Madison County, Alabama
Madison County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 334,811, making it the third-most populous county in Alabama, its county seat is Huntsville. The county is named in honor of James Madison, fourth President of the United States and the first President to visit the state of Alabama. Madison County covers parts of the former Decatur County. Madison County is included in Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. Madison County was established on December 1808 by the governor of the Mississippi Territory, it is recognized as the "birthplace" of Alabama, founded there on December 14, 1819. For much of the county's history, the economy revolved around agriculture. Madison County was one of the largest cotton-producing counties in the state, textile mills operated around the county; this changed when a group of German rocket scientists, led by Wernher von Braun, came to Redstone Arsenal in 1950. They developed, among others, the Redstone rocket, modified to launch the first two Americans into space.
Tens of thousands of jobs came to the area as a result of the Space Race, the population of Madison County rose from 72,903 in 1950 to an estimated 2015 population of 353,089. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 813 square miles, of which 802 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the topography in the southern and eastern portions of the county is dominated by the dissected remnants of the Cumberland Plateau, such as Keel Mountain, Monte Sano Mountain and Green Mountain. The northern and western portions of the county are flatter. Tennessee River Flint River Paint Rock River Lincoln County, Tennessee Franklin County, Tennessee Jackson County Marshall County Morgan County Limestone County Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 276,700 people, 109,955 households, 75,319 families residing in the county; the population density was 344 people per square mile. There were 120,288 housing units at an average density of 149 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 72.06% White, 22.78% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Nearly 1.91% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 census, the largest ancestry groups in Madison County were English 50.2%, African 22.78%, Scots-Irish 8.71%, Irish 4.3%, Scottish 4.12%, Welsh 2.9% According to the 2010 U. S. Census: 65.9 White 24.6% Black 0.8% Native American 2.5% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.3% Two or more races 4.7% Hispanic or Latino There were 109,955 households, out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them. Nearly 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45, the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,704, the median income for a family was $54,360. Males had a median income of $40,779 versus $26,534 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,091. About 8.10% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 9.60% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville Madison New Hope Gurley Owens Cross Roads Triana Harvest Hazel Green Meridianville Moores Mill New Market Redstone Arsenal The Madison County School System runs public schools throughout the unincorporated areas of the county and the incorporated and unincorporated communities of Gurley, New Hope, Hazel Green, Monrovia, New Market, Owens Cross Roads; the system runs 14 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 5 high schools and a ninth grade school, a career/technical center. High schools in the Madison County School System are: Buckhorn High School Hazel Green High School Madison County High School New Hope High School Sparkman High School There are a number of private schools serving Madison County.
These include Randolph School, Madison Academy, Westminster Christian Academy, Faith Christian Academy, several others. Interstate 565 U. S. Highway 72 U. S. Highway 231 U. S. Highway 431 State Route 53 State Route 255 Norfolk Southern Railway Huntsville and Madison County Railroad Authority Madison County was an overwhelmingly Democratic county as with most of the rest of Alabama, with only a narrow loss by Al Smith in 1928 due to Prohibitionist anti-Catholicism disrupting this trend until the 1960s. In 1964, the county nearly voted against Barry Goldwater due to its opposition to the Arizona Senator’s privatization plans for the Tennessee Valley Authority. However, since that time the county has become solidly Republican due to opposition by its white majo
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Woodville is a town in Jackson County, United States. It was established by an act of the Alabama State Legislature on December 13, 1819, one day before Alabama became a state, it was incorporated on May 12, 1890, but lost its charter in 1897. It reincorporated in 1912; as of the 2010 census, the population of the town is 746, down from 761 in 2000. Woodville is the oldest town in Jackson County, it was named for early residents Annie Wood. Woodville became the seat of Decatur County, Alabama in December 1821, but was attached to Jackson County when Decatur County was abolished the following year; the surrounding area was the site of considerable guerrilla warfare during the American Civil War. Woodville is located at 34°37′36″N 86°16′29″W; the town is situated along State Route 35, with an older section of town lying a few blocks west of SR 35 along County Road 8, facing the railroad tracks. U. S. Route 72, which intersects SR 35 in the southern part of Woodville, connects the town with Scottsboro to the east and Huntsville to the west.
