The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga. Its source is in Maharashtra, it flows east for 1,465 kilometres draining the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka emptying into Bay of Bengal through its extensive network of tributaries. Measuring up to 312,812 km2, it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganges and Indus rivers having a larger drainage basin. In terms of length, catchment area and discharge, the Godavari river is the largest in peninsular India, had been dubbed as the Vridha Ganga – Ganges; the river has been revered in Hindu scriptures for many millennia and continues to harbour and nourish a rich cultural heritage. In the past few decades, the river has been barricaded by a number of barrages and dams, restricting its flow; the river delta supports 729 persons/km2 – nearly twice the density average for the nation, has been categorized as having substantial to greater risk of flooding with rising sea levels.
The Godavari originates in the Western Ghats of central India near Nashik in Maharashtra, 80 km from the Arabian Sea. It flows for 1,465 km, first eastwards across the Deccan Plateau turns southeast, entering the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, until it splits into two distributaries that widen into a large river delta and flow into the Bay of Bengal; the Godavari River has a coverage area of 312,812 km2, nearly one-tenth of the area of India and is greater than the areas of England and Ireland put together. The river basin is considered to be divided into 3 sections: Upper and Lower; these put together account for 24.2% of the total basin area. The rivers annual average water inflows are nearly 110 billion cubic metres. Nearly 50% of the water availability is being harnessed; the water allocation from the river among the riparian states are governed by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal. The river has highest flood flows in India and experienced recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986 and annual flood of 1.0 million cusecs is normal.
In Maharashtra state where it takes origin, the river has an extensive course, the upper basin of which lies within the state, cumulatively draining an area as large as 152,199 km2 – about half the area of Maharashtra. Within Nashik District the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same name; the reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides potable water to Nashik, one of the largest cities located on its banks. The river as it emerges through the dam, some 8 km upstream from Nashik, flows on a rocky bed undulated by a series of chasms and rocky ledges, resulting in the formation of two significant waterfalls – the Gangapur waterfalls and the Someshwar Waterfalls, the latter, located at Someshwar and more popularly known as the Dudhsagar Waterfall About 10 km east of Gangapur the river passes the town of Nashik where it collects its effluents in the form of the river Nasardi on its right bank. About 0.5 km south direction from Nashik, the river bends to the east, washing the base of a high cliff the site of a Mughal fort, but, now being eaten away by the action of floods.
About 25 km below Nashik is the confluence of the Godavari and one of its tributaries, the Darna river. The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a small space in a wide and gravelly bed, the greyish banks being 4 to 6 m high, topped with a deep layer of black soil. A few kilometres after its meeting with the Darna, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, till the Banganga, from the north-west, meets it on the left; the course of the main stream tends more decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva, a second large affluent, brings considerable increase to the waters of the Godavari; the river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau. The river beyond exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik and enter the Kopargaon taluka, Ahmednagar District. Within Ahmednagar the river completes its short course, flowing alongside the town of Kopargaon and reaching Puntamba. Beyond this the river has been deployed as a natural boundary between the following districts: Ahmednagar and Aurangabad: Along the boundary here, it receives its first major tributary Pravara River, draining the former district, the confluence located at Pravarasangam.
