The Chemehuevi are an indigenous people of the Great Basin. They are the southernmost branch of Southern Paiute. Today, Chemehuevi people are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Colorado River Indian Tribes Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation Morongo Band of Mission Indians Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of CaliforniaSome Chemehuevi are part of the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, which members are Sovovatum or Soboba band members of Cahuilla and Luiseño people. "Chemehuevi" has multiple interpretations. It is considered to either be a Mojave term meaning "those; the Chemehuevi call themselves Nüwüwü or Tantáwats, meaning "Southern Men." Their language, Chemehuevi, is a Colorado River Numic language, in the Numic language branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. First transcribed by John P. Harrington and Carobeth Laird in the early 20th century, it was studied in the 1970s by linguist Margaret L. Press.
Whose field notes and extensive sound recordings remain available. The language is now near extinction. In 2015, the Siwavaats Junior College in Havasu Lake, was established to teach children the language. A Chemehuevi dictionary with 2,500 words was expected to become available in 2016; the Chemehuevi were a desert tribe among the Southern Paiute group. Post-contact, they lived in the eastern Mojave Desert and Cottonwood Island in Nevada and the Chemehuevi Valley along the Colorado River in California, they were a nomadic people living in small groups given the sparse resources available in the desert environment. Carobeth Laird indicates their traditional territory spanned the High Desert from the Colorado River on the east to the Tehachapi Mountains on the west and from the Las Vegas area and Death Valley on the north to the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in the south, they are most identified as among the Great Basin Indians. Among others they are cousins of the Kawaiisu; the most comprehensive collection of Chemehuevi history and mythology was gathered by Carobeth Laird and her second husband, George Laird, one of the last Chemehuevi to have been raised in the traditional culture.
Carobeth Laird, a linguist and ethnographer, wrote a comprehensive account of the culture and language as George Laird remembered it, published their collaborative efforts in her 1976 The Chemehuevis, the first – and, to date, only – ethnography of the Chemehuevi traditional culture. Describing the Chemehuevi as she knew them, presenting the texture of traditional life amongst the people, Carobeth Laird writes: The Chemehuevi character is made up of polarities which are complementary rather than contradictory, they are capable of silence. They are conservative to a degree, yet insatiably curious and ready to inquire into and to adopt new ways: to visit all tribes, whether friends or enemies. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the combined 1770 population of the Chemehuevi and Kawaiisu as 1,500; the combined estimate in 1910 dropped to 500. An Indian agent reported the Chemehuevi population in 1875 to be 350.
Kroeber estimated U. S. census data put the Chemehuevi population in 1910 as 355. Population as of 2016 is in the 1000s. Howaits Kauyaichits Mokwats Moviats Palonies Shivawach Tümplsagavatsits Yagats Chemehuevi traditional narratives Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Clemmer, Richard O. and Omer C. Stewart. 1986. "Treaties and Claims". In Great Basin, edited by Warren L. d'Azevedo, pp. 525–557. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Grant, Bruce. 2000. Concise Encyclopedia of the American Indian. 3rd ed. Wings Books, New York. Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Laird, Carobeth. 1976. The Chemehuevis. Malki Museum Press, California. Leland, Joy. 1986. "Population". In Great Basin, edited by Warren L. d'Azevedo, pp. 608–619. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Official Colorado River Indian Tribes website Official Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation website — in San Bernardino County, California
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior. Away from tectonic plate boundaries, it is about 25–30 °C/km of depth near the surface in most of the world. Speaking, geo-thermal refers to the Earth but the concept may be applied to other planets; the Earth's internal heat comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion, heat produced through radioactive decay, latent heat from core crystallization, heat from other sources. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, uranium-235, thorium-232. At the center of the planet, the temperature may be up to 7,000 K and the pressure could reach 360 GPa; because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists believe that early in Earth history, before isotopes with short half-lives had been depleted, Earth's heat production would have been much higher. Heat production was twice that of present-day at 3 billion years ago, resulting in larger temperature gradients within the Earth, larger rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics, allowing the production of igneous rocks such as komatiites that are no longer formed.
Temperature within the Earth increases with depth. Viscous or molten rock at temperatures between 650 to 1,200 °C are found at the margins of tectonic plates, increasing the geothermal gradient in the vicinity, but only the outer core is postulated to exist in a molten or fluid state, the temperature at the Earth's inner core/outer core boundary, around 3,500 kilometres deep, is estimated to be 5650 ± 600 Kelvin; the heat content of the Earth is 1031 joules. Much of the heat is created by decay of radioactive elements. An estimated 45 to 90 percent of the heat escaping from the Earth originates from radioactive decay of elements located in the mantle. Gravitational potential energy released during the accretion of the Earth. Heat released during differentiation. Latent heat released as the liquid outer core crystallizes at the inner core boundary. Heat may be generated by tidal forces on the Earth; the resulting earth tides dissipate energy in Earth's interior as heat. There is no reputable science to suggest that any significant heat may be created by the Earth's magnetic field, as suggested by some contemporary folk theories.
In Earth's continental crust, the decay of natural radioactive isotopes makes a significant contribution to geothermal heat production. The continental crust is abundant in lower density minerals but contains significant concentrations of heavier lithophilic minerals such as uranium; because of this, it holds the most concentrated global reservoir of radioactive elements found in the Earth. In layers closer to Earth's surface occurring isotopes are enriched in the granite and basaltic rocks; these high levels of radioactive elements are excluded from the Earth's mantle due to their inability to substitute in mantle minerals and consequent enrichment in melts during mantle melting processes. The mantle is made up of high density minerals with higher concentrations of elements that have small atomic radii such as magnesium and calcium; the geothermal gradient is steeper in the lithosphere than in the mantle because the mantle transports heat by convection, leading to a geothermal gradient, determined by the mantle adiabat, rather than by the conductive heat transfer processes that predominate in the lithosphere, which acts as a thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle.
Heat flows from its sources within the Earth to the surface. Total heat loss from the Earth is estimated at 44.2 TW. Mean heat flow is 101 mW/m2 over oceanic crust; this is 0.087 watt/square meter on average, but is much more concentrated in areas where the lithosphere is thin, such as along mid-ocean ridges and near mantle plumes. The Earth's crust acts as a thick insulating blanket which must be pierced by fluid conduits in order to release the heat underneath. More of the heat in the Earth is lost through plate tectonics, by mantle upwelling associated with mid-ocean ridges; the final major mode of heat loss is by conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs in the oceans due to the crust there being much thinner and younger than under the continents. The heat of the Earth is replenished by radioactive decay at a rate of 30 TW; the global geothermal flow rates are more than twice the rate of human energy consumption from all primary sources. Heat from Earth's interior can be used as an energy source, known as geothermal energy.
The geothermal gradient has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient Roman times, more for generating electricity. As the human population continues to grow, so does energy use and the correlating environmental impacts that are consistent with global primary sources of energy; this has caused a growing interest in finding sources of energy that are renewable and have reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In areas of high geothermal energy density, current technology allows for the generation of electrical power because of the corresponding high temperatures. Generating electrical power from geothermal resources requires no fuel while providing true baseload energy at a reliability rate that exceeds 90%. In order to extract geothermal energy, it is necessary to efficiently transfer heat from a
Parowan is a city in and the county seat of Iron County, United States. The population was 2,790 at the 2010 census, in 2016 the estimated population was 2,986. Parowan became the first incorporated city in Iron County in 1851. A fort, constructed on the east side of Center Creek the previous year was an initial hub in the development of ironworks in the region. Parowan served as the agricultural support base for the local iron industry, whose blast furnace was located in nearby Cedar City; the ironworks were decommissioned. Despite occasional successes, the mission failed to produce a consistent and sustained supply of pig iron. By 1858, most of the area's mining operations had ceased due to disappointing yields. Today, the area's chief industries are tourism. Parowan sits at the mouth of Parowan Canyon. A distinct red-top mountain known as Valentine Peak overlooks the valley and is used as a common landmark for the city. Interstate 15 runs along the northwest edge of the city, with access from Exits 75 and 78.
I-15 leads north 58 miles to Cove Fort and Interstate 70, southwest 19 miles to Cedar City. Utah State Route 143 leads south up Parowan Canyon 16 miles to Cedar Breaks National Monument. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.6 square miles, all of it land. Fremont culture and Anasazi people were the first known inhabitants of Parowan. Petroglyphs, arrowheads and manos dating from A. D. 750 to 1250 found in the area are evidence that it was on a major thoroughfare of early indigenous peoples. At Parowan Gap, a mountain pass 10 miles northwest of Parowan, ancient people inscribed petroglyphs on smooth-surfaced boulders that feature snakes, mouse-men, bear claws, mountain sheep; the Old Spanish Trail passed through the area. Parowan was founded on January 13, 1851, twelve months after Parley P. Pratt and members of his exploring party discovered the Little Salt Lake Valley and nearby deposits of iron ore. On January 8, 1850, Pratt had raised a liberty pole at Heap's Spring and dedicated the site as "The City of Little Salt Lake".
Based on Pratt's exploration report, Brigham Young called for the establishment of settlements in the area to produce much-needed iron implements for the pioneer state. Mormon apostle George A. Smith was appointed to head the establishment of this "Iron Mission" in 1850; the first company of 120 men, 31 women, 18 children braved winter weather traveling south from Provo during December. They sometimes built roads and bridges as they traveled, they reached Center Creek on January 13, 1851. After enduring two bitterly cold nights, they moved across the creek and circled their wagons by Heap's Spring and Pratt's liberty pole, seeking the protection of the hills. Within days, the settlement organization was completed: companies of men were dispatched to build a road up the canyon, a town site was surveyed and laid into lots, a fort and a log council house were begun; the council house was used as church, schoolhouse and community recreation center for many years. In 1861 construction was begun on a large church building to stand in the center of the public square.
The pioneers envisioned a building of three stories, built from the abundant yellow sandstone and massive timbers in nearby canyons. Known as the "Old Rock Church", the building was completed in 1867 and served as a place of worship, town council hall, school building, social hall, tourist camp. In 1939 it was restored through the efforts of the Daughters of Utah Pioneers and a Parowan-sponsored WPA project, it is now a museum of Parowan's early history. Parowan has been called the "Mother Town of the Southwest" because of the many pioneers who left from there to start other communities in southern Utah, Arizona and Oregon and Wyoming. In its first year, colonists were asked to settle Johnson Fort, now Enoch, where a stockade was built, were sent to settle along Coal Creek, site of the settlement to manufacture iron which became Cedar City. Parowan's first settlers were instructed to plant crops so that following immigrants could open up the coal and iron ore deposits, but local industries were developed.
Self-sufficiency was envisioned, local industries included a tannery, cotton mill, factories for making saddles and harnesses and cabinets, guns. In the early 1900s sheep and dairy industries were well established. Local farms were noted for their quality Rambouillet sheep, the Southern Utah Dairy Company, a cooperative venture begun in 1900, produced dairy products and was known for its "Pardale Cheese"; the first attempts at iron manufacturing were unsuccessful, but mining in the twentieth century brought prosperity to Iron County. When the closure of the mines and the completion of Interstate 15 threatened economic depression in the early 1980s, Parowan citizens developed an economic plan to keep the community viable. Businesses now support Brian Head, a year-round resort 12 miles south of town featuring downhill and cross-country skiing in the winter and numerous summer mountain activities. Significant growth has occurred in the 1990s in Parowan. Parowan is the site of the annual Iron County Fair on Labor Day weekend.
In 1993 the city began development of Heritage Park. This site includes a park, a grotto and pond, statues commemorating the founders of Parowan
Kanosh is a town in Millard County, United States. The population was 487 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.9 square miles, all of it land. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kanosh has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 485 people, 165 households, 130 families residing in the town. The population density was 569.8 people per square mile. There were 214 housing units at an average density of 251.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.88% White, 1.03% Native American, 2.68% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.71% of the population. There were 165 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.2% were non-families.
20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.43. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.4% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 17.1% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,411, the median income for a family was $36,583. Males had a median income of $30,556 versus $21,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,346. About 9.6% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Chief Kanosh began a small farm in this area before the arrival of the Mormons in Utah, his band of the Pahvants were based in this vicinity.
In 1859, Peter Robison and Peter Boyce began the aptly named settlement of Petersburg. This was not far from the current site of Kanosh; the town of Kanosh dates back to April 28, 1867 when Brigham Young, with the approval of Chief Kanosh, advised the pioneers to move from Petersburg to the area known as the campground of the Pahvant band of the Ute Tribe. When this move took place there were 100 pioneers and 500 Native Americans living here. At that time the Chief Kanosh and many of his tribe were baptized members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Mortimer Wilson Warner, a local pioneer, is credited with having suggested that the town be named Kanosh in honor of the wise tribal chief. Chief Kanosh, was the leader of the Pahvant Utes from the 1850s until the time of his death. According to Mormon records, he was the son of Wah Goots; the Pahvant band ranged the deserts surrounding Sevier Lake. With the intrusion of whites into this area, Kanosh struggled to insure the hegemony and survival of his people through negotiation rather than conflict.
Kanosh was settled by Mormon pioneers and Chief Kanosh himself became an early convert to the faith. It is thought that Kanosh's willingness to work with non-Utes came out of his experiences working in the Spanish missions in California. Whether that work was voluntary or part of the long-standing slave trade of Indians into the Spanish settlements is not known; the physical characteristics of Kanosh and others of the "Bearded Utes", as Silvestre Vélez de Escalante had called the Pahvants in the 1770s, suggest generations of contact with the Spaniards. Kanosh spoke Spanish and seems to have had a facility for languages, as he easily picked up English. Over time, the Kanosh tribe dwindled both due to difficulty in adapting to a farming culture from a hunter-gathering culture and in intermarriage with the local settlers. Though many of the natives were deeded farmland, most chose to abandon the lifestyle and accept a government offer to move into the Uinta reservation where they would receive economic assistance.
However, the Pahvants at Corn Creek, a settlement established near Kanosh, continued to farm. Surrounding Mormon settlers gave them some assistance, and although Kanosh was involved in the negotiations of the 1865 Spanish Fork treaty in which Utes agreed to move to the Uinta Basin and his group continued at Corn Creek until a grasshopper invasion in 1868 destroyed most of their crops. Kanosh and his people did not always remain in the Uinta Basin. Though Chief Kanosh still has a headstone in an honored location of the city cemetery, it was not until 1929 that the U. S. Government granted official recognition of the tribe and deeded them a small reserve near their ancestral lands at Corn Creek; those few tribal members that remain today have now been fully assimilated into the local culture shaped by agriculture and the Mormon faith. The Kanosh surname is quite common in the area, including among female descendents who retain it as a middle name; some of Kanosh's descendents have earned university degrees and returned from successful careers elsewhere to contribute to a comeback in the local economy.
The town of Kanosh was organized as a ward of the Fillmore Stake in 1877. The population of the Kanosh precinct was 565 in 1930. Kanosh was adversely affected by atomic testing in the Nevada desert in the late 1950s a
Daniel Marc Snyder is a businessman, the majority owner of the Washington Redskins American football team, founder of Snyder Communications and primary investor in Red Zebra Broadcasting, home to the Redskins Radio ESPN. Snyder was born on November 23, 1964 in Maryland, the son of Arlette and Gerald Seymour "Gerry" Snyder, his family is Jewish. His father was a freelance writer who wrote for United Press National Geographic, he attended Hillandale Elementary School in Maryland. At age 12, he moved to a small town near London, where he attended private school. At age 14, he lived with his grandmother in Queens, New York. A year his family moved back to Maryland and he graduated from Charles W. Woodward High School in Rockville, Maryland, his first job was at B. Dalton bookstore in the White Flint Mall. At 17, Snyder experienced his first business failure when he partnered with his father to sell bus-trip packages to Washington Capitals fans to see their hockey team play in Philadelphia. By age 20, he had dropped out of the University of Maryland, College Park and was running his own business, leasing jets to fly college students to spring break in Fort Lauderdale and the Caribbean.
