Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis. His exemplars, he explained, were the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal. I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator, Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, the first of seven children of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres and his wife Anne Moulet. From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, the deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity. In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture, there he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and the neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques.
Roques veneration of Raphael was an influence on the young artist. Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition and antique and his musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, and from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse. Ingres followed his masters neoclassical example but revealed, according to David and his trip to Rome, was postponed until 1806, when the financially strained government finally appropriated the travel funds. Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a provided by the state. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, in 1802 he made his debut at the Salon with Portrait of a Woman. The following year brought a commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the towns of Liège, Dunkerque, Brussels. In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, although he had hoped to stay in Paris long enough to witness the opening of that years Salon, in which he was to display several works, he reluctantly left for Italy just days before the opening.
Chaussard condemned Ingress style as gothic and asked, with so much talent, a line so flawless, the answer is that he wanted to do something singular, something extraordinary. M. Ingress intention is nothing less than to make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy, Ingres stylistic eclecticism represented a new tendency in art. As art historian Marjorie Cohn has written, At the time and critics outdid each other in their attempts to identify and exploit what they were just beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments. From the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier art, adopting the style appropriate to his subject
It is a descriptive term characterizing a type of abstract painting related to Abstract Expressionism, in use since the 1940s. Many well known abstract expressionist painters like Arshile Gorky seen in context have been characterized as doing a type of painting described as lyrical abstraction, whose works related to characteristics of contemporary American abstract expressionism. The art movement Abstraction lyrique was born in Paris after the war, at that time, the artistic life in Paris, which had been devastated by the Occupation and Collaboration, resumed with numerous artists exhibited again as soon as the Liberation of Paris in mid-1944. According to the new forms that characterised some artists, the movement was named by the art critic, Jean José Marchand. Some art critics looked at this movement as an attempt to restore the image of artistic Paris, Lyrical abstraction was opposed not only to the Cubist and Surrealist movements that preceded it, but to geometric abstraction. Lyrical abstraction was, in ways, the first to apply the lessons of Kandinsky.
For the artists, lyrical abstraction represented an opening to personal expression. S. A, Lyrical Abstraction was opposed not only to l’Ecole de Paris remains of pre-war style but to Cubist and Surrealist movements that had preceded it, and to geometric abstraction. Lyrical Abstraction was in ways the first to apply the lessons of Kandinsky. For the artists in France, Lyrical Abstraction represented an opening to personal expression, in Belgium, Louis Van Lint figured a remarkable example of an artist who, after a short period of geometric abstraction, has moved to a lyrical abstraction in which he excelled. At the Drouin gallery one could see Jean Le Moal, Gustave Singier, Alfred Manessier, Roger Bissière, Wols and others. In March 1951 was held the larger exhibition Véhémences confrontées in the gallery Nina Dausset where for the first time were presented side to side French and it was organised by the critic Michel Tapié, whose role in the defense of this movement was of the highest importance.
With these events, he déclared that « the lyrical abstraction is born » and it was, however, a fairly short reign, which was quickly supplanted by the New realism of Pierre Restany and Yves Klein. Starting around 1970, this movement has been revived by a new generation of artists born during or immediately after the Second World War, some of its key promoters include Paul Kallos, Georges Romathier, Michelle Desterac, and Thibaut de Reimpré. American Lyrical Abstraction is an art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, characterized by intuitive and loose paint handling, spontaneous expression, illusionist space, acrylic staining, occasional imagery, and other painterly and newer technological techniques. Lyrical Abstraction led the way away from minimalism in painting and toward a new freer expressionism, many of them had been Minimalists, working with various monochromatic, geometric styles, and whose paintings publicly evolved into new abstract painterly motifs.
American Lyrical Abstraction is related in spirit to Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Tachisme refers to the French style of abstract painting current in the 1945–1960 period. Very close to Art Informel, it presents the European equivalent to Abstract Expressionism, the Sheldon Museum of Art held an exhibition from 1 June until 29 August 1993 entitled Lyrical Abstraction and Mood. Many artists began moving away from geometric, hard-edge, and minimal styles, toward more lyrical and these lyrical abstractionists sought to expand the boundaries of abstract painting, and to revive and reinvigorate a painterly tradition in American art
Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a called Ingermanland.
A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter.