The Cumberland Plateau rises just north of Woodville, the Paint Rock River passes just to the west. The Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge lies to the northwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.7 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 761 people, 301 households, 232 families residing in the town; the population density was 113.7 people per square mile. There were 322 housing units at an average density of 48.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.98% White, 1.71% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 1.18% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 301 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,000, the median income for a family was $37,426. Males had a median income of $27,946 versus $17,292 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,796. About 9.7% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over. Media related to Woodville, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons
Jackson County, Alabama
Jackson County is the northeasternmost county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 53,227; the county seat is Scottsboro. The county was named for Andrew Jackson, general in the United States Army and afterward President of the United States of America. Jackson County is a prohibition or dry county, but three cities within the county are "wet", allowing alcohol sales. Jackson County comprises AL Micropolitan Statistical Area; this is included in TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. It is the site of Russell Cave National Monument, an archeological site with evidence of 8,000 years of human occupation in the Southeast. Jackson County was established on December 13, 1819, after the federal government arranged a treaty to remove the Cherokee from the area and extinguish their land claims; the hilly and mountainous terrain of the Appalachians made the area unsuitable for the plantation-style agriculture of the lowlands and coastal area. It was settled by families from Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia.
This area was developed for subsistence farming, few families held any slaves. For instance, in 1860, Alabama the county seat and largest community in the county, had a population of 181, of whom eight were free blacks and the remainder were white. No slaves were recorded in that community; the county is crossed by a number of waterways. The current county seat of Scottsboro developed along the river, was was the site of a railroad station when railroads reached the area. Hydroelectric power was developed in the first quarter of the 20th century to generate energy for industry. By the mid-20th century, industry had replaced agriculture as the most important element of the economy. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,127 square miles, of which 1,078 square miles is land and 49 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in Alabama by total area. Much of it is located in the Appalachians. Of special interest is Russell Cave National Monument, located in Doran Cove 5 miles west of the town of Bridgeport.
It is believed to offer "one of the most complete records of prehistoric culture in the southeast United States." Russell Cave was declared a National Monument in May 1961 by President John F. Kennedy; the Monument consists of 310 acres of land donated by the National Geographic Society. The cave is an important archaeological site, excavated in 1956 by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society; the October 1956 issue of National Geographic Magazine featured an article reporting, "Life 8,000 Years Ago Uncovered in an Alabama Cave." Evidence was found of human occupation of the cave from 6200 B. C. to A. D. 1650. The article was written by the expedition leader. There have been follow-up studies about this site. Marion County, Tennessee – northeast Dade County, Georgia – east DeKalb County – southeast Marshall County – southwest Madison County – west Franklin County, Tennessee – northwest Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge Russell Cave National Monument Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 53,926 people, 21,615 households, 15,822 families residing in the county.
The population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 24,168 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.89% White, 3.74% Black or African American, 1.75% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. 1.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Jackson County were English 69.1%, Scots-Irish 5.21%, Scottish 4.67%, African 3.74%. According to the 2010 United States Census: 92.6% White 2.1% Black 1.4% Native American 0.61% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.5% Two or more races 1.4% Hispanic or Latino There were 21,615 households, out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.00% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. Nearly 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47, the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,020, the median income for a family was $38,082. Males had a median income of $29,777 versus $20,990 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,000. About 10.30% of families and 13.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 21.00% of those age 65 or over. While most of North Alabama became solidly Republican during the 1970s, Jackson County up through the 2000s remained a stronghold of the Democratic Party for elections to local office; until November 2012, Democrats were elected to Jackson County government.
In that year’s general election, two Republicans were elected to the Jackson County Commission—the first Republicans to serve on the Commission since Recon
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is 652 miles long and is located in the southeastern United States in the Tennessee Valley; the river was once popularly known as the Cherokee River, among other names, as many of the Cherokee had their territory along its banks in eastern Tennessee and northern Alabama. Its current name is derived from the Cherokee village Tanasi; the Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers in present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee into Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama, it travels through the Huntsville and Decatur area before reaching the Muscle Shoals area, forms a small part of the state's border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee. Its route northwesterly through Tennessee defines the boundary between two of Tennessee's Grand Divisions: Middle and West Tennessee; the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway, a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers project providing navigation on the Tombigbee River and a link to the Port of Mobile, enters the Tennessee River near the Tennessee-Alabama-Mississippi boundary.
This waterway reduces the navigation distance from Tennessee, north Alabama, northern Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico by hundreds of miles. The final part of the Tennessee's run is north through western Kentucky, where it separates the Jackson Purchase from the rest of the state, it flows into the Ohio River at Kentucky. The river has been dammed numerous times during the 20th century since the 1930s by Tennessee Valley Authority projects; the construction of TVA's Kentucky Dam on the Tennessee River and the Corps of Engineers' Barkley Dam on the Cumberland River led to the development of associated lakes, the creation of what is called Land Between the Lakes. A navigation canal located at Grand Rivers, links Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley; the canal allows for a shorter trip for river traffic going from the Tennessee to most of the Ohio River, for traffic going down the Cumberland River toward the Mississippi. The river appears on French maps from the late 17th century with the names "Caquinampo" or "Kasqui."