By virtue of a sub-tributary of Pravara – Mandohol, which originates in Pune District – the basin impinges the Pune District. The river at Paithan has been impounded by the Jayakwadi Dam forming the NathSagar Reservoir. Kalsubai located in Godavari basin, is the highest peak in Maharashtra. Beed and Jalna Beed and Parbhani: Located along here is its merger with Sindphana, an important tributary which drains a large area within Beed; the sub-tributary river Bindusara forms a landmark at Beed. The river beyond, near the village Sonpeth, flows into Parbhani. In Parbhani District, River Godavari flows through Gangakhed taluka; as mentioned above Godavari is called Dakshinganga so the city is called as Gangakhed. As per Hindu rituals this place is considered quite important for after death peace to flow ashes into the river it, its course is non-significant except for receiving two smaller streams – Indrayani and Masuli – merging at its left and right banks respectively. Within the l
Yātrā, in Hinduism and other Indian religions means a pilgrimage to holy places such as confluences of sacred rivers, places associated with Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana, other sacred pilgrimage sites. Tīrtha-yātrā refers to a pilgrimage to a holy site and is undertaken in groups. One who goes on a yatra is known as a yatri; as per Vedic Hindu Dharma Shastras, a Yatri is supposed to do Yatra barefoot. He/she should travel without umbrellas, vehicles etc. to get the benefit of the Yatra. At present these rules are not followed by many pilgrims; the journey itself is as important as the destination, the hardships of travel serve as an act of devotion in themselves. Visiting a sacred place is believed by the pilgrim to purify the self and bring one closer to the divine. In present times, yatras are organized affairs, with specialized tourism companies catering to the need of yatris. State governments are sometimes involved in the organization of annual yatras, stipulating numbers, registering yatris, regulating yatri traffic.
The Hindu sacred month of Shravan is the time of the annual Kanwar Yatra, the annual pilgrimage of devotees of Shiva, known as Kanwaria make to Hindu pilgrimage places of Haridwar and Gangotri in Uttarakhand to fetch holy waters of Ganges River, way back in 2003, 55 lakh pilgrims reach Haridwar. Other important Tirtha pilgrimages are Char Dham Yatra, which involves Badrinath, Kedarnath and Yamunotri. In modern times the word can be used to denote marches or demonstrations, for political, environmental or societal causes; the terms'jatra' and'zatra' are derived from yatra. Kasi yatra: It is the greatest of all the yatras, it is customary for every Hindu to undergo Kasi yatra on barefoot. Pilgrims visit Gaya to do Gaya Shraddha to their ancestors. Details regarding how to perform various rituals, the greatness of Kashi Kshetra. Importance of Kasi yatra is said in Kasi-Khand of Skanda Puranam. Mansarovar Yatra: Mansarovar is a fresh-water lake situated in Tibet. Mount Kailash, a place of pilgrimage attracting religious people from India and neighboring countries.
The Mount Kailash is considered a sacred place in four religions Hinduism, Buddhism and Bon. According to Hindu mythology mount Kailash is the abode of Lord Shiva and circumambulating Mount Kailash on foot is a holy ritual. Another lake called Lake Rakshastal lying close to the west of Lake Manasarovar and The Great Mount Kailash; these lakes are the source of the Brahmaputra River and the Karnali River, a tributary of the Holy river Ganges. Amarnath Yatra: The Amarnath Temple in Jammu and Kashmir is dedicated to one of the holy trinity God “Lord Shiva“; the temple is on Amarnath mountain and Amarnath caves are the most famous shrines in Hinduism. Every year inside the main Amarnath cave an Ice Shiva Lingam forms, along with two other ice formations representing Shri Ganesh and Maa Parvati. Amarnath yatra is held every year to pay homage to Maa Parvati; the temple is a popular yatra destination for Hindus, about 4 lakh people visit during the season. Kanwar Yatra: This is an annual pilgrimage of devotees of Siva, known as Kānwarias, to Hindu pilgrimage places of Haridwar and Gangotri in Uttarakhand and Sultanganj in Bihar to fetch holy waters of Ganges River.
Millions of participants gather sacred water from the Ganga and carry it across hundreds of miles to dispense as offerings in their local Śiva shrines, or specific temples such as Pura Mahadeva and Augharnath temple in Meerut, Kashi Vishwanath and Devghar in Bihar. Pandharpur yatra of Maharashtra is one of the most popular festivals in India; the annual yatra to the famous Vithoba temple at Pandharpur held every year during the month of June and July. Thousands of pilgrims come to Pandharpur with carrying litters with the images of Jñāneśvar from Alandi, Tukaram from Dehu, Eknath from Paithan, Nivruttinath from Trimbakeshwar; these pilgrims are referred to as Varkaris. Ratha Yatra: The Festival of Chariots of Jagannatha, held every year at Puri in the state of Orissa; the 10 day’s ratha yatra is commemorated Lord Jagannath’s, annual visit to Gundicha Mata’s temple a short distance away. Thousands of pilgrims come to Puri during the festival with a desire to help pull Lord's chariot with ropes.
