Survey data collection
With the application of probability sampling in the 1930s, surveys became a standard tool for empirical research in social sciences and official statistics. The methods involved in survey data collection are any of a number of ways in which data can be collected for a statistical survey; these are methods that are used to collect information from a sample of individuals in a systematic way. First there was the change from traditional paper-and-pencil interviewing to computer-assisted interviewing. Now, face-to-face surveys, telephone surveys, mail surveys are replaced by web surveys. There are several ways of administering a survey. Within a survey, different methods can be used for different parts. For example, interviewer administration can be used for general topics but self-administration for sensitive topics; the choice between administration modes is influenced by several factors, including 1) costs, 2) coverage of the target population, 3) flexibility of asking questions, 4) respondents’ willingness to participate and 5) response accuracy.
Different methods create mode effects. The most common modes of administration are listed under the following headings. Mobile data collection or mobile surveys is an popular method of data collection. Over 50% of surveys today are opened on mobile devices; the survey, app or collection tool is on a mobile device such as a smart phone or a tablet. These devices offer innovative ways to gather data, eliminate the laborious "data entry", which delays data analysis and understanding. By eliminating paper, mobile data collection can dramatically reduce costs: one World Bank study in Guatemala found a 71% decrease in cost while using mobile data collection, compared to the previous paper-based approach. SMS surveys can reach any handset, in any country; as they are not dependent on internet access and the answers can be sent when its convenient, they are a suitable mobile survey data collection channel for many situations that require fast, high volume responses. As a result, SMS surveys can deliver 80% of responses in less than 2 hours and at much lower cost compared to face-to-face surveys, due to the elimination of travel/personnel costs.
Apart from the high mobile phone penetration, further advantages are quicker response times and the possibility to reach hard-to-reach target groups. In this way, mobile technology allows marketers and employers to create real and meaningful mobile engagement in environments different from the traditional one in front of a desktop computer; however when using mobile devices to answer the web surveys, most respondents still answer from home. Online surveys are becoming an essential research tool for a variety of research fields, including marketing and official statistics research. According to ESOMAR online survey research accounted for 20% of global data-collection expenditure in 2006, they offer capabilities beyond those available for any other type of self-administered questionnaire. Online consumer panels are used extensively for carrying out surveys but the quality is considered inferior because the panelists are regular contributors and tend to be fatigued. However, when estimating the measurement quality using a multitrait-mutlimethod approach, some studies found a quite reasonable quality and that the quality of a series of questions in an online opt-in panel was similar to the measurement quality for the same questions asked in the European Social Survey, a face-to-face survey.
Some studies have compared the quality of face-to-face surveys and/or telephone surveys with that of online surveys, for single questions, but for more complex concepts measured with more than one question. Focusing only on probability-based surveys, they found overall that the face-to-face and web surveys have quite similar levels of measurement quality, whereas the telephone surveys were performing worse. Other studies comparing paper-and-pencil questionnaires with web-based questionnaires showed that employees preferred online survey approaches to the paper-and-pencil format. There are concerns about what has been called "ballot stuffing" in which employees make repeated responses to the same survey; some employees are concerned about privacy. If they do not provide their names when responding to a company survey, can they be certain that their anonymity is protected? Such fears prevent some employees from expressing an opinion. Web surveys are faster and cheaper. However, lower costs are not so straightforward in practice, as they are interconnected to errors.
