 Valitut teokset 1994 Suomen parhaat 1994 Lauluja rakastamisen vaikeudesta 1995 20 suosikkia – Ei elämästä selviä hengissä 1997 20 suosikkia – Onnellinen mies 2008 Juice Leskinen – Parhaat 2012 20 × Juice Leskinen 2012 20 × Juice Leskinen & Grand Slam 2013 Sävel ja sanat 2014 37 laulua Suomesta 2014 Johanna-vuodet, osa 1 2014 Johanna-vuodet 1982–1983 2015 Kaikkien aikojen Juice 2016 Love-vuodet 1973-1978 The Saimaa Gesture 1975 Sonetteja laumalle 1981 Sanoja 1989 Iltaisin, kun veneet tulevat kotiin 1990 Pieniä sanoja sinulle, jota rakastan 1994 Äeti 1996 Jumala on 1998 Maanosamme, maailmamme 1999 Aika jätti 2002 Ilonkorjuun aika 2002 1987 Satuinen musiikkituokio 1992 Räkä ja Roiskis 1995 Räkä ja Roiskis Suuvedellä 1997 Räkä ja Roiskis naisissa 1978 Kuka murhasi rock'n' roll tähden 1984 Päivää 1993 Vaikuttajat korvissamme 2003 Siinäpä tärkeimmät: edellinen osa E. Ch. 1980 Valto 1983 Isänmaan toivo 1984 Ravintola Wunderbar 1985 Kolme hanhea matkalla pohjoiseen 1988 Harald Hirmuinen 1990 Mikä ny 1996 Soma rillumarei List of best-selling music artists in Finland Obituary in English @ Helsingin Sanomat A list of books in his library on LibraryThing
The pun called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. These ambiguities can arise from the intentional use of homophonic, metonymic, or figurative language. A pun differs from a malapropism in that a malapropism is an incorrect variation on a correct expression, while a pun involves expressions with multiple interpretations. Puns may be regarded as in-jokes or idiomatic constructions as their usage and meaning are specific to a particular language or its culture. Puns have a long history in human writing. For example, the Roman playwright Plautus was famous for word games. Puns can be classified in various ways; the homophonic pun, a common type, are not synonymous. Walter Redfern summarized this type with his statement, "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." For example, in George Carlin's phrase "atheism is a non-prophet institution", the word prophet is put in place of its homophone profit, altering the common phrase "non-profit institution".
The joke "Question: Why do we still have troops in Germany? Answer: To keep the Russians in Czech" relies on the aural ambiguity of the homophones check and Czech. Puns are not homophonic, but play on words of similar, not identical, sound as in the example from the Pinky and the Brain cartoon film series: "I think so, but if we give peas a chance, won't the lima beans feel left out?" which plays with the similar—but not identical—sound of peas and peace in the anti-war slogan "Give Peace a Chance". A homographic pun exploits words which are spelled the same but possess different meanings and sounds; because of their nature, they rely on sight more than hearing, contrary to homophonic puns. They are known as heteronymic puns. Examples in which the punned words exist in two different parts of speech rely on unusual sentence construction, as in the anecdote: "When asked to explain his large number of children, the pig answered simply:'The wild oats of my sow gave us many piglets.'" An example that combines homophonic and homographic punning is Douglas Adams's line "You can tune a guitar, but you can't tuna fish.
Unless of course, you play bass." The phrase uses the homophonic qualities of tune a and tuna, as well as the homographic pun on bass, in which ambiguity is reached through the identical spellings of, and. Homographic puns do not need to follow grammatical rules and do not make sense when interpreted outside the context of the pun. Homonymic puns, another common type, arise from the exploitation of words which are both homographs and homophones; the statement "Being in politics is just like playing golf: you are trapped in one bad lie after another" puns on the two meanings of the word lie as "a deliberate untruth" and as "the position in which something rests". An adaptation of a joke repeated by Isaac Asimov gives us "Did you hear about the little moron who strained himself while running into the screen door?" Playing on strained as "to give much effort" and "to filter". A homonymic pun may be polysemic, in which the words must be homonymic and possess related meanings, a condition, subjective.
However, lexicographers define polysemes as listed under a single dictionary lemma while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. A compound pun is a statement. In this case, the wordplay cannot go into effect by utilizing the separate words or phrases of the puns that make up the entire statement. For example, a complex statement by Richard Whately includes four puns: "Why can a man never starve in the Great Desert? Because he can eat the sand, there, but what brought the sandwiches there? Why, Noah sent Ham, his descendants mustered and bred." This pun uses sand, there/sandwiches there, Ham/ham, mustered/mustard, bred/bread. The phrase "piano is not my forte" links two meanings of the words forte and piano, one for the dynamic markings in music and the second for the literal meaning of the sentence, as well as alluding to "pianoforte", the older name of the instrument. Compound puns may combine two phrases that share a word. For example, "Where do mathematicians go on weekends? To a Möbius strip club!"
Puns on the terms Möbius strip club. A recursive pun is one in which the second aspect of a pun relies on the understanding of an element in the first. For example, the statement "π is only half a pie.". Another example is. Another example is "a Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother." The recursive pun "Immanuel doesn't pun, he Kant," is attributed to Oscar Wilde. Visual puns are sometimes used in logos, emblems and other graphic symbols, in which one or more of the pun aspects is replaced by a picture. In European heraldry, this technique is called canting arms. Visual and other puns and word games are common in Dutch gable stones as well as in some cartoons, such as Lost Consonants and The Far Side. Another type of visual pun exists in languages. For example, in Chinese, a pun may be based on a similarity in shape of the written character, despite a complete lack of phonetic similarity in the words punned upon. Mark Elvin describes how this "peculiarly Chinese form of visual punning involved comparing written characters to objects."
Richard J. Alexander notes two additional forms which puns may take: graphological (sometimes