This is the only day when devotees who are not allowed in the temple premises such as non-Hindus and foreigners, can get their glimpse of the deities. Deoghar Yatra: Deoghar means abode of the Gods and Goddesses, It is known as Baidyanath Dham or Baba Dham situated on the eastern side of Jharkhand, it is an important Hindu pilgrimage center having Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Lord Shiva Jyothirlingams in India. The pilgrims carry the holy water of holy river Ganges from Sultanganj’s and offered to the Jyotirlingam of Lord Shiva at Deoghar; these pilgrims called Kanwariya, reciting Bol Bam on the way of walk 109 KM, The march of Kanwariya start during the holy month of Shravan the wet season each year in India. Shravani Mela is the most celebrated 30-day festival in Deoghar Baidyanath Temple of Jharkhand. Char Dham Yatra: The Chardham belongs to four pilgrimage places in India, They are Badrinath, Jagannath Puri, Rameshwaram; the Char Dham is considered the most revered sites for Hindus that have to be visited in one’s lifetime.
There is a Chota Char Dham as well includes Yamunotri, Gangotri and Kedarnath situated in Garhwal Himalayas. 84 Kosi parikrama The 84-Kosi Yatra is a tradition in Hindu religion, there for t
A municipal council is the legislative body of a municipality such as a city council or a town council. In spite of enormous differences in populations, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor and a municipal council, which manage the commune from the mairie, with the same powers no matter the size of the commune and council; the one exception is the city of Paris, where the city police is in the hands of the central state, not in the hands of the mayor of Paris. This uniformity of status is a clear legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France; the size of a commune still matters, however, in two domains: French law determines the size of the municipal council according to the population of the commune. Lists of communes of France Commune List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population Established as the Sanitary Board in 1883, the Municipal Council in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon provided municipal services to the covered regions in the British Hong Kong.
Partial elections were allowed in 1887, though enabling selected persons to vote for members of the Board. The Board was reconstituted in 1935 and hence renamed as Urban Council in the following year after the government had passed the Urban Council Ordinance. Democratisation had been implemented, allowing universal suffrage to happen throughout its development. Two years after the Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the Council was disbanded in 1999 by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. All members of the council were elected through universal suffrage by the time of the dissolution; the counterpart of the Municipal Council serving the New Territories was the Regional Council established as the Provisional Regional Council in 1986. The functional select committees, district committees, sub-committees constituted the entire Regional Council. All members were elected from the constituencies and district boards. Both of the Municipal Councils in Hong Kong are now defunct.
See Nagar Palika for municipalities of India. The Municipal Council in Moldova is the governing body in five municipalities: Chișinău, Bălți, Tiraspol and Bendery; the Municipal Council serves as a consultative body with some powers of general policy determination. It is composed of a determined number of counsellors elected every four years, representing political parties and independent counsellors. Once elected, counsellors may form fractions inside of the Municipal Council. Last regional elections of local public administration held in Bălți in June 2007, brought to the power the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which holds 21 mandates, 11 mandates are held by representatives of other parties, 3 mandates by independents. There are two fractions in the Municipal Council: "Meleag" fraction; the Mayor of the municipality is elected for four years. In Bălți, Vasile Panciuc is the incumbent from 2001 and was re-elected twice: in 2003 during the anticipated elections, in 2007. In Chișinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.
As a result, Dorin Chirtoacă, won the last mayor elections in Chișinău. In the Netherlands the municipal council is the elected assembly of the municipality, it consists of between 45 members who are elected by the citizens once every four years. The council's main tasks are setting the city's policies and overseeing the execution of those policies by the municipality's executive board; the municipal council municipal board, is the highest governing body of the municipality in Norway. The municipal council sets the scope of municipal activity, takes major decisions, delegates responsibility; the council is led by a mayor s divided into an executive council and a number of committees, each responsible for a subsection of tasks. It is not uncommon for some members of the council to sit in the county councils too, but rare that they hold legislative or Government office, without leave of absence; the municipal council dates back to 1837 with the creation of the Formannskabsdistrikt. In cities the council is called a city council.
