The Gumps is a comic strip about a middle-class family. It was created by Sidney Smith in 1917, launching a 42-year run in newspapers from February 12, 1917, until October 17, 1959. According to a 1937 issue of Life, The Gumps was inspired by Andy Wheat, a real-life person Smith met through his brother. "Born forty-seven years ago in Bay St. Louis, Andy Wheat acquired his unusual physiognomy as the result of an infection following the extraction of a tooth, which necessitated the removal of his entire lower jaw. Through Dr. Thomas Smith of Bloomingdale, Illinois, a dentist and a brother of Sidney Smith, Wheat met the cartoonist, who saw in him an ideal comic character. Wheat subsequently had his surname changed to "Gump" to match the cartoon character, his wife's name is Min, he has two children and Goliath, now living in San Francisco, an Uncle Bim who lives in Georgia. Gump's home is in Tucson, but he has a farm near his birthplace in Mississippi." The Gumps were utterly ordinary: chinless, bombastic blowhard Andy Gump, henpecked by his wife, Min.
They had a cat named a dog named Buck. The idea was envisioned by Joseph Patterson and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, important in the early histories of Little Orphan Annie and other long-run comic strips. Patterson referred to the masses as "gumps" and thought a strip about the domestic lives of ordinary people and their ordinary activities would appeal to the average American newspaper reader, he hired Smith to write and draw the strip, it was Smith who breathed life into the characters. Smith was the first cartoonist to kill off a regular character: His May 1929 storyline about the death of Mary Gold caused a national sensation; the Gumps made its debut in an unusual way. Cartoonist Sidney Smith had drawn and written Old Doc Yak, a talking-animal strip that sustained only a brief run; the last Old Doc Yak strip depicted Yak and his family moving out of their house, while wondering who might move into the house next. On Thursday, February 8, 1917, the last panel showed only the empty house.
On Monday, February 12, 1917, after the Gumps were introduced in the space occupied by Old Doc Yak, they moved into the house occupied by the Yak family. The Gumps had a key role in the rise of syndication when Robert R. McCormick and Patterson, who had both been publishing the Chicago Tribune since 1914, planned to launch a tabloid in New York, as comics historian Coulton Waugh explained: So originated on June 16, 1919, the Illustrated Daily News, a title which, as too English, was at once clipped to Daily News, it was a picture paper, it was a perfect setting for the newly developed art of the comic strip. The first issue shows but The Gumps, it was the instant popularity of this famous strip that directly brought national syndication into being. Midwestern and other papers began writing to the Chicago Tribune, which published The Gumps, requesting to be allowed to use the new comic, the result was that the heads of the two papers collaborated and founded the Chicago Tribune New York News Syndicate, which soon was distributing Tribune-News features to every nook and cranny of the country.
As one of the earliest continuity strips, The Gumps was popular, with newspaper readers anxiously following the convoluted storylines. By 1919, this popularity prompted an interest in film adaptations, in 1920-21, with writing credited to Smith, animation director Wallace A. Carlson produced and directed more than 50 animated shorts, some no longer than two minutes, for distribution through Paramount. Between 1923 and 1928, Universal Pictures produced at least four dozen Gumps two-reel comedies starring Joe Murphy, one of the original Keystone Cops, as Andy Gump, Fay Tincher as Min and Jack Morgan as Chester. Many of these shorts were directed by Norman Taurog famed as the leading director of Elvis Presley movies. In the comic strip, Sidney Smith had Andy run for Congress in 1922 and for President in 1924 and in every succeeding election, one of the first of many comic strip and cartoon characters to run for office. In 1924, Smith wrote his characters into a novel, Andy Gump: His Life Story, published in Chicago by Reilly & Lee.
In 1929, when Smith killed off Mary Gold, she was the first major comic strip character to die, the Chicago Tribune had to hire extra staff to deal with the constant phone calls and letters from stunned readers. The strip and its merchandising made Smith a wealthy man. On his way home from signing a $150,000 a year contract in 1935, he crashed his new Rolls-Royce and died. Patterson replaced Smith with sports cartoonist Gus Edson. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, when actor Martin Landau was a cartoonist, he worked as Edson's assistant on The Gumps drawing the Sunday strips for Edson; the Gumps launched a craze for continuity strips in newspapers. It influenced radio and television programming. Radio/TV sitcoms and serialized dramas can all be traced back to The Gumps, as detailed by broadcast historian Elizabeth McLeod in the "Andy Gump to Andy Brown" section of her popular culture essay, her book, The Original Amos'n' Andy: Freeman Gosden, Charles Correll, the 1928-43 Radio Serial. At the Chicago Tribune's radio station WGN, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll signed on as staffers in 1925.
WGN executive Ben McCanna believed that a dramatic serial could work on radio just as it did in newspapers. The
The Brighter Day
The Brighter Day is an American daytime soap opera which aired on CBS from January 4, 1954 to September 28, 1962. Created for NBC radio by Irna Phillips in 1948, the radio and television versions ran from 1954–1956. Set in New Hope, the series revolved around Reverend Richard Dennis and his four children, Patsy and Grayling; the Brighter Day was the first soap opera to air on network television with an explicitly religious theme. Another soap opera created by Phillips, The Guiding Light had a religious theme as a radio show but dropped it by the time the series moved to television; the Brighter Day had its roots in the radio soap opera Joyce Jordan, M. D.. Jim Cox, in his book The Great Radio Soap Operas, wrote: "The Brighter Day premiered on the NBC network on October 11, 1948, but it was rolled out on another drama some time before that." Dr. Jordan lived near the Dennis family's hometown of Three Rivers, listeners of the Jordan program became acquainted with the Dennises in 1948. In a seamless transition, Cox wrote, "By the time Dr. Jordan said'good-by' on her final broadcast on Friday, October 8, 1948, the fans were acquainted with the family that would replace her.
The following Monday listeners could connect with the new series growing out of the show they had been hearing for so long." Smoothing the transition more, The Brighter Day's announcer, sponsor and time slot were the same as those of Joyce Jordan, M. D.. The original radio version took place in the town of Three Rivers, but in late 1953 the Dennis family was forced to move to New Hope as a result of a flood washing out Three Rivers. In the run, the Dennis family moved to Columbus, established as a college town. There were five children in the radio version, but the oldest daughter, Liz and left the family as the show began on television. Living with Reverend Dennis was his widowed sister, Emily Potter; the Brighter Day had mid-range Nielsen ratings for most of its run. During the 1950s, it was in the middle of the pack landing between 5th and 7th place over all and in the middle of all the CBS soaps; the show's best season was 1955–1956, when it did not have any competition from ABC and weak offerings from NBC.
With the premiere of American Bandstand in 1957 and Bandstand's surge in popularity a year the CBS strip of The Verdict is Yours at 3:30, The Brighter Day at 4:00, The Secret Storm at 4:15 and The Edge of Night at 4:30 all took a hit of about one rating point. Though Storm and Edge rebounded, The Brighter Day and its lead-in The Verdict Is Yours did not. By the 1960 -- 61 season, both shows had still taken a ratings hit. In Summer 1961, Procter & Gamble gave up production of the show to CBS and moved production of the series from New York City to Los Angeles in an effort to save money. Key characters and stories were dropped. In the Summer of 1962, with The Secret Storm and The Edge of Night proving formidable against American Bandstand, CBS decided to expand The Secret Storm, creating a powerful hour-long soap block to counterprogram against American Bandstand; this decision had both The Brighter Day and The Verdict is Yours moving from their mid/late afternoon slots to mid/late morning. The timeslot change was the final nail in the coffin, as both series lost half their audience, with The Brighter Day falling from a 6.9 to 3.7.
Mid-late morning had never been successful for serials, this instance was no different. In August 1962, the show made history by creating the first daytime television contract role for an African American; the actor, Rex Ingram, appeared as an ordained minister named Victor Graham beginning on September 17, but had no time to make much of an impact, as the show was cancelled two weeks on September 28. The network announced that the show would be cancelled with less than two weeks before the final episode aired. In the final episode, actor Paul Langton addressed the viewers in character as Uncle Walter, wrapping up the storylines and explaining how the characters would resolve their problems. Langton ended the show with a final farewell: "The microphone can't pick up their voices and soon the picture will fade. If on occasion you think of us, we hope your memory will be a pleasant one."Among the show's writers were Doris Frankle, Sam Hall. Agnes Nixon had been hired to write the show, but the show was cancelled before her work was taped.
Ms. Nixon went to write The Guiding Light and Another World before creating her two classic soap operas on the ABC network. Among the actors who appeared on the series, the most famous alumni are Hal Holbrook, Lois Nettleton, Patty Duke. List of radio soaps The Brighter Day on IMDb Public domain episode at the Internet Archive
Against the Storm
Against the Storm is a radio daytime drama which had three separate runs over a 13-year period. Created and written by Sandra Michael, the drama was the only daytime radio serial to win a Peabody Award, for "Outstanding Entertainment in Drama" in 1941; the program pivoted around the activities of Professor Jason McKinley Allen, his wife and friends. Allen, who lived in Hawthorne, Connecticut, at Deep Pool Farm, taught classes at the fictional Harper University. With Allen an outspoken pacifist, war resistance and the dangers of fascism were underlying themes, his position as a professor made it possible for Sandra Michael to incorporate literature and poetry readings into her storylines. In one memorable episode, a shortwave broadcast from England enabled real-life Poet Laureate John Masefield to speak in Allen's fictional classroom. Axel Gruenberg directed Sandra Michael's scripts; the show's theme music was by Alfred Newman, taken from his score for The Song of Bernadette. Variety praised a 1941 episode about a girl refugee seeing the skyscrapers of Manhattan as "one of the most distinguished and stirring broadcasts in the history of commercial daytime radio."
The serial's title was taken from King Lear: "... disconnect in watching Lear rage against the storm in a sun-drenched redwood... His rage against the storm and decline into madness are laced with lightning..." OTR: Against The Storm List of radio soaps
Backstage Wife is an American soap opera radio program that details the travails of Mary Noble, a girl from a small town in Iowa who came to New York seeking her future. Vivian Fridell had the title role from 1935 until the early 1940s, it was taken over by Claire Niesen, who played Mary Noble for 14 years, until the end of the series. Mary's husband, Larry Noble, was portrayed by Ken Griffin James Meighan and Guy Sorel; the music was supplied by organist Chet Kingsbury. Each episode opened with the announcer explaining: Now, we present once again, Backstage Wife, the story of Mary Noble, a little Iowa girl who married one of America's most handsome actors, Larry Noble, matinée idol of a million other women — the story of what it means to be the wife of a famous star. In 1946, when the program was in its 12th year, a newspaper article summarized the plot's status as follows: When her husband joined the coast guard, Mary tried to carry on his work in the theatre, thereby establishing a reputation for herself as an actress.
Now Larry has come home, the two are encountering the difficulties of peacetime readjustment. The show was created by Frank and Anne Hummert, who produced many radio daytime drama series, including Amanda of Honeymoon Hill, Front Page Farrell, John's Other Wife, Little Orphan Annie, Ma Perkins, Mr. Chameleon, Mr. Keen, Tracer of Lost Persons and Our Gal Sunday. Backstage Wife debuted August 5, 1935 on the Mutual Broadcasting System, continued on NBC Radio and concluded on January 2, 1959 on CBS Radio; the sponsors included Procter & Gamble. August 5, 1935 – March 27, 1936, MBS, 9:45 a.m. ET March 30–June 26, 1936, NBC Blue, 4:15 p.m. 1936–1938, NBC Blue, 11:15 a.m. 1938–July 1, 1955, NBC, 4 p.m. July 4, 1955 – January 2, 1959, CBS, 12:15 p.m. The program was parodied by Bob and Ray as their continuing satirical soap opera, Mary Backstayge, Noble Wife, serialized for such a long period of time that it became better known to many listeners than the show it lampooned. Ray Goulding played Mary Backstayge, playwright Gregg Marlowe and other characters, while Bob Elliott portrayed Harry Backstayge and stage doorman Pop Beloved.
In the Hogan's Heroes episode "The 43rd, A Moving Story", Hogan and Kinch find out from their secret radio that the bank is going to foreclose on Mary Noble, Backstage Wife. List of radio soaps Time: "Hummerts' Mill," January 23, 1939
A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Girl Alone was an American radio soap opera broadcast on NBC from 1935 to 1941. Sponsored by Kellogg's and Quaker Oats, the series was scripted by Fayette Krum. After inheriting a fortune, Patricia Rogers fell in love with the trustee of her estate, John Knight, portrayed by Karl Weber, Les Damon, Macdonald Carey, Bob Bailey and Syd Simons. Separating from Knight and leaving Chicago, Rogers entered into a romantic relationship with Phoenix newspaperman Scoop Curtis, paralyzed in an automobile accident. Other characters and the actors who played them were as follows: The announcers were Bob Brown and Charles Lyon; the program's theme was "The Girl Alone Suite" by Don Marcotte. Gordon Hughes and Axel Gruenberg directed