Maps from the early 18th century call it "Cussate," "Hogohegee," "Callamaco," and "Acanseapi." A 1755 British map showed the Tennessee River as the "River of the Cherakees." By the late 18th century, it had come to be called "Tennessee," a name derived from the Cherokee village named Tanasi. The Tennessee River begins at mile post 652, where the French Broad River meets the Holston River, but there were several different definitions of its starting point. In the late 18th century, the mouth of the Little Tennessee River was considered to be the beginning of the Tennessee River. Through much of the 19th century, the Tennessee River was considered to start at the mouth of Clinch River. An 1889 declaration by the Tennessee General Assembly designated Kingsport as the start of the Tennessee, but the following year a federal law was enacted that fixed the start of the river at its current location. At various points since the early 19th century, Georgia has disputed its northern border with Tennessee.
In 1796, when Tennessee was admitted to the Union, the border was defined by United States Congress as located on the 35th parallel, thereby ensuring that at least a portion of the river would be located within Georgia. As a result of an erroneously conducted survey in 1818, the actual border line was set on the ground one mile south, thus placing the disputed portion of the river in Tennessee. Georgia made several unsuccessful attempts to correct what Georgia felt was an erroneous survey line "in the 1890s, 1905, 1915, 1922, 1941, 1947 and 1971 to'resolve' the dispute", according to C. Crews Townsend, Joseph McCoin, Robert F. Parsley, Alison Martin and Zachary H. Greene, writing for the Tennessee Bar Journal, a publication of the Tennessee Bar Association, appearing on May 12, 2008. In 2008, as a result of a serious drought and resulting water shortage, the Georgia General Assembly passed a resolution directing the governor to pursue its claim in the United States Supreme Court. According to a story aired on WTVC-TV in Chattanooga on March 14, 2008, a local attorney familiar with case law on border disputes, says the U.
S. Supreme Court will maintain the original borders between states and avoid stepping into border disputes, preferring the parties work out their differences; the Chattanooga Times Free Press reported on 25 March 2013 that Georgia senators approved House Resolution 4 stating that if Tennessee declines to settle with them, the dispute will be handed over to the attorney general, who will take Tennessee before the Supreme Court to settle the issue once and for all. The Atlantic Wire, in commenting on Georgia's actions stated: The Great Georgia-Tennessee Border War of 2013 Is Upon Us Historians, take note: On this day, not a day in 1732, a boundary dispute between two Southern states took a turn for the wet. In a two-page resolution passed overwhelmingly by the state senate, Georgia declared that it, not its neighbor to the north, controls part of the Tennessee River at Nickajack. Georgia doesn't want Nickajack, it wants that water.. The Tennessee River is an important part of the Great Loop, the recreational circumnavigation of Eastern North America by water.
The Tennessee River has been a major highway for riverboats through the south and today they are still found along the river in abundance. Major ports include Guntersville, Chattanooga and Yellow Creek, Muscle Shoals. Navigation has contributed greatly
Paint Rock, Alabama
Paint Rock is a town in Jackson County, United States, along the Paint Rock River, is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. It was incorporated in July 1894; as of the 2010 census, the population of the town was 210, up from 185 in 2000. This was the first time in 100 years. Out of 13 incorporated communities in Jackson County, it is the least populated, its peak population was in 1910 when it was the 4th largest town in the county. Paint Rock is the location. Paint Rock was settled in the 1820s, was known as "Camden." A post office was established in 1836, a railroad depot was constructed in 1856. The name was changed from Camden to "Paint Rock" in 1876. Ray Albright, Tennessee state legislator and businessman, was born in Paint Rock. Paint Rock is located at 34°39′37″N 86°19′41″W; the town is situated along the Paint Rock River in a narrow valley between Keel Mountain to the west and the Cumberland Plateau to the east. Gurley lies to the northwest, Woodville lies to the southeast, Owens Cross Roads lies across Keel Mountain to the southwest.
The Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge is located along the base of the Cumberland Plateau just east of Paint Rock. U. S. Route 72 passes through Paint Rock, connecting the town with Scottsboro to the east and Huntsville to the west. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 185 people, 81 households, 57 families residing in the town; the population density was 415.9 people per square mile. There were 94 housing units at an average density of 211.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.76% White, 0.54% Native American, 2.70% from two or more races. There were 81 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.77.
In the town, the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 14.1% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,521, the median income for a family was $36,875. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $16,719 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,551. About 8.3% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen or sixty-five or over. Media related to Paint Rock, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons Motorcycle Ride Paint Rock