In the Republic of China, a municipal council represents a special municipality. Members of the councils are elected through municipal elections held every 4-5 years. Councils for the special municipalities in Taiwan are Taipei City Council, New Taipei City Council, Taichung City Council, Tainan City Council, Kaohsiung City Council and Taoyuan City Council. City council Town council
Nashik is an ancient holy city in the northwest region of Maharashtra in India. Situated on the banks of Godavari River, Nashik is best known for being one of Hindu pilgrimage sites, that of Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, it is the fourth largest city of maharashtra after Mumbai and Nagpur. The city located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai, is called the "Wine Capital of India" as half of India’s vineyards and wineries are located in Nashik; as per Ramayana, Nashik is the location on the banks of Godavari river where Laxman, by the wish of Lord Rama, cut the nose of Shurpanakha and thus this city was named as "Nashik". Nashik lies in the northern part of Maharashtra state at 584 m from the mean sea level which gives it ideal temperature variation in winters; the river Godavari originates from the Brahmagiri Mountain, Trimbakeshwar about 24 km from Nashik and flows through the old residential settlement, now in the central part of the city. Due to high pollution created by factories in proximity of the city the river was dying at an alarming rate.
It has since been cleaned. Other than Godavari, important rivers like Vaitarana, Girana flow across Nashik. Nashik lies on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, a volcanic formation. Trimbakeshwar is about 30 km from the city, it is; the land area of the city is about 259.13 km2. Anjaneri near Nashik is the birthplace of lord Hanuman; the city's tropical location and high altitude combine to give it a mild version of a tropical wet and dry climate. Temperatures rise in October, but this is followed by the cool season from November to February; the cool season sees warm temperatures of around 28 °C during the day, but cool nights, with lows averaging 10 °C, dry air. Nashik city is governed by the Nashik Municipal Corporation; the Nashik Court Building is built in black stone in British Regime and the new building was inaugurated on 18 September 2005. There are 73 courts including taluka court. In the Nashik Municipal Corporation area about 225 MT of solid waste is generated per day. Unlike other Indian cities, this garbage is collected by vehicles titled'Ghantagadi': a system which has resulted in a Smaller versions of the ghantagadi ply in the congested old city areas.
A plant has been set by the Nashik Municipal Corporation near Pandav Leni to process the garbage and convert into compost. Nashik is the fifth largest city in Maharashtra in terms of population after Mumbai, Pune and Thane. According to the Census of India, 2011, Nashik had a population of 1,486,053. Males constitute 782,517 of the population and females 703,536. Metropolitan Nashik population was 1,561,809 in which 821,921 were males and 739,888 were females. Nashik city had an average literacy rate of 89.85%: male literacy was 93.40%, female literacy was 85.92%. The sex ratio is 894 per 1000 males for Nashik city. Child sex ratio is 865 girls per 1000 boys. In Nashik, 11.42% of the population is under 6 years of age. In census year 2001 the Nashik Urban Agglomeration had a population of 11,52,326, thus it was the fourth largest urban area of Maharashtra State after Mumbai and Nagpur. The projected population of Nashik urban agglomeration as on 11 November 2012 is 15,62,769. In February 2016, The Statue of Ahimsa, a 108 ft idol of first Jain tirthankara Rishabhdev carved in monolithic stone was consecrated at Mangi Tungi.