Snyder claims to have cleared US$1 million running the business out of his parents' bedroom with a friend and several telephone lines. Snyder courted real estate entrepreneur Mortimer Zuckerman, whose US News & World Report was interested in the college market and who agreed to finance his push to publish Campus USA, a magazine for college students. Zuckerman and Fred Drasner, co-publisher of Zuckerman's New York Daily News, invested $3 million in Campus USA; the venture was forced to close after two years. In 1989, Snyder and his sister Michele founded a wallboard advertising company with seed money from his father, who took a second mortgage on his property in England, his sister, who maxed out her credit cards at $35,000, they concentrated on wallboards in doctors' colleges. They married the advertisement with the distribution of product samples — such as soaps and packages of medicine – to differentiate themselves from their competitors; the company was named Snyder Communications LP. The business was a great success and Snyder and his sister grew the business organically and through acquisitions and expanded its activities to all aspects of outsourced marketing, including direct marketing, database marketing, proprietary product sampling, sponsored information display in prime locations, call centers, field sales.
They expanded their geography from colleges and doctors' offices to hospital maternity areas, private daycare centers, Fixed Based Operations, or private aircraft lounges in major airports throughout the country. In 1992, the company expanded into telemarketing with a focus on the yet untapped immigrant market. Snyder Communications revenues rose from $2.7 million in 1991 to $4.1 million in 1992 and $9 million in 1993. Proprietary product sampling was introduced in 1992 through their network of private daycare centers. In an initial public offering for SNC in September 1996, Daniel Snyder became the youngest CEO of a New York Stock Exchange listed company at the age of 32. Snyder's top investors, including media mogul Barry Diller, New York investor Dan Lufkin, Democratic Party icon Robert Strauss, earned significant returns on their initial investment. Mortimer Zuckerman and Fred Drasner, whom Snyder owed $3 million from the failure of his first business venture, were given company stock, which ended up being worth over $500 million.
His parents sold their stock in the company for over $60 million. He continued to expand the company aggressively through a string of acquisitions, including Arnold Communications in 1997. By 1998, the company had over $1 billion in annual revenues. In April 2000, Snyder Communications was sold to the French advertising and marketing services group Havas in an all-stock transaction valued at in excess of US$2 billion, the largest transaction in the history of the advertising/market industry. Snyder's personal share of the proceeds was estimated to be US$300 million. In May 1999, Snyder purchased the Redskins and Jack Kent Cooke Stadium for $800 million following the death of previous owner Jack Kent Cooke. At the time, it was the most expensive transaction in sporting history; the deal was financed through borrowed money, including $340 million borrowed from Société Générale and $155 million debt assumed on the stadium. Annual loan servicing costs are an estimated $50 million. In order to pay down the team's debt, in 2003 he sold 15% of the team to real estate developer Dwight Schar for $200 million, 15% to Florida financier Robert Rothman for a like amount.
Since Snyder became owner, the Redskins' annual revenue increased from more than $100 million a year when Snyder took over the team in 1999 to around $245 million. As of 2014, the Redskins are the third highest grossing team in the National Football League behind the Dallas Cowboys, who are the team's biggest on-field rivals, the New England Patriots; this is in part due to sponsorship arrangements with Anheuser-Busch, Coca-Cola, Sprint, but due to a $207 million deal with FedEx to gain naming rights to the Redskins' stadium, now named FedExField. As of 2017, Snyder serves on six National Football League committees, including appointments to the Broadcast Committee, the Business Ventures Committee, the Digital Media