A state is a type of polity that is an organized political community living under a single system of government. States may or may not be sovereign, for instance, federated states are members of a federal union, and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, states. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state, States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states. The term state can refer to the branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches. Speakers of American English often use the state and government as synonyms. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, over time a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications of legitimacy for their existence. In the 21st century, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subjected, there is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state.
The term state refers to a set of different, but interrelated and often overlapping, general categories of state institutions include administrative bureaucracies, legal systems, and military or religious organizations. Another commonly accepted definition of the state is the one given at the Montevideo Convention on Rights, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a state is a. an organized political community under one government, a commonwealth, a nation. B. such a community forming part of a federal republic, confounding the definition problem is that state and government are often used as synonyms in common conversation and even some academic discourse. According to this schema, the states are nonphysical persons of international law. The relationship between a government and its state is one of representation and authorized agency, States may be classified as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state. Other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state, many states are federated states which participate in a federal union. A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation, such states differ from sovereign states in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.
One can commonly and sometimes readily classify states according to their apparent make-up or focus, the concept of the nation-state, theoretically or ideally co-terminous with a nation, became very popular by the 20th century in Europe, but occurred rarely elsewhere or at other times. Imperial states have sometimes promoted notions of racial superiority, the concept of temple states centred on religious shrines occurs in some discussions of the ancient world. To some extent, urban secession, the creation of a new city-state, a state can be distinguished from a government. The government is the group of people, the administrative bureaucracy that controls the state apparatus at a given time
Many of these values spread throughout the British Empire. Today, the term Victorian morality can describe any set of values that espouse sexual restraint, low tolerance of crime, the term Victorian was first used during the Great Exhibition in London, where Victorian inventions and morals were shown to the world. Victorian values were developed in all facets of Victorian living, the morality and values of the period can be classed as Religion, Elitism and Improvement. These values took root in Victorian morality, creating a change in the British Empire. A plethora of social movements arose from attempts to improve the harsh living conditions for many under a rigid class system. The term Victorianum has acquired a range of connotations, including that of a strict set of moral standards. This stems from the image of Queen Victoria—and her husband, Prince Albert, two hundred years earlier the Puritan movement, which led to the installment of Oliver Cromwell, had temporarily overthrown the British monarchy.
Cromwell imposed a moral code on the people. The two social forces of Puritanism and libertinism continued to motivate the collective psyche of Great Britain from the Restoration onward and this was particularly significant in the public perceptions of the Hanoverian monarchs who immediately preceded Queen Victoria. For instance, her uncle George IV was commonly perceived as a pleasure-seeking playboy, historians Peter Gay and Michael Mason both point out that modern society often confuses Victorian etiquette for a lack of knowledge. It is often thought that those going for a swim in the sea at the beach would use a machine out of modesty. Despite the existence of the machine, it was still possible to see people bathing nude. However, Victorian society did recognize that both men and women could enjoy copulation, verbal or written communication of emotion or sexual feelings was often proscribed so people instead used the language of flowers. Victorian erotica survives in private letters archived in museums and even in a study of womens orgasms, Victoria ascended to the throne in 1837, only four years after the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
It took so long because the anti-slavery morality was pitted against powerful economic interests which claimed their businesses would be destroyed if they were not permitted to exploit slave labor, plantation owners in the Caribbean received £20 million in compensation. In Victorias time, the Royal Navy patrolled the Atlantic Ocean, stopping any ships that it suspected of trading African slaves to the Americas, the British had set up a Crown Colony in West Africa—Sierra Leone—and transported freed slaves there. Freed slaves from Nova Scotia founded and named the capital of Sierra Leone Freetown, many people living at that time argued that the living conditions of workers in English factories seemed worse than those endured by some slaves. Throughout the Victorian Era, homosexuality held a position in the culture
Age of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. In France, the doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution, some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church, a variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution, earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, and Baruch Spinoza.
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence, others like James Madison incorporated them into the Constitution in 1787. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie, the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking and his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Lockes 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding and his dualism was challenged by Spinozas uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines, the political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. Francis Hutcheson, a philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words. Much of what is incorporated in the method and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his protégés David Hume and Adam Smith. Hume became a figure in the skeptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy.