It is recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as the tallest Jain idol in the world. The Pandavleni Caves, or Nasik caves, are a group of 24 caves carved between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE, representing the Hinayana Buddhist caves and. Most of the caves are Viharas except for the 18th cave, a Chaitya; the location of the caves is located about 8 km south of Nashik. Gangapur Dam is on the river Godavari near Gangawadi village and it is earthen dam, Nashik. Chankapur dam, on the Girna river is one of the big dams built by the British in the 19th century, it is 3 km from 60 km from Nashik. Kashypi Dam is on the Kashypi river near Nashik. Girna Dam is an earthfill type of dam on river Girna near Nashik District. Darna Dam is a gravity dam on Darna river near Nashik district; the culture of the city of Nashik, in northwestern Maharashtra, is centred around Hindu customs and festivals, the Jain Statue of Ahimsa. The Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Allahabad and Maha Kumbh takes place every twelve years at four places in Allahabad, Haridwar and Nashik.
According to the Puranas, it is believed that Kumbh derives its name from an immortal pot of nectar, which the devtas and demons fought over. The four places where the nectar fell are at the banks of river Godavari in Nashik, river Kshipra in Ujjain, river Ganges in Haridwar and at Triveni Sangam of Ganga and invisible Saraswati River in Allahabad. In early 1925, the table grape revolution was started in Ojhar, a small town near Nashik, by Raosaheb Jairam Krishna Gaikwad. Today, table grapes are exported to Europe, the Middle East, Asia; the average Kharip crop area is 663,200 hectares while the average Rabbi crop area is 136500 hectares. The sown area is 658,763 hectares and the forest land is 340,000 hectares; the uncultivable area is 23,000 hectares. The Nashik Municipal Corporation has made it mandatory for new constructions in the city to install a rainwater harvesting system without which a completion certificate is not granted; this measure is expected to help recharge the
The Brindavan Gardens is a garden located in the Mandya District of the Indian State of Karnataka. It lies adjoining the Krishnarajasagara dam, built across the river Kaveri; the work on laying out this garden was started in the year 1927 and completed in 1932. Visited by close to 2 million tourists per year, the garden is one of the major attractions of Srirangapatna; the garden is maintained by a Government of Karnataka enterprise. It is spread across an area of 60 acres. Adjoining it is a fruit orchard spread across 75 acres and 2 horticultural farms and Chandravana; the garden is laid out in 3 terraces which contain water fountains, Ficus trees, foliage plants such as Duranta plumaria and Euphorbia and flowering plants like Celosia and bougainvillea. The garden is open to the public and an entry-fee is charged; the garden has topiary works and gazebos. The main attraction of the park is the musical fountain in which bursts of water are synchronised to the music of songs. There is a lake within the garden with boating facilities available for visitors.
The garden was renovated in 2005 with a cost of Rs. 50 million. The renovation included sprucing up the musical fountain using a digitised system and repairs of dysfunctional fountains. In 2007, the Gardens were closed for a brief duration as a safety measure to avoid trouble related to the Kaveri water dispute. In the year 2003-2004, the gate collection was Rs. 2.07 crores, which increased to Rs 2.69 crores in 2004-05 and Rs 4.3 crores in 2005-06. This revenue is shared between Cauvery Niravari Nigam and Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation in the ratio 3:1
Dvārakā known as Dvāravatī is a sacred historic city in Hinduism, Jainismand Buddhism. The name Dvaraka is said to have been given to the place by Bhagwan Krishna, a major deity in Hinduism. Dvaraka is one of the Sapta Puri of Hinduism. In the Mahabharata, it was a city located in what is now Dwarka called Kushasthali, the fort of which had to be repaired by the Yadavas. In this epic, the city is described as a capital of the Anarta Kingdom. According to the Harivamsa the city was located in the region of the Sindhu Kingdom. In the Hindu epics and the Puranas, Dvaraka is called Dvaravati and is one of seven Tirtha sites for spiritual liberation; the other six are Mathura, Kashi, Kanchipuram and Puri. In Harivamsa, Dvaraka is described as built on "submerged land", "released by the ocean"; the city was the former "sporting ground of the King Raivataka" called "Dvāravāti", which "was squared like a chess board". Nearby was the mountain range Raivataka, "the living place of the gods"; the city was measured by Brahmins.
It was built by Vishwakarman in one day "mentally". It had surrounding walls with four main gates, its houses were arranged in lines and the city had "high buildings" "made in gold", which "almost touched the sky" and "could be seen everywhere like clouds". It had a temple area with a palace for Krishna himself, it was a rich city and "the only city on earth, studded with gems". The following description of Dvaraka during Krishna’s presence there appears in the Bhagavata Purana in connection with the sage Narada’s visit; the City was filled with the sounds of birds and bees flying about the parks and pleasure gardens, while its lakes, crowded with blooming indivara, kahlara and utpala lotuses, resounded with the calls of swans and cranes. Dvaraka boasted 900,000 royal palaces, all constructed with crystal and silver and splendorously decorated with huge emeralds. Inside these palaces, the furnishings were bedecked with gold and jewels. Traffic moved along a well laid-out system of boulevards, roads and marketplaces, many assembly houses and temples of demigods graced the charming city.
The roads, commercial streets, residential patios were all sprinkled with water and shaded from the sun’s heat by banners waving from flagpoles. In the city of Dvaraka was a beautiful private quarter worshiped by the planetary rulers; this district, where the demigod Vishvakarma had shown all his divine skill, was the residential area of Lord Hari, thus it was gorgeously decorated by the sixteen thousand palaces of Lord Krishna’s queens. Narada Muni entered one of these immense palaces. Supporting the palace were coral pillars decoratively inlaid with vaidurya gems. Sapphires bedecked the walls, the floors glowed with perpetual brilliance. In that palace Tvashta had arranged canopies with hanging strands of pearls. In attendance were many well-dressed maidservants bearing lockets on their necks, armor-clad guards with turbans, fine uniforms, jeweled earrings; the glow of numerous jewel-studded lamps dispelled all darkness in the palace. My dear king, on the ornate ridges of the roof danced loudly crying peacocks, who saw the fragrant aguru incense escaping through the holes of the latticed windows and mistook it for a cloud.
Pandu's sons lived in Dwaraka during their exile to woods. Their servants headed by Indrasena lived there for one year. Bala Rama mentioned about a sacrificial fire of Dwaraka, before he set for his pilgrimage over Sarasvati River. One should proceed with subdued senses and regulated diet to Dwaravati, where by bathing in "the holy place called Pindaraka", one obtaineth the fruit of the gift of gold in abundance. King Nriga, in consequence of a single fault of his, had to dwell for a long time at Dwaravati, Krishna became the cause of his rescue from that miserable plight.. Sage Durvasa resided at Dwaravati for a long time. Arjuna visited Dwaravati during his military campaign after the Kurukshetra War; when the Pandavas retire from the world they visit the place where Dvaraka once used to be and see the city submerged under water. During 1983-1990, the Marine Archaeology Unit of India's National Institute of Oceanography carried out underwater excavations at Dwarka and Bet Dwarka. According to S. R. Rao "The available archaeological evidence from onshore and offshore excavations confirms the existence of a city-state with a couple of satellite towns in 1500 B.
C." He considered it reasonable to conclude that this submerged city is the Dvaraka as described in the Mahabharata. In the Mausala Parva of the Mahabaratha, Arjuna witnesses the submergence of Dvaraka and describes it as follows: Marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat Dvaravati sila Kamboja-Dvaravati Route Lost lands S. R. Rao. "Further excavations of the submerged city of Dwarka". Recent Advances in Marine Archaeology: Proceedings of the second Indian Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, January 1990. Marine Archaeology. National Institute Of Oceanography. Pp. 51–59. Shikaripur Ranganatha Rao; the lost city of Dvārakā. Aditya Prakashan
Pulakeshin II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi. During his reign, the Chalukya kingdom expanded to cover most of the Deccan region in peninsular India. A son of the Chalukya king Kirttivarman I, Pulakeshin overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne, he suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. The Alupas and the Gangas of Talakad recognized his suzerainty, he consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. His Aihole inscription credits him with subjugating the Latas, the Malavas, the Gurjaras in the north; the most notable military achievement of Pulakeshin was his victory over the powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana, whose failure to conquer the Chalukya kingdom is attested by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. In the east, Pulakeshin subjugated the rulers of Dakshina Kalinga. After defeating the Vishnukundina ruler, he appointed his brother Vishnu-vardhana as the governor of eastern Deccan.
Pulakeshin achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was defeated, killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I. Pulakeshin was a Vaishnavite, but was tolerant of other faiths, including Shaivism and Jainism, he patronized several scholars, including Ravikirtti. Two variants of Pulakeshin's name appear in the Chalukya records: Polekeshin. "Ereya" appears to have been another of his names: the Peddavaduguru inscription calls him "Ereyatiyadigal", the Bijapur-Mumbai inscription mentions the variant "Eraja". Historian K. V. Ramesh theorizes. Satyashraya, a hereditary biruda of Pulakeshin, was used as a substitute for his name in the dynasty's records, he was the dynasty's most celebrated ruler, because of which the subsequent rulers called their dynasty Satyashraya-kula. The imperial titles of Pulakeshin include Maharajadhiraja. Besides, he used the family epithets Shri-prithvi-vallabha and Shri-vallabha. Pulakeshin assumed the title Parameshvara after defeating Harsha, as attested by his Bijapur-Mumbai inscription.
The Chinese traveler Xuanzang calls him Pu-lo-ki-she. The Persian historian Al-Tabari calls him Paramesa or Pharmis a Persian transcription of his title Parameshvara. Pulakeshin was a son of the Chalukya king Kirttivarman I; when Kirttivarman died, Pulakeshin appears to have been a minor, as Kirttivarman's younger brother Mangalesha became the next king. The inscriptions of the Chalukyas of Kalyani, who claimed descent from the Chalukyas of Vatapi, state that Mangalesha "took upon himself the burden of administration" because Pulakeshin was a minor. However, these inscriptions wrongly claim that Mangalesha returned the kingdom to Pulakeshin when Pulakeshin grew up, praising the Chalukya lineage for such exemplary behaviour; this claim is contradicted by Pulakeshin's own Aihole inscription, appears to be a late attempt to gloss over Pulakeshin's overthrow of Mangalesha. The exact details of the conflict between these two men are unclear, because the Aihole inscription describes it in a rather enigmatic way.
It is possible that Mangalesha ruled as a regent, but decided to usurp the throne. According to the Aihole inscription, Mangalesha was envious of Pulakeshin, because Pulakeshin was a favourite of Lakshmi. Therefore, decided to go into exile. Subsequently, Mangalesha became weak "on all sides" as Pulakeshin applied his "gifts of good counsel and energy". Mangalesha had to abandon three things simultaneously: his attempt to secure the throne for his own son, his kingdom, his own life; the above description suggests that when Pulakeshin became an adult, Mangalesha rejected his claim to the throne and appointed his own son as the heir apparent. Pulakeshin went into exile; the undated Peddavaduguru inscription records Pulakeshin's grant of the Elpattu Simbhige village after his subjugation of Ranavikrama. According to one theory, this Ranavikrama was Mangalesha, who bore the title "Ranavikrama", and, defeated by Mangalesha in a battle fought at Elpattu Simbhige. However, another theory identifies Ranavikrama as a Bana king.
Pulakeshin's Hyderabad inscription is dated 613 CE, was issued during the third year of his reign, which suggests that he must have ascended the throne in c. 610–611 CE. The exact year of his ascension is debated among modern scholars; the 610–611 CE Goa grant inscription, which refers to an unnamed Chalukya overlord titled Shri-prithvi-vallabha Maharaja, was issued during the reign of Pulakeshin's predecessor Mangalesha. It is dated to the Shaka year 532: assuming it was issued after 532 years of the Shaka era had expired, the date of issue was 4 January 611 CE. However, if we assume that it was issued when the 532rd year of the Shaka era was current, it can be dated to 5 July 610 CE. Based on this inscription, the end of Mangalesha's reign is variously dated to 610 CE or 611 CE; the matter is complicated by the Maruturu inscription, dated to Pulakeshin's 8th regnal year, was issued on the occasion of a solar eclipse on the new moon day of the Jyeshtha