Pain is a distressing feeling caused by intense or damaging stimuli. The International Association for the Study of Pain's used definition defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". In medical diagnosis, pain is regarded as a symptom of an underlying condition. Pain motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, to avoid similar experiences in the future. Most pain resolves once the noxious stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but it may persist despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body. Sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable damage or disease. Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in most developed countries, it is a major symptom in many medical conditions, can interfere with a person's quality of life and general functioning. Simple pain medications are useful in 20% to 70% of cases.

Psychological factors such as social support, hypnotic suggestion, excitement, or distraction can affect pain's intensity or unpleasantness. In some debates regarding physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia, pain has been used as an argument to permit people who are terminally ill to end their lives. Pain is transitory, lasting only until the noxious stimulus is removed or the underlying damage or pathology has healed, but some painful conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and idiopathic pain, may persist for years. Pain that lasts a long time is called chronic or persistent, pain that resolves is called acute. Traditionally, the distinction between acute and chronic pain has relied upon an arbitrary interval of time between onset and resolution. Others apply acute to pain that lasts less than 30 days, chronic to pain of more than six months' duration, subacute to pain that lasts from one to six months. A popular alternative definition of chronic pain, involving no arbitrarily fixed durations, is "pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing".

Chronic pain may be classified as else as benign. Allodynia is pain experienced in response to a painless stimulus, it has no biological function and is classified by stimuli into dynamic mechanical and static. In osteoarthritis, NGF has been identified as being involved in allodynia; the extent and intensity of sensation can be assessed through locating trigger points and the region of sensation, as well as utilising phantom maps. Phantom pain is pain felt in a part of the body, amputated, or from which the brain no longer receives signals, it is a type of neuropathic pain. The prevalence of phantom pain in upper limb amputees is nearly 82%, in lower limb amputees is 54%. One study found that eight days after amputation, 72% of patients had phantom limb pain, six months 67% reported it; some amputees experience continuous pain that varies in quality. It is described as shooting, burning or cramping. If the pain is continuous for a long period, parts of the intact body may become sensitized, so that touching them evokes pain in the phantom limb.

Phantom limb pain may accompany defecation. Local anesthetic injections into the nerves or sensitive areas of the stump may relieve pain for days, weeks, or sometimes permanently, despite the drug wearing off in a matter of hours. Vigorous vibration or electrical stimulation of the stump, or current from electrodes surgically implanted onto the spinal cord, all produce relief in some patients. Mirror box therapy produces the illusion of movement and touch in a phantom limb which in turn may cause a reduction in pain. Paraplegia, the loss of sensation and voluntary motor control after serious spinal cord damage, may be accompanied by girdle pain at the level of the spinal cord damage, visceral pain evoked by a filling bladder or bowel, or, in five to ten per cent of paraplegics, phantom body pain in areas of complete sensory loss; this phantom body pain is described as burning or tingling, but may evolve into severe crushing or pinching pain, or the sensation of fire running down the legs or of a knife twisting in the flesh.

Onset may not occur until years after the disabling injury. Surgical treatment provides lasting relief. Breakthrough pain is transitory pain that comes on and is not alleviated by the patient's regular pain management, it is common in cancer patients who have background pain, well-controlled by medications, but who sometimes experience bouts of severe pain that from time to time "breaks through" the medication. The characteristics of breakthrough cancer pain vary from person to person and according to the cause. Management of breakthrough pain can entail intensive use including fentanyl; the ability to experience pain is essential for protection from injury, recognition of the presence of injury. Episodic analgesia may occur under special circumstances, such as in the excitement of sport or war: a soldier on the battlefield may feel no pain for many hours from a traumatic amputation or other severe injury. Although unpleasantness is an essential part

Manifesto (horse)

Manifesto was a British National Hunt racehorse best known for winning the Aintree Grand National twice and running in the race a record eight times. He was instrumental in restoring the prestige and popularity to the Grand National as the race had been marred by corruption in previous years. Manifesto was bred by Harry Dyas and was a son of Man O’War out of a mare called Vae Victus, he was a good looking bay horse with a white snip on his nose. Manifesto was given time to mature before making his racing debut, he fell in his first race in 1892 before winning a maiden hurdle race over two miles. He went on to win the 1894 Lancashire Chase. Manifesto first attempted to win the Grand National aged 7, he managed to finish fourth behind Wild Man Of Borneo under a weight of 11 stone 2 lbs and ridden by Terry Kavanagh. This year ridden by his owner Harry Dyas, Manifesto got no further than first fence after he collided mid-air with Redhill and fell. In a bid to change his luck in the race, Dyas employed Willie McAuliffe to train Manifesto with Terry Kavanagh riding again.