Immanuel Kant tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the sphere through private
Punishment may be self-inflicted as with self-flagellation and mortification of the flesh in the religious setting, but is most often a form of social coercion. The unpleasant imposition may include a fine, penalty, or confinement, the individual may be a person, or even an animal. The authority may be either a group or a single person, negative consequences that are not authorized or that are administered without a breach of rules are not considered to be punishment as defined here. Research into punishment often includes similar research into prevention, justifications for punishment include retribution, deterrence and incapacitation. The last could include such measures as isolation, in order to prevent the wrongdoers having contact with potential victims, if only some of the conditions included in the definition of punishment are present, descriptions other than punishment may be considered more accurate. Inflicting something negative, or unpleasant, on a person or animal, in addition, the word punishment is used as a metaphor, as when a boxer experiences punishment during a fight.
In other situations, breaking a rule may be rewarded, finally the condition of breaking the rules must be satisfied for consequences to be considered punishment. Corporal punishment refers to punishments in which pain is intended to be inflicted upon the transgressor. Punishments may be judged as fair or unfair in terms of their degree of reciprocity and proportionality to the offense, Punishment can be an integral part of socialization, and punishing unwanted behaviour is often part of a system of pedagogy or behavioral modification which includes rewards. Various philosophers have presented definitions of punishment, introduced by B. F. Skinner, punishment has a more restrictive and technical definition. Along with reinforcement it belongs under the operant conditioning category, operant conditioning refers to learning with either punishment as a negative rienforcer or a reward that serves as a positive reinforcement of the lesson to be learned. In psychology, punishment is the reduction of a behavior via application of an unpleasant stimulus or removal of a pleasant stimulus, extra chores or spanking are examples of positive punishment, while removing an offending students recess or play privileges are examples of negative punishment.
The definition requires that punishment is only determined after the fact by the reduction in behavior, if the behavior of the subject does not decrease. There is some conflation of punishment and aversives, though an aversion that does not decrease behavior is not considered punishment in psychology, aversive stimulus is a label behaviorists generally apply to negative reinforcers, rather than punishers. During a period of heavy fishing and tourism that encroached on their territory, they started to live in groups, learning from each other, especially hunting techniques. Small, younger octopuses could be near the fully grown octopuses without being eaten by them, even though they, the authors note that the octopuses adopted observational learning without any evolutionary history of specialized adaptation for it. There are arguments against the notion of punishment requiring intelligence, there is proof of honey bee workers with mutations that makes them fertile laying eggs only when other honey bees are not observing them, and that the few that are caught in the act are killed.
The authors argue that this falsifies the claim that punishment evolved as a strategy to deal with individuals capable of knowing what they are doing, certain scientists argue that this disproves the notion of humans having a biological feeling of intentional transgressions deserving to be punished
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Six years later, MITs publishing operations were first formally instituted by the creation of an imprint called Technology Press in 1932 and this imprint was founded by James R. Killian, Jr. at the time editor of MITs alumni magazine and to become MIT president. Technology Press published eight titles independently, in 1937 entered into an arrangement with John Wiley & Sons in which Wiley took over marketing, in 1962 the association with Wiley came to an end after a further 125 titles had been published. The press acquired its name after this separation, and has since functioned as an independent publishing house. A European marketing office was opened in 1969, and a Journals division was added in 1972, other areas, such as technology and design, have been added since. A recent addition is environmental science, in January 2010 the MIT Press published its 9000th title, and published about 200 books and 30 journals.
