Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
A ballet dancer is a person who practices the art of classical ballet. Both females and males can practice ballet, they rely on years of extensive training and proper technique to become a part of professional companies. Ballet dancers are at a high risk of injury due to the demanding technique of ballet. Ballet dancers begin training between the ages of 2-4 or 5-7 if they desire to perform professionally. Training does not end, they must attend ballet class six days a week to keep themselves aware. Ballet is a strict form of art, the dancer must be athletic and flexible. Ballet dancers begin their classes at the barre, a wooden beam that runs along the walls of the ballet studio. Dancers use the barre to support themselves during exercises. Barre work is designed to warm up the body and stretch muscles to prepare for center work, where they execute exercises without the barre. Center work in the middle of the room starts out with slower exercises leading up to faster exercises and larger movements.
Ballet dancers finish center work practicing big leaps across the floor, called grande allegro. After center work, females present exercises on pointe, or on their toes, supported by special pointe shoes. Males practice turns, they may practice partner work together. Ballet dancers are susceptible to injury because they are putting strain and stress on their bodies and their feet. A ballet dancer's goal is to make physically demanding choreography appear effortless. Ballet dancers increase their risk of injury. However, many ballet dancers do start on the average age of 6 to 8 years old; the upper body of a ballet dancer is prone to injury because choreography and class exercises requires them to exert energy into contorting their backs and hips. Back bends cause the back to pinch, making the spine vulnerable to injuries such as spasms and pinched nerves. Extending the legs and holding them in the air while turned out causes damage to the hips; such damage includes strains, fatigue fractures, bone density loss.
Injuries are common in ballet dancers because ballet consists of putting the body in unnatural positions. One such position is first position, in which the heels are placed together as the toes point outward, rotating, or "turning out" the legs. If First Position is done incorrectly it can cause knee problems, when done it should increase flexibility and reduce pressure on the knees. Meniscal tears and dislocations can happen at the knees when positioned incorrectly because it is easy to let the knees slide forward while turned out in first position. Ballet dancer's feet are prone to other damage. Landing incorrectly from jumps and working in pointe shoes may increase risk of broken bones and weakened ankles where care and attention is not taken by a conscientious teacher and student. Tendonitis is common in female ballet dancers. Landing from jumps incorrectly may lead to shin splints, in which the muscle separates from the bone. Class time is used to correct any habits. If the ballet dancer is properly trained, the dancer will decrease their risk of injury.
Some ballet dancers turn to stretching or other methods of cross training, like Pilates, non impact cardio, swimming. This, outside cross training, attempts to minimize the risk of bodily damage by increasing strength, exercise diversity, stamina. Injuries are a common occurrence in performances. Most injuries do not show up until in a ballet dancer’s life, after years of continuous strain. Traditional, gender-specific titles are used for ballet dancers. In French, a male ballet dancer is referred to a female as a danseuse. In Italian, a ballerina is a female who holds a principal title within a ballet company. In Italian, the common term for a male dancer is danzatore and a female dancer is a danzatrice; these terms are used in English. Since ballerino is not used in English, it does not enjoy the same connotation as ballerina. A regular male dancer in Italy is called a danzatore, while ballerino denotes a principal male ballet dancer in Italy. In the English speaking world, boys or men who dance classical ballet are referred to as ballet dancers.
"ballerino" is used in English-based countries as slang. As late as the 1950s a ballerina was the principal female dancer of a ballet company, very accomplished in the international world of ballet beyond her own company. Ballerina was a critical accolade bestowed on few female dancers, somewhat similar to the title diva in opera; the male version of this term is danseur noble. Since the 1960s, the term has lost this honorific aspect and is applied to women who are ballet dancers. In the original Italian, the terms ballerino and ballerina do not imply the accomplished and critically acclaimed dancers once meant by the terms ballerina and danseur noble when used in English. Rather, they mean one who dances ballet. Italian terms that do convey an accomplished female ballet dancer are prima ballerina and prima ballerina assoluta (the French word étoile is used in this sense at the Scala ballet company in Milan but h
Judith Hoag is an American actress. She is best known for portraying April O'Neil in the first Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film in 1990, as Gwen Cromwell Piper in the Disney Channel Halloweentown television films series, she is known for her role as Tandy Hampton in the ABC drama series Nashville. Hoag has acted professionally since 1986; that year, she got one of her first roles as a series regular in the ABC daytime soap opera Loving in the role of Charlotte'Lotty' Bates Alden. After leaving Loving in 1988, Hoag began her career in primetime television, in next year won female lead role on CBS comedy series Wolf; the series was canceled after a single season. In 1990 she starred in films A Matter of Cadillac Man. Hoag is most well known for her role as April O'Neil in the first Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film; the film turned out to be a huge success at the box office making over $135 million in North America, over $66 million outside North America, for a worldwide total of over $200 million, making it the ninth highest-grossing film of 1990 worldwide.
After Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles fame, Hoag starred in a number of pilots not picked up as a series, appeared in several television films, including Fine Things by Danielle Steel, Switched at Birth opposite Bonnie Bedelia. Hoag starred as Gwen Cromwell Piper in the Disney Channel Halloweentown television films series: Halloweentown, Halloweentown II: Kalabar's Revenge, Halloweentown High and Return to Halloweentown, she appeared in the films Armageddon, Flying By, I Am Number Four and Hitchcock. Hoag has made over 60 guest appearances on television shows, including Quantum Leap, Melrose Place, The Nanny, She Wrote, The X-Files, Six Feet Under, Ghost Whisperer, NYPD Blue, Grey's Anatomy, Private Practice, CSI: NY, Criminal Minds, Sons of Anarchy, The Middle and among other notable television series. From 2006 to 2011, Hoag appeared as Cindy Price on the HBO drama series Big Love. In 2012, Hoag was cast in a recurring role in the ABC drama series Nashville created by Academy Award winner Callie Khouri.
She plays the poised and driven Tandy Hampton and protégé of Lamar Wyatt. She referees Lamar's contentious relationship, trying to calm the waters. Hoag filmed a cameo in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, but the scene with her was cut from the final film. Hoag was born in Massachusetts; as a teen, Hoag attended Walnut Hill School in Natick, Massachusetts where she concentrated on acting. In 1988, she married actor Vince Grant, they have a son and a daughter. The couple divorced in 2016. Judith Hoag on Twitter Judith Hoag on IMDb
American Gothic (1995 TV series)
American Gothic is an American horror series created by Shaun Cassidy and executive producer Sam Raimi. The show first aired on CBS on September 22, 1995, was canceled after a single season on July 11, 1996; the story takes place in the fictional town of Trinity, South Carolina, revolves around Caleb Temple and the town's corrupt sheriff, Lucas Buck. Though appearing affable and charismatic, Sheriff Buck is a murderous rapist whose power base is backed by apparent supernatural powers, which he uses to manipulate people to "fulfil their potential" and make life-changing choices. Caleb Temple is a normal child whose paternity masks a horrific secret: Lucas Buck is his biological father, having raped his mother in front of Caleb's older sister Merlyn; the horror of watching her mother being sexually assaulted caused Merlyn to become emotionally traumatized and withdrawn from the rest of the world, made worse when her mother committed suicide after giving birth to Caleb. During the pilot episode of the series, Sheriff Buck murders Merlyn in cold blood and manipulates Caleb's "father" into committing suicide in order to eliminate Caleb's family and claim his biological son for his own.
However, the newly arrived Dr. Crower begins to uncover the sheriff's role in the death of Merlyn and Merlyn's father and, with help from Caleb's out-of-town cousin Gail Emory, struggles to prevent Lucas from corrupting young Caleb, they are aided in part by Merlyn's ghost, who appears before Caleb throughout the series in order to try to keep him from Buck's corrupt grasp. Note: The character of Dr. Billy Peale was a late addition to the series, intended to be a regular character to replace Dr. Matt Crower as a more formidable adversary to Lucas Buck, he was added to the opening credits in the episode "Doctor Death Takes a Holiday", in which Dr. Crower is written out. Producer Shaun Cassidy stated that Dr. Crower would have returned had the show been renewed for a second season. CBS aired American Gothic in a differing sequence than the production order and omitted four episodes from its network broadcast. Subsequent, syndicated airings of the series included these four episodes. Universal Studios released the complete series of American Gothic on DVD as a Region 1 NTSC double-sided 3-disc set in the United States and as a Region 2 PAL single-sided 6-disc set in Europe.
The Region 1 and Region 2 Discs have the episodes in the same order. The only exception is the German boxset, which features all episodes in the intended order on 7 DVDs; the order is as follows: American Gothic on IMDb American Gothic at TV.com American Gothic at TV Guide.com
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze is a 1991 American martial arts superhero comedy film directed by Michael Pressman, based on the fictional superhero team the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. It is the sequel to the 1990 film Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles; the Secret of the Ooze was followed by a third film in 1993, an unrelated fourth in 2007. The film is distributed in the United States by New Line Cinema, internationally distributed by 20th Century Fox; the film follows the adventures of the four Turtles: Leonardo, Michelangelo and their Master Splinter. Resuming from the events of the last film, the villain, returns to take back command of the Foot Clan, work towards getting revenge on the Turtles; when he learns the secret behind the Turtles' mutation, he becomes more dangerous than ever. The film sheds some light on the origins of Splinter and the Turtles, as well as introduces two new villains: Tokka and Rahzar. Unlike the first film, this entry showed the use of the Turtles' weapons.
They instead fight bare-fisted for much of the film, as part of an attempt to tone down the violence of the previous installment. The film was released on March 22, 1991, received mixed reviews from critics who felt it departed from the much darker tone of the original 1990 film, was more light-hearted; the film was financially successful, became the 13th highest-grossing film domestically in the year of its release. The film is a tribute to Muppets creator Jim Henson, who died less than a year before this film's release. Henson's Creature Shop created the animatronic creature costumes like the first film. One year after the events of the first film, a young pizza delivery boy named Keno inadvertently encounters burglars on his route and tries to stop them. Seeing him as a witness, the burglars attack Keno, who proves to be an expert martial artist, but he is soon overwhelmed before the arrival of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, they vanish after rescuing Keno, tying the burglars up, taking the pizza he was delivering, leaving behind the money to pay for it.
Leonardo, Donatello and Raphael, along with their master Splinter, are living with April O'Neil while they look for a new place to live following the events of their last adventure. Splinter wants to remain in the shadows. At a junkyard where the remnants of The Foot and Shredder's second-in-command Tatsu are hiding out, they are met by their master, disfigured by his previous defeat but did not die as they thought. April interviews Professor Jordan Perry of Techno Global Research Industries about a possible toxic waste leak, he assures her that everything is fine, but at the same time their scientists discover dandelions which have been mutated by the leak. Freddy, a spy for the Foot posing as April's cameraman, discovers this and reports it to his master, who decides to have Perry interrogated. Back at April's apartment, Splinter reveals to her and the turtles that the canister of mutagen which mutated them into their current state 15 years prior was created by TGRI, they too decide to talk to him.
The Foot gets to Perry first and kidnaps him, salvaging the last vial canister of ooze in the process. The turtles attempt to get the canister back, but fail. Afterward, Keno gets into April's apartment under the guise of delivering pizza and discovers Splinter and the turtles. At the Shredder's hideout, Perry is forced into using the remaining ooze on a wolf and a snapping turtle, which mutate into Tokka and Rahzar. With the imminent threat to April's safety by the Foot, the turtles start to look for a new home. After an argument with Leonardo, Raphael breaks off from the group, while Michelangelo discovers an abandoned subway station and deems it a perfect hideout. Raphael and Keno defy implant Keno into the Foot Clan to find their hideout. However, they are caught and Raphael is captured, while Keno escapes to warn the others; when they come, they are ambushed by the Foot. Donatello finds the five of them make a tactical retreat. Once back in their hideout, Perry explains that the creation of the ooze was an accident, disheartening Donatello and Raphael, who saw a higher purpose for their existence.
Shredder unleashes Rahzar into a nearby neighborhood to cause damages. The next day, Freddy sends a message to April that Tokka and Rahzar will be released into Central Park if the Turtles don't meet the Foot Clan at the construction site. Perry develops an antidote to the mutations and when they confront the two and Michelangelo trick Tokka and Rahzar into eating it, they discover the trick and brutally attack, throwing Raphael into a public dance club where Vanilla Ice is performing. A big fight ensues among hundreds of witnesses and the turtles turn Tokka and Rahzar into their natural state; the turtles fight with Shredder on the pier. Having consumed the ooze he has become a Super Shredder making him bigger and more powerful than before. During the fight the pier which Shredder destroys collapses on him killing him. In a press release, April reads a note from Perry, thanking the turtles for saving him, when they return home, they deny being seen by the humans, but Splinter holds up the evening's newspaper on which they are plastered across the cover.
He orders the four of them to do flips as punishment, chanting the theme song they were dancing to at the club "Go Ninja, Go Ninja, Go!" Exclaiming he "made another funny" as the scene freezes. Paige Turco as April O'Neil, a news reporter, the huma
Invincible (2006 film)
Invincible is a 2006 American sports drama film directed by Ericson Core. It is based on the true story of Vince Papale, who played for the Philadelphia Eagles from 1976 to 1978 with the help of his coach, Dick Vermeil; the film was released in the United States on August 25, 2006. 1970s Philadelphia is in chaos as southern portions of the city protest the shutdown of several job sites while their NFL team, the Philadelphia Eagles, endures a string of losing seasons. In 1975, substitute teacher Vince Papale goes to a sandlot one night and joins his friends playing a pick–up football game against another group of young men. After the game ends, Papale goes home and finds his wife Sharon disgusted with his failure to provide proper support; the next morning, Papale is unexpectedly laid off from his job. That night, Papale goes to the bar; the bar contains die-hard Eagles fans, who are watching a TV report on Eagles hiring a new head coach, Dick Vermeil, who will be staging open public tryouts for the Eagles.
Returning home, Papale finds out Sharon has left him, leaving him a note saying he will never be anything in the world. Distraught, Papale trashes the few remaining belongings. Next night at the bar, Papale meets a new co-bartender, Janet Cantrell, a Giants fan. Desperate for income in the aftermath of his wife's departure, Papale receives support from his friends and attends the tryout hosted at Veterans Stadium. Papale is competing against several hundred Philadelphia residents, but performs well during the workouts. After the tryouts, Dick Vermeil comes by. Vermeil is impressed by Papale's performance and invites him to training camp to compete for a roster spot with the Eagles. Accepting, Papale receives a warm welcome at the bar, has an interview with a newscaster; the next day, Papale stops by his empty home. His father, offers to let Vince stay with him; the following day, he goes to his first training camp with the Eagles. As the days of training camp progress, Papale endures hard training and disrespect from other players.
One night, Papale takes Janet out on a date. He is unsure if he can start a new relationship. Janet claims, she goes back to work and he leaves. As training camp ends, the final roster spot is down to a veteran. Against his assistants' advice, Vermeil decides to give the spot to Papale; as Papale's career with the Eagles begins, the team loses all six preseason games and their regular season opener against the Dallas Cowboys. Papale plays poorly against the Cowboys, Vermeil faces pressure from the fans and media. After the team returns to Philadelphia, Papale goes to the sandlot where he played with his friends once before, he is invited to play, but he declines because of his upcoming Eagles game and watches for a few minutes. However, as a rainstorm begins, Papale joins his pals and plays against another sandlot team to help his friends, he ends the dirty game by throwing a touchdown pass. When he runs into Janet they speak before passionately embracing and tumbling into Papale's home. During the home opener against the New York Giants, Janet's appearance in a Giants shirt enrages Eagles fans.
In the locker room, Papale tears it up. He opens the game by solo-tackling the kickoff returner inside the fifteen-yard line. After an up-and-down game, Papale gets downfield during an Eagles' fourth quarter punt to tackle the returner, forcing a fumble that he recovers and takes into the end zone for a touchdown, giving the Eagles their first win in Papale's career. Eagles fans go wild with joy. During the end credits, media highlights of Papale's career. Papale plays for the team for three seasons and marries Janet while Vermeil succeeds in turning the Eagles into a winning team, culminating in an appearance in Super Bowl XV. Mark Wahlberg as Vince Papale Greg Kinnear as Dick Vermeil Elizabeth Banks as Janet Cantrell Kevin Conway as Frank Papale Michael Rispoli as Max Cantrell Kirk Acevedo as Tommy Dov Davidoff as Johnny Michael Kelly as Pete Stink Fisher as Dennis "Denny" Franks Michael Mulheren as AC Craney Michael Nouri as Leonard Tose Lola Glaudini as Sharon Papale Paige Turco as Carol Vermeil Mike Kerley as Tom Landry Randy Couture as "Toruci" Player #1 In reality, Papale started playing football in the Delaware County Rough Touch League in the late 60's before his semi-professional and pro football experience.
He played with the semi-pro Aston Green Knights of the Seaboard Football League and two seasons with the Philadelphia Bell of the World Football League, one of the NFL's rival leagues on the level of the AFL and the USFL. Papale was a standout special teams star for the Bell. Mark Wahlberg was shorter than Vince Papale. Mark Wahlberg was closer to Vince Papale's high-school height of 5'7". Vince Papale's first wife did leaving a similar note. However, that happened in five years before the events of the movie; the movie portrays Vince meeting Janet before the tryouts. In real life, Papale married his second wife, Sandy during the movie's time frame, he was divorced and met Janet after his Eagles career as the couple married in 1993. Papale did participate in an open tryout before earning his spot on the Bell roster, which the filmmakers used as a model for the tryout shown in the
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.