The horse sent off the 6-1 favourite. After one false start, the field remained intact until the Canal Turn with Manifesto racing second. A duel developed between Timon, before that rival fell at the third last fence. Manifesto was left clear to win by 20 lengths from Filbert. Manifesto won a two-mile chase at Gatwick in February, before being sold to Mr J. G. Bulteel for £4,000 and being sent to Willie Moore’s yard. Disaster struck in the lead up to the 1898 Grand National, when a stable boy left Manifesto’s stable door open and the horse escaped. Although he was recaptured, he managed to badly bruise a fetlock jumping a gate, leading to him missing the race. Manifesto was weighted with 12 stone 7 lbs with his half-sister Gentle Ida the next highest weight on 11 stone 7 lbs; the mare was favourite at 4-1 with Manifesto at 5-1. In the line up was the five-year-old Ambush II, owned by the Prince of Wales. George Williamson was employed to ride Manifesto. Due to frosty ground, Aintree officials spread hay on either side of some of the fences, including at the Canal Turn.

Cruising in mid-field, Manifesto lost his footing on landing. Williamson lost both stirrups and touched the ground with his feet, but Manifesto was able to gather himself and continue with his jockey intact. Once Gentle Ida fell, Manifesto had a simple task and won by five lengths from Ford Of Fyne, equalling the weight carrying record in the process. By virtue of his two wins, Manifesto was given 12 stone 13 lbs to carry, while Ambush II carried 24 lbs less; the weight told and the younger horse won with Manifesto only third while easing down. Both the win by the Royal horse and Manifesto’s game effort under his burden were applauded by the crowd. Both Ambush II and Manifesto missed the 1901 renewal, Grudon won in their absence. Manifesto was 14 when he lined up the following year, but he still carried 12 stone 8 lbs and was ridden by Ernest Piggott. In heavy ground, he finished third behind Shannon Lass. Many observers thought. Manifesto returned for the seventh time under 12 stone 3 lbs with old jockey George Williamson.

He ran a tremendous race to finish third behind Drumcree, holding off the seven-year-old Kirkland for third. Many onlookers were sure. Manifesto ran in the National one final time as a sixteen-year-old. Champion Flat jockey Mornington Cannon gained permission to ride the horse in his final gallop before the race and Ernest Piggott partnered him over the fences. Under 12 stone 1 lb, Manifesto finished in eighth behind Moifaa, who had travelled all the way from New Zealand. So Manifesto's 10 year Grand National stats are as follows. 1895-4th...1896-Fell...1897-1st...1898-Not Entered...1899-1st...1900-3rd...1901-Not Entered...1902-3rd...1903-3rd...1904-8th Manifesto retired from racing after the Grand National to a tremendous reception from the crowd. Upon his death, his skeleton was gifted to a veterinary college in Liverpool; the Grade 2 Manifesto Novices' Chase run over 2.5 miles at Aintree is run in his honour

Triumph Tiger 80

The Triumph Tiger 80 is a British motorcycle first made by Triumph from 1937. There was a 250cc Tiger 70 and a 500cc Tiger 90. Production of the Tiger ended with the outbreak of World War II and never resumed after the Triumph works at Priory Street in Coventry were destroyed during The Blitz in 1940 by heavy German bombing. Triumph had been losing money during the great depression of the 1930s and decided to concentrate on car production. However. In 1935, Sangster appointed Turner to run the Triumph motorcycle division. Turner designed a new range of lightweight singles which were marketed as the Tiger 70, 80, 90, with the model number representing the top speed and they sold well, enabling the company to break in the first year and making a good profit the next, re-establishing Triumph; the company went on to become one of Britain's most successful motorcycle firms. The pre-war Tigers had distinctive chrome tanks and silver side panels; when World War II broke out in 1939, the Tiger was developed into the military Triumph 3HW model.

The Triumph works was destroyed by German bombers on the night of 14 November 1940 - along with much of the city of Coventry bringing production of the Tiger 80 to an end. When Triumph recovered and began production again at Meriden,only the Tiger 100 survived in the new production line; the historic Tiger name was revived by the new Hinckley Triumph company in 1994. Harold "Harry" Perrey was a motorcycle trials rider and the Competitions Manager at Ariel during the 1930s and responsible for sporting events to promote Ariel's motorcycle sales. In 1937, Jack Sangster asked Perrey to create a promotional event for Triumph and he devised a three hour, high speed race for the three Tiger singles around Donington Park race track, followed the next day by a maximum speed lap of the Brooklands circuit; the motorcycles used were a Tiger 70, 80, 90 from local Triumph dealerships and not specially race prepared. The Brooklands results for the Tiger 80, ridden by Allan Jefferies was an average speed of 74.68 mph.

The London Motorcycle Museum has a 1938 Triumph Tiger 80 on display and the Solvang Vintage Motorcycle Museum in California has a restored 1939 model. 1939 Triumph Tiger 80 Factory Brochure Picture of 1939 Triumph Tiger 80