In 2012 the Press celebrated its 50th anniversary, including publishing a booklet on paper. The MIT Press is a distributor for such publishers as Zone Books, in 2000, the MIT Press created CogNet, an online resource for the study of the brain and the cognitive sciences. In 1981 the MIT Press published its first book under the Bradford Books imprint, Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology by Daniel C. The MIT Press operates the MIT Press Bookstore showcasing both its front and backlist titles, along with a selection of complementary works from other academic. Once extensive construction around its location is completed, the Bookstore is planned to be returned to a site adjacent to the subway entrance. The Bookstore offers customized selections from the MIT Press at many conferences and symposia in the Boston area, the Press uses a colophon or logo designed by its longtime design director, Muriel Cooper, in 1962. It served as an important reference point for the 2015 redesign of the MIT Media Lab logo by Pentagram, the Arts and Humanities Economics International Affairs and Political Science Science and Technology Official Website MIT Press Journals Homepage The MIT PressLog
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind. The mind–body problem is an issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness. Dualism and monism are the two schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly. Dualism is seen even in the Eastern tradition, in the Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, and Plato, monism is the position that mind and body are not ontologically distinct kinds of entities. This view was first advocated in Western philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th century BC and was espoused by the 17th century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. Physicalists argue that only entities postulated by physical theory exist, physicalists maintain various positions on the prospects of reducing mental properties to physical properties, and the ontological status of such mental properties remains unclear. Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the world is either mental itself.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism, these positions include behaviorism, most modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive or non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body. These approaches have been influential in the sciences, especially in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology. Reductive physicalists assert that all states and properties will eventually be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states. Continued neuroscientific progress has helped to some of these issues, however. Modern philosophers of mind continue to ask how the subjective qualities, the mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, and bodily states or processes. The main aim of working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes.
Someones desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants. The question, then, is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing, a related problem is how someones propositional attitudes cause that individuals neurons to fire and his muscles to contract. These comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of mind from at least the time of René Descartes, Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter. It begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, One of the earliest known formulations of mind–body dualism was expressed in the eastern Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, which divided the world into purusha and prakriti. Specifically, the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali presents an approach to the nature of the mind
Biological naturalism is a theory about, among other things, the relationship between consciousness and body, and hence an approach to the mind-body problem. This entails that the brain has the right causal powers to produce intentionality, Searles biological naturalism does not entail that brains and only brains can cause consciousness. In his own words, The fact that brain processes cause consciousness does not imply that only brains can be conscious. The brain is a machine, and we might build an artificial machine that was conscious, just as the heart is a machine. Because we do not know exactly how the brain does it we are not yet in a position to know how to do it artificially, Searle denies any kind of dualism, the traditional alternative to monism, claiming the distinction is a mistake. He rejects the idea that because the mind is not objectively viewable and he contends, for example, that the software known as Deep Blue knows nothing about chess. He believes that consciousness is both a cause of events in the body and a response to events in the body, on the other hand, Searle doesnt treat consciousness as a ghost in the machine.
He treats it, rather, as a state of the brain, the causal interaction of mind and brain can be described thus in naturalistic terms, Events at the micro-level cause consciousness. Changes at the macro-level constitute consciousness and he articulates this distinction by pointing out that the common philosophical term reducible is ambiguous. Searle contends that consciousness is causally reducible to brain processes without being ontologically reducible and it can be tempting to see the theory as a kind of property dualism, since, in Searles view, a persons mental properties are categorically different from his or her micro-physical properties. The latter have third-person ontology whereas the former have first-person ontology, micro-structure is accessible objectively by any number of people, as when several brain surgeons inspect a patients cerebral hemispheres. But pain or desire or belief are accessible subjectively by the person who has the pain or desire or belief, Searle holds mental properties to be a species of physical property—ones with first-person ontology.
So this sets his view apart from a dualism of physical and non-physical properties and his mental properties are putatively physical. There have been criticisms of Searles idea of biological naturalism. Jerry Fodor suggests that Searle gives us no account at all of exactly why he believes that a biochemistry like, or similar to, that of the human brain is indispensable for intentionality. Fodor thinks that it much more plausible to suppose that it is the way in which an organism is connected to its environment that is indispensable in the explanation of intentionality. It is easier to see how how the fact that my thought is causally connected to a tree might bear on its being a thought about a tree. John Haugeland takes on the notion of some set of special right causal powers that Searle attributes to the biochemistry of the human brain
Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids or fluids. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the version of pneumatics. Fluid mechanics provides the foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In fluid power, hydraulics are used for the generation, hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design and fluid control circuitry, pumps. The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the body within the heart. Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with surface flow, such as occurring in rivers, lakes, estuaries. Its sub-field open channel flow studies the flow in open channels, the word hydraulics originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός which in turn originates from ὕδωρ and αὐλός. Early uses of water power date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, other early examples of water power include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the Turpan water system in ancient Central Asia.