Because response rate comparisons to other survey modes are not favourable for online surveys, efforts to achieve a higher response rate may increase costs. The entire data collection period is shortened, as all data can be collected and processed in little more than a month. Interaction between the respondent and the questionnaire is more dynamic compared to e-mail or paper surveys. Online surveys are less intrusive, they suffer less from social desirability effects. Complex skip patterns can be implemented in ways that are invisible to the respondent. Pop-up instructions can be provided for individual questions to provide help with questions where assistance is required. Questions with long lists of answer choices can be used to provide immediate coding of answers to certain questions that are aske
A sweepstake is a type of contest where a prize or prizes may be awarded to a winner or winners. Sweepstakes began. In response, the FCC and FTC refined U. S. broadcasting laws. Under these laws sweepstakes became "No Purchase Necessary to Enter or Win" and "A Purchase Will not Increase Your Chances of Winning" since many sweepstakes companies skirted the law by stating only "No Purchase Necessary to Enter", removing the consideration to stop abuse of sweepstakes. Today, sweepstakes in the USA are used as marketing promotions to reward existing consumers and to draw attention to a product. By definition, the winner is determined by luck rather than skill. Sweepstakes with large grand prizes tend to attract more entries regardless of the odds of winning. Therefore, the value of smaller prizes totals much less than that of the top prize. Firms that rely on sweepstakes for attracting customers, such as Publishers Clearing House and Reader's Digest, have found that the more involved the entry process, the more entrants.
Businesses obtain marketing information about their customers from sweepstakes entries. Here, products are for free, the company does not ask for specific knowledge for providing answers in the contests; because of their potential for abuse, sweepstakes are regulated in many countries. The US, individual US states all have laws covering sweepstakes, so there are special rules depending on where the entrant lives; the U. S. Federal Trade Commission exercises some authority over sweepstakes promotion and sweepstakes scams in the United States. Notably, sweepstakes in Canada and several European countries require entrants to solve an elementary-school-level mathematical puzzle or answer a simple knowledge question or solve a trivial fill-in-the-blanks guessing competition, making it a contest of skill in order to overcome requirements that would classify sweepstakes as a form of gambling under their country's legal definition. There are similar laws in Brazil requiring an answer to an easy "giveaway" question.
In Australia, a sweepstake is known as a competition, however the technical name for a consumer competition is a trade promotion lottery. A trade promotion lottery is a free entry lottery conducted to promote goods or services supplied by a business. Unlike in the U. S. entrants may be required to purchase a product. Companies or promoters may require a trade promotion lottery permit if the winner are to be chosen via an element of chance, i.e. a competition draw. No permits are required for competitions that do not involve an element of chance in determining the winner or winners. Common examples include competitions where entrants are required to submit a photo or an answer to a question in 25 words or less. Many compers attend annual national conventions. In 2012 over 100 people from the online competitions website lottos.com.au met on the Gold Coast, Queensland to discuss competitions. Sweepstakes with an entry fee are considered in the UK to be lotteries under the Gambling Act 2005. Most sweepstakes in the UK are small-scale.
They are classed as work lotteries, residents' lotteries or private society lotteries and do not require a licence, provided that all the money staked is paid out as prize money. The popularity of the term "sweepstakes" may derive from the Irish Sweepstakes, which were popular from the 1930s to the 1980s. There is a tradition of office sweepstakes, which are based on major sporting events such as the Grand National and the World Cup. Entrants pay an equal stake for each horse/team; the winner takes the pot. For horse racing events, the pot may be split between the horses which come first and third. What an American would call a "sweepstakes" is to be labelled as a "prize draw" or "competition" in the UK. In the UK, prize competitions and prize draws are free of statutory control under the Gambling Act 2005 but should follow the CAP Code. In the United States, sweepstake sponsors are careful to disassociate themselves from any suggestion that players must pay to enter, or pay to win, since this would constitute gambling.
Sweepstakes involve enticements to enter a consumer promotion with prizes that range from substantial wins such as cars or large sums of money to smaller prizes that are popular with consumers. There should be no monetary cost to the entrant and sweepstakes winners should not be required to pay any kind of fee to receive their prizes; as an example of a state policy on sweepstakes promotions, Tennessee residents are prohibited by a policy of the Tennessee Alcoholic Beverage Commission from entering sweepstakes online sponsored by manufacturers of wines and liquors. Another example is that Tennessee state law prohibits sweepstakes agencies and sponsors from requiring sweepstakes prize winners to submit to "in perpetuity" publicity releases. Most corporate-sponsored sweepstakes promoted in the United States limit entry to US citizens, although some allow entry by legal residents of both the United States and Canada. Among the most popularly known sweepstakes in the United Sta
A credit card is a payment card issued to users to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the other agreed charges. The card issuer creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance. A credit card is different from a charge card, which requires the balance to be repaid in full each month. In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers to build a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card differs from a cash card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card. A credit card differs from a charge card in that a credit card involves a third-party entity that pays the seller and is reimbursed by the buyer, whereas a charge card defers payment by the buyer until a date; the size of most credit cards is 85.60 mm × 53.98 mm and rounded corners with a radius of 2.88–3.48 mm, conforming to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard, the same size as ATM cards and other payment cards, such as debit cards.
Credit cards have a printed or embossed bank card number complying with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard. The card number's prefix, called the Bank Identification Number, is the sequence of digits at the beginning of the number that determine the bank to which a credit card number belongs; this is the first six digits for Visa cards. The next nine digits are the individual account number, the final digit is a validity check code. Both of these standards are maintained and further developed by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17/WG 1. Credit cards have a magnetic stripe conforming to the ISO/IEC 7813. Many modern credit cards have a computer chip embedded in them as a security feature. In addition to the main credit card number, credit cards carry issue and expiration dates, as well as extra codes such as issue numbers and security codes. Not all credit cards do they use the same number of digits. Credit card numbers were embossed to allow easy transfer of the number to charge slips. With the decline of paper slips, some credit cards are no longer embossed and in fact the card number is no longer in the front.
The concept of using a card for purchases was described in 1887 by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. Bellamy used the term credit card eleven times in this novel, although this referred to a card for spending a citizen's dividend from the government, rather than borrowing, making it more similar to a Debit card. Charge coins and other similar items were used from the late 19th century to the 1930s, they came in various sizes. Each charge coin had a little hole, enabling it to be put in a key ring, like a key; these charge coins were given to customers who had charge accounts in department stores, so on. A charge coin had the charge account number along with the merchant's name and logo; the charge coin offered a simple and fast way to copy a charge account number to the sales slip, by imprinting the coin onto the sales slip. This sped the process of copying done by handwriting, it reduced the number of errors, by having a standardized form of numbers on the sales slip, instead of various kind of handwriting style.
Because the customer's name was not on the charge coin anyone could use it. This sometimes led to a case of mistaken identity, either accidentally or intentionally, by acting on behalf of the charge account owner or out of malice to defraud both the charge account owner and the merchant. Beginning in the 1930s, merchants started to move from charge coins to the newer Charga-Plate; the Charga-Plate, developed in 1928, was an early predecessor of the credit card and was used in the U. S. from the 1930s to the late 1950s. It was a 2 1/2" × 1 1/4" rectangle of sheet metal related to military dog tag systems, it was embossed with the customer's name and state. It held a small paper card on its back for a signature. In recording a purchase, the plate was laid into a recess in the imprinter, with a paper "charge slip" positioned on top of it; the record of the transaction included an impression of the embossed information, made by the imprinter pressing an inked ribbon against the charge slip. Charga-Plate was a trademark of Farrington Manufacturing Co.
Charga-Plates were issued by large-scale merchants to their regular customers, much like department store credit cards of today. In some cases, the plates were kept in the issuing store rather than held by customers; when an authorized user made a purchase, a clerk retrieved the plate from the store's files and processed the purchase. Charga-Plates speeded back-office bookkeeping and reduced copying errors that were done manually in paper ledgers in each store. In 1934, American Airlines and the Air Transport Association simplified the process more with the advent of the Air Travel Card, they created a numbering scheme that identified the issuer of the card as well as the customer account. This is the reason the modern UATP cards still start with the number 1. With an Air Travel Card, passengers could "buy now, pay later" for a ticket against their credit and receive a fifteen percent discount at any of the accepting airlines. By the 1940s, all of the major U. S. airlines offered Air Travel Cards.
By 1941, about half of the airlines' revenues came through the Air Travel Card agreement. The airlines had started offering i