However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life
Francis Bacon (artist)
Francis Bacon was an Irish-born British figurative painter known for his bold, emotionally charged and raw imagery. Bacon was a bon vivant and gambler who took up painting in his early 20s and he drifted as an interior decorator in his 20s and 30s, he admitted that his artistic career was delayed because he spent too long looking for subject matter that could sustain his interest. His abstracted figures are typically isolated geometrical spaces, set against flat, Bacon said that he saw images in series, and his work typically focused on a single subject or format for sustained periods, often in triptych or diptych formats. These were followed by his early 1960s variations on crucifixion scenes, from the mid-1960s he mainly produced portraits of friends and drinking companions, either as single or triptych panels. Following the 1971 suicide of his lover George Dyer, his art became more sombre, inward-looking and preoccupied with the passage of time, the climax of this period is marked by masterpieces, including his 1982s Study for Self-Portrait and Study for a Self-Portrait—Triptych, 1985–86.
Francis Bacon was the subject of two Tate retrospectives and a showing in 1971 at the Grand Palais. Since his death his reputation and market value have grown steadily, in the late 1990s a number of major works, previously assumed destroyed, including early 1950s popes and 1960s portraits, reemerged to set record prices at auction. In 2013 his Three Studies of Lucian Freud set the record as the most expensive piece of art sold at auction. Francis Bacon was born in a home in the heart of old Georgian Dublin at 63 Lower Baggot Street. His father, Captain Anthony Edward Mortimer Bacon was born in Adelaide, South Australia to an English father and an Australian mother. His father, a veteran of the Boer War, was a trainer, while his mother, Christina Winifred Firth, known as Winnie, was heiress to a Sheffield steel business. His father was a descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon, elder half-brother of Sir Francis Bacon. His great-great-grandmother, Lady Charlotte Harley, was acquainted with Lord Byron.
When Bacons paternal grandfather was given the chance to revive the title of Lord Oxford by Queen Victoria, Bacon had an older brother, two younger sisters and Winifred, and a younger brother, Edward. He was brought up by the nanny, Jessie Lightfoot, from Cornwall, known as Nanny Lightfoot. In the 1940s, she helped him in keeping gambling houses in London, the family moved house often, moving back and forth between Ireland and England several times, leading to a feeling of displacement which remained with the artist throughout his life. They returned to Ireland after the First World War, as a child Bacon was shy and enjoyed dressing up. This, coupled with his manner, upset his father
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into a family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling and he turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881 and his younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, in 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and his paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888.
During this period he broadened his subject matter to include trees, wheat fields. Van Gogh suffered from episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor and he spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris and his depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later, Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius. His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves. The most comprehensive source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo.
Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincents thoughts, Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, and access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincents letters to him, Vincent kept few of the letters he received, after both had died, Theos widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913, the majority were published in 1914, Vincents letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a diary-like intimacy, and read in parts like autobiography
Tachisme is a French style of abstract painting popular in the 1940s and 1950s. The term is said to have been first used with regards to the movement in 1951 and it is often considered to be the European equivalent to abstract expressionism, although there are stylistic differences. It was part of a larger movement known as Art Informel. Another name for Tachism is Abstraction lyrique, COBRA is related to Tachisme, as is Japans Gutai group. After World War II the term School of Paris often referred to Tachisme, according to Chilvers, the term tachisme was first used in this sense in about 1951 and it was given wide currency by Michel Tapié in his book Un Art autre. Tachisme was a reaction to Cubism and is characterized by spontaneous brushwork and blobs of paint straight from the tube, Art Informel was more about the absence of premeditated structure, conception or approach than a mere casual, loosened or relaxed art procedure. Gutai and Informel Post-war art in Japan and France, 1945—1965
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Work of art
A work of art, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. The term objet dart is reserved to describe works of art that are not paintings, drawings or large or medium-sized sculptures, the term oeuvre is used to describe the complete body of work completed by an artist throughout a career. A work of art in the arts is a physical two- or three- dimensional object that is professionally determined or otherwise considered to fulfill a primarily independent aesthetic function. A singular art object is seen in the context of a larger art movement or artistic era, such as. It can be seen as an item within a body of work or oeuvre. The term is used by, museum and cultural heritage curators, the interested public, the art patron-private art collector community. Physical objects that document immaterial or conceptual art works, but do not conform to artistic conventions can be redefined and reclassified as art objects, some Dada and Neo-Dada conceptual and readymade works have received inclusion.
Also, some architectural renderings and models of projects, such as by Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci, Frank Lloyd Wright. Legal definitions of work of art are used in copyright law, Marcel Duchamp critiqued the idea that the work of art should be a unique product of an artists labour, representational of their technical skill or artistic caprice. Artist Michael Craig-Martin, creator of An Oak Tree, said of his work - Its not a symbol, I have changed the physical substance of the glass of water into that of an oak tree. The actual oak tree is present, but in the form of a glass of water. Some art theorists and writers have made a distinction between the physical qualities of an art object and its identity-status as an artwork. For example, a painting by Rembrandt has an existence as an oil painting on canvas that is separate from its identity as a masterpiece work of art or the artists magnum opus. Many works of art are initially denied museum quality or artistic merit, works by the Impressionists and non-representational abstract artists are examples.
Some, such as the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp including his infamous urinal Fountain, are reproduced as museum quality replicas. Contemporary and archeological indigenous art, industrial design items in limited or mass production, the term has been consistently available for debate and redefinition. The classic philosophical enquiry into what a work of art is
A brush is a tool with bristles, wire or other filaments, used for cleaning, grooming hair, make up, surface finishing and for many other purposes. It is one of the most basic and versatile tools known to mankind, and it generally consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed either parallel- or perpendicular-wise, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped during use. The material of both the block and bristles or filaments is chosen to withstand hazards of its application, such as corrosive chemicals, heat or abrasion. The staple can be replaced with a kind of anchor, which is a piece of rectangular profile wire that is anchored to the wall of the hole, configurations include twisted-in wire and disks. The action of these brushes is mainly in the tip of each flexible bristle which dislodges particles of matter, broom The action of such brushes is mostly from the sides, not the tip, contact with which releases material held by capillary action. Certain varieties of hairbrush are however designed to brush the scalp itself free of such as dead skin.
Hair brush Dog-grooming brush Cat fur brush Brush, used on electrical motors Drum stick#Brushes Magnetic brush Stippling brush Medical sampling brush Brushes used for cleaning come in various sizes. They vary in size ranging from that of a toothbrush, to the standard household version accompanied by a dustpan, there are brushes for cleaning tiny cracks and crevices and brushes for cleaning enormous warehouse floors. Brushes perform a multitude of cleaning tasks, specific brushes are used for diverse activities from cleaning vegetables, as a toilet brush, washing glass, cleaning tiles, and as a mild abrasive for sanding. Wire brush Hairbrush Ink brush Pastry brush Test tube brush The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art, ISBN 978-0-19-531391-8 Glossary of Brush Terms
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War and it remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance, film. The term is sometimes suggestive of angst, in a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism, though an alternate view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910, as the opposite of impressionism, An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself.
Immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures, in 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, a few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. The name came from Wassily Kandinskys Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903, among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not firmly establish itself until 1913, though mainly a German artistic movement initially and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910–30, most precursors of the movement were not German. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it overlapped with other major isms of the modernist period, with Futurism, Cubism, more explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to a style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions.
It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon, according to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that Expressionism doesnt shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific fuck yous, Baroque doesnt, Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. Estonia, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt Finland, Tyko Sallinen, Alvar Cawén, Juho Mäkelä, there were a number of groups of expressionist painters, including Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden, Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter, which was only together for a year. The Expressionists had many influences, among them Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh and they were aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who influenced Expressionisms tendency toward arbitrary colours and jarring compositions
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since described as one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of Michelangelos works of painting and architecture rank among the most famous in existence and he sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library, at the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peters Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification. Michelangelo was unique as the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive, in his lifetime he was often called Il Divino. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, the attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelos impassioned and highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance.
Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Arezzo, at the time of Michelangelos birth, his father was the Judicial administrator of the small town of Caprese and local administrator of Chiusi. Michelangelos mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, the Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa, this claim remains unproven, but Michelangelo himself believed it. Several months after Michelangelos birth, the returned to Florence. There Michelangelo gained his love for marble, as Giorgio Vasari quotes him, If there is good in me. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, as a young boy, Michelangelo was sent to Florence to study grammar under the Humanist Francesco da Urbino. The young artist, showed no interest in his schooling, preferring to copy paintings from churches, the city of Florence was at that time the greatest centre of the arts and learning in Italy. Art was sponsored by the Signoria, by the merchant guilds and by patrons such as the Medici.
The Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence, the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti had laboured for fifty years to create the bronze doors of the Baptistry, which Michelangelo was to describe as The Gates of Paradise. The exterior niches of the Church of Orsanmichele contained a gallery of works by the most acclaimed sculptors of Florence – Donatello, Andrea del Verrocchio, and Nanni di Banco. The interiors of the churches were covered with frescos, begun by Giotto. During Michelangelos childhood, a team of painters had been called from Florence to the Vatican, among them was Domenico Ghirlandaio, a master in fresco painting, figure drawing, and portraiture who had the largest workshop in Florence at that period