The Greeks constructed sophisticated water and hydraulic power systems, an example is the construction by Eupalinos, under a public contract, of a watering channel for Samos, the Tunnel of Eupalinos. An early example of the usage of hydraulic wheel, probably the earliest in Europe, is the Perachora wheel, notable is the construction of the first hydraulic automata by Ctesibius and Hero of Alexandria. Hero describes a number of working machines using hydraulic power, such as the force pump, in ancient China there was Sunshu Ao, Ximen Bao, Du Shi, Zhang Heng, and Ma Jun, while medieval China had Su Song and Shen Kuo. Du Shi employed a waterwheel to power the bellows of a blast furnace producing cast iron, Zhang Heng was the first to employ hydraulics to provide motive power in rotating an armillary sphere for astronomical observation. In ancient Sri Lanka, hydraulics were used in the ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura. The discovery of the principle of the tower, or valve pit. By the first century AD, several irrigation works had been completed.
The coral on the rock at the site includes cisterns for collecting water. They were among the first to use of the siphon to carry water across valleys. They used lead widely in plumbing systems for domestic and public supply, hydraulic mining was used in the gold-fields of northern Spain, which was conquered by Augustus in 25 BC
Eliminative materialism is the claim that peoples common-sense understanding of the mind is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist. It is a materialist position in the philosophy of mind, some supporters of eliminativism argue that no coherent neural basis will be found for many everyday psychological concepts such as belief or desire, since they are poorly defined. Rather, they argue that concepts of behaviour and experience should be judged by how well they reduce to the biological level. Other versions entail the non-existence of conscious mental states such as pain, eliminativism about a class of entities is the view that that class of entities does not exist. The most common versions are eliminativism about propositional attitudes, as expressed by Paul and Patricia Churchland and these philosophers often appeal to an introspection illusion. Since eliminative materialism claims that research will fail to find a neuronal basis for various mental phenomena.
Various arguments have been put forth both for and against eliminative materialism over the last forty years, most of the arguments in favor of the view are based on the assumption that peoples commonsense view of the mind is actually an implicit theory. It is to be compared and contrasted with scientific theories in its explanatory success, accuracy. Eliminativists argue that, based on these and other criteria, commonsense folk psychology has failed and these philosophers therefore tend to emphasize the importance of neuroscientific research as well as developments in artificial intelligence to sustain their thesis. Philosophers who argue against eliminativism may take several approaches, jerry Fodor, among others, argues that folk psychology is, in fact, a successful theory. Another view is that eliminativism assumes the existence of the beliefs, because of the inadequacy of natural languages, people mistakenly think that they have such beliefs and desires. Consciousness and folk psychology are separate issues and it is possible to take a stance on one.
The roots of eliminativism go back to the writings of Wilfred Sellars, Paul Feyerabend, and Richard Rorty. The term eliminative materialism was first introduced by James Cornman in 1968 while describing a version of physicalism endorsed by Rorty, the Ludwig Wittgenstein was an important inspiration for eliminativism, particularly with his attack on private objects as grammatical fictions. Early eliminativists such as Rorty and Feyerabend often confused two different notions of the sort of elimination that the term eliminative materialism entailed, but critics immediately countered that this view was indistinguishable from the identity theory of mind. While it was a minority view in the 1960s, eliminative materialism gained prominence and acceptance during the 1980s, in these cases, science has not produced more detailed versions or reductions of these theories, but rejected them altogether as obsolete. Radical behaviorists, such as Skinner, argued that psychology is already obsolete. Patricia and Paul Churchland argued that folk psychology will be replaced as neuroscience matures
He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869, Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother, and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, and died in 1900. Nietzsches body of work touched widely on art, history, tragedy and science, and drew inspiration from figures such as Schopenhauer, Wagner. His writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism, born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia, who turned forty-nine on the day of Nietzsches birth, Nietzsches parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, and Franziska Oehler, married in 1843, the year before their sons birth.
They had two children, a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846, and a second son, Ludwig Joseph. Nietzsches father died from an ailment in 1849, Ludwig Joseph died six months later. The family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsches maternal grandmother, after the death of Nietzsches grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a school and then, later, a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg, because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta. He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and he found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led Germania, a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. His end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in Religion and German, a 2a in Greek and Latin, a 2b in French and Physics, while at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects that were considered unbecoming.
The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid. After graduation in September 1864, Nietzsche commenced studies in theology, for a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia. After one semester, he stopped his studies and lost his faith. In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith