Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Orbost railway line
The Orbost railway line is a closed railway line serving the Latrobe Valley and Gippsland regions of Victoria, Australia. It ran east from the state capital Melbourne through the cities of Moe, Traralgon and Bairnsdale until reaching the eventual terminus at Orbost. Today the line ends at Bairnsdale, with the remaining section to Orbost now existing as the East Gippsland Rail Trail, a shared bicycle and horseriding track. Metro Trains Melbourne operates suburban passenger services along the inner section of the line as the Pakenham line, while V/Line services operate as the Traralgon and the Bairnsdale lines. Freight services use the line, operated by Qube Holdings. Rail lines were built to Gippsland in the 1870s and played a crucial role in developing agricultural industries in Gippsland as well as tourism, it played a crucial role in the development of coal mining in the Latrobe Valley in the 1920s. At its peak, the railway travelled as far east as Orbost, there are still frequent services to many of the towns.
Some of the disused rail lines have been turned into tourist railways and/or rail trails. The Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company opened a line from Princes Bridge railway station to Punt Road and South Yarra in 1859, Prahran in 1859 and Windsor in 1860, connecting with the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company line; this line was extended to Dandenong, Warragul, Morwell, Sale and Bairnsdale between 1877 and 1879. It was extended to Orbost in 1916; the railway to Orbost opened in 1916 and operated until 1987, principally carrying timber and farming produce. In the early days of the railway's operation, dedicated passenger trains ran, but these ceased by the 1930s; the track infrastructure was dismantled in 1994. The line traversed a mixture of farmland and heavily-forested country, it included numerous bridges, including the Stoney Creek Trestle Bridge, the largest of its kind in Victoria. In 1954, the line beyond Dandenong was electrified because of the expected briquette traffic from the brown coal mines in the Latrobe Valley, over the next two years most of the line between Dandenong and Pakenham was duplicated and provided with power signalling, although Narre Warren to Berwick was not done until 1962.
In due course, the rail transport of briquettes petered out as industry converted to natural gas and homes were converted to other forms of heating. Electrification was cut back to Warragul in 1987, with suburban-style trains providing the services from there to Melbourne. Electrification was further cut back to Bunyip in 1998, before ceasing beyond Pakenham in 2001; the line east of Sale was closed in 1994, but was reopened to Bairnsdale in 2004. In 2005, the Regional Fast Rail project upgraded one of the two lines between Pakenham and Traralgon; this project included removing the remaining electrification infrastructure from Pakenham East to Traralgon, with the exception of a heritage-listed length in Bunyip. A branch line was built north from Warragul in stages from the 1890s, reaching Noojee in 1919; this was closed in stages from 1954 to 1958. The 762 mm narrow gauge Walhalla branch line was completed across mountainous country from Moe to Erica and Walhalla in 1910; the Platina to Walhalla section closed in 1944, Erica to Platina in 1952, Moe to Erica in 1954.
The northern-most section between Thomson and Walhalla stations has been reopened as a tourist railway by the Walhalla Goldfields Railway, provides scheduled trains. A branch line was opened from Moe to Thorpdale in 1888, closed in 1958; the Yallourn branch was opened from Hernes Oak to Yallourn in 1922 to serve the adjacent power station development. It was replaced by a line from Moe to Yallourn in 1953 because its route was required for brown coal mining, but the new line closed in 1987, having been disused since the late 1970s; the Mirboo North branch line was opened in stages from Morwell to Mirboo North between 1885 and 1886. The route of the line was dug up as part of the Hazelwood open cut mine; the Maryvale paper siding connects to the main line at Morwell and remains open today for regular freight traffic. The loop line via Maffra was opened from Traralgon to Heyfield and Stratford in 1887 and closed in stages between 1987 and 1993. A branch line was opened from Maffra to Briagolong in 1889 and closed in 1952.
Several timber tramways existed from many of the stations between Pakenham and Yarragon. The expansion of the railway in the late 1870s helped to develop Gippsland, it enabled milk from western Gippsland to be sold fresh into Melbourne while the dairy industry of East Gippsland provided cheese and butter. It enabled development of west Gippsland's market gardening and orcharding industry for sale in Melbourne markets, it encouraged the development of a tourism industry notably at Lakes Entrance. It did, end coastal shipping traffic and the use of Sale and Bairnsdale as ports. In the 1920s, the Gippsland railway played an important role in developing the mining of lignite coal and the development of the Latrobe Valley for power generation serving Melbourne and Victoria; this saw the development of industry in towns such as Yallourn, Traralgon, Moe and Drouin. The development of the Gippsland Railway helped fuel the Melbourne land boom in the 1870s; the original departure point for the railway was Oakleigh with the line connecting Oakleigh and Melbourne not built until 1879.
The Victorian Railways bought land in Oakleigh for use as workshops. Oakleigh became a centre of what was known as "railway fever" as developers developed and marketed houses c
Melbourne City Centre
Melbourne City Centre is an area of Melbourne, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria's Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne, it is not to be confused with the larger local government area of the City of Melbourne. It is the core central activities district of Melbourne's inner suburbs and the major central business district of Greater Melbourne's metropolitan area, is a major financial centre in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region; the Hoddle Grid in the City Centre is home to Melbourne's famed alleyways and arcades and is renowned for its distinct blend of contemporary and Victorian architecture as well as expansive parks and gardens which surround its edges. The City Centre is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia. In recent times, it has been placed alongside New York City and Berlin as one of the world's great street art meccas, designated a "City of Literature" by UNESCO in its Creative Cities Network.
In April 1835, John Batman, a prominent grazier and a member of the Geelong and Dutigalla Association, sailed from Launceston on the island of Van Diemen's Land, aboard the schooner Rebecca, in search of fresh grazing land in the south-east of the Colony of New South Wales. He sailed across Bass Strait, into the bay of Port Phillip, arrived at the mouth of the Yarra River in May. After exploring the surrounding area, he met with the elders of the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wurundjeri of the Kulin nation alliance, negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres which became known as Batman's Treaty; the transaction, believed to have taken place on the bank of Merri Creek, consisted of an offering of: blankets, mirrors and other such items. The last sentence of Batman's journal entry on this day became famous as the founding charter of the settlement. So the boat went up the large river. And, I am glad to state about six miles up found the river all good water and deep; this will be the place for a village.
— Journal of John Batman. Upon returning to Van Diemen's Land, Batman's treaty was deemed invalid by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, under the Proclamation of Governor Bourke in August 1835, it was the belief of Governor Bourke, as well as the Governor of Van Diemen's Land, Sir George Arthur, that the Aboriginal people did not have any official claims to the lands of the Australian continent. The proclamation formally declared, under the doctrine of terra nullius, that The Crown owned the whole of the Australian continent and that only it alone could sell and distribute land, it therefore voided any contracts or treaties made without the consent of the government, declared any person attempting to rely on such a treaty to be trespassing. However, at the time the proclamation was being drawn up, a prominent businessman from Van Diemen's Land, John Pascoe Fawkner, had funded an expedition to the area. At the same time, the Port Phillip Association had funded a second expedition.
The settlement party aboard the Enterprize entered the Yarra River, anchored close to the site chosen by Batman, on 29 August. The party went ashore the following day and landed their stores and began to construct the settlement; the Association party aboard the Rebecca arrived in September after spending time at a temporary camp at Indented Head, where they encountered William Buckley – an escaped convict, believed dead, living for 32 years with the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wathaurong of the Kulin nation alliance. Batman was dismayed to discover the settlers of the Enterprize had established a settlement in the area and informed the settlers that they were trespassing on the Association's land. However, according to the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, both the parties were in fact trespassing on Crown land; when Fawkner arrived in October, following tense arguments between the two parties, negotiation were made for land to be shared equally. As Fawkner had arrived after the two parties, he was aware of the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, which had gained approval from the Colonial Office in October.
He knew. Land was divided, the settlement existed peacefully, but without a formal system of governance, it was referred to by a number of names, including: "Batmania" and "Bearbrass" of which the latter was agreed upon by Batman and Fawkner. Fawkner assumed a leading role in the establishment of Bearbrass; the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Charles Grant, recognised the settlement's fait accompli that same year, authorised Governor Bourke to transfer Bearbrass to a Crown settlement. Batman and the Port Phillip Association were compensated £7,000 for the land. And, in March 1837, it was renamed "Melbourne" by Governor Bourke in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb; the City Centre is bordered by
A double-track railway involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track. In the earliest days of railways in the United Kingdom, most lines were built as double-track because of the difficulty of co-ordinating operations before the invention of the telegraph; the lines tended to be busy enough to be beyond the capacity of a single track. In the early days the Board of Trade did not consider any single-track railway line to be complete. In the earliest days of railways in the United States most lines were built as single-track for reasons of cost, inefficient timetable working systems were used to prevent head-on collisions on single lines; this improved with the development of the train order system. In any given country, rail traffic runs to one side of a double-track line, not always the same side as road traffic, thus in Belgium, France, Sweden and Italy for example, the railways use left-hand running, while the roads use right-hand running.
In Switzerland, the Lausanne Metro and railways at the Germany border area use RHT as well as all tram systems. The Semmering Railway in Austria uses LHT while most of the country is RHT. In countries such as Indonesia, it is the reverse. In Spain, where roads are RHT, metro systems in Madrid and Bilbao use LHT. In Sweden, the tram systems in Gothenburg, Norrköping and Stockholm are RHT; the railroads use LHT in general. In the Ukraine, some sections of Kryvyi Rih Metrotram use LHT due to tramcars have doors only on right side, which makes it impossible to use RHT at stations with island platforms. On the French-German border, for example, flyovers were provided so that trains moving on the left in France end up on the right in Germany and vice versa. Handedness of traffic can affect locomotive design. For the driver, visibility is good from both sides of the driving cab so the choice on which side to site the driver is less important. For example, the French SNCF Class BB 7200 is designed for using the left-hand track and therefore uses LHD.
When the design was modified for use in the Netherlands as NS Class 1600, the driving cab was not redesigned, keeping the driver on the left despite the fact that trains use the right-hand track in the Netherlands. The left/right principle in a country is followed on double track. On single track, when trains meet, the train that shall not stop uses the straight path in the turnout, which can be left or right. Double-track railways older ones, may use each track in one direction; this arrangement simplifies the signalling systems where the signalling is mechanical. Where the signals and points or rail switches are power-operated, it can be worthwhile to signal each line in both directions, so that the double line becomes a pair of single lines; this allows trains to use one track where the other track is out of service due to track maintenance work, or a train failure, or for a fast train to overtake a slow train. Most crossing loops are not regarded as double-track though they consist of multiple tracks.
If the crossing loop is long enough to hold several trains, to allow opposing trains to cross without slowing down or stopping that may be regarded as double-track. A more modern British term for such a layout is an extended loop; the distance between the track centres makes a difference in cost and performance of a double-track line. The track centres can be as narrow and as cheap as possible, but maintenance must be done on the side. Signals for bi-directional working cannot be mounted between the tracks so must be mounted on the'wrong' side of the line or on expensive signal bridges. For standard gauge tracks the distance may be 4 metres or less. Track centres are wider on high speed lines, as pressure waves knock each other as high-speed trains pass. Track centres are usually wider on sharp curves, the length and width of trains is contingent on the minimum railway curve radius of the railway. Increasing width of track centres of 6 metres or more makes it much easier to mount signals and overhead wiring structures.
Wide centres at major bridges can have military value. It makes it harder for rogue ships and barges knocking out both bridges in the same accident. Railway lines in desert areas affected by sand dunes are sometimes built on alternate routes so that if one is covered by sand, the other are still serviceable. If the standard track centre is changed, it can take a long time for most or all tracks to be brought into line. On British lines, the space between the two running rails of a single railway track is called the "four foot", while the space between the different tracks is called the "six foot", it is not safe to stand in the gap between the tracks when trains pass by on both lines, as happened in the Bere Ferrers accident of 1917. Narrow track centres on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway contributed to a fatal accident on opening day. A US naval scientist and submarine pioneer, Captain Jacques, was killed getting out of the wrong side of a train at Hadley Wood in 1916. Narrow track centres contribute to "Second Train Coming" accidents at level crossings since it is harder to see the second train – for example, the accident at Elsenham level crossing
The Siemens Nexas is a class of electric multiple units manufactured by Siemens Transportation Systems for the suburban railway network of Melbourne, Australia between 2002 and 2005. The design of the trains was based on the Siemens Modular Metro. In March 2000 M>Train ordered 62 Siemens Nexas trains to fulfill a franchise commitment to replace its fleet of Hitachi trains. The original order was with an option for an additional ten 3-car sets. In December 2002 just before the first was delivered, National Express handed the M>Train franchise back to the Government of Victoria, thus the first Siemens Nexas' were delivered to the government. All passed to Connex Melbourne in April 2004; the option for ten additional trains was exercised in August 2005, with the last of these delivered in January 2006. Siemens Rail Services was contracted to provide maintenance of the trains for a period of 15 years at Newport Workshops. With the refranchising of the network to Metro Trains Melbourne in 2009, this maintenance arrangement was retained for an initial three-year period.
The first entered service on 21 March 2003 with the last delivered in January 2006. In December 2014, Siemens Nexas 831M-2566T -832M with a reduced seating layout added extra hand rails layout at the doors. In late 2006 the trains suffered a number of braking discrepancies while in service; the 15 units involved in these overshoots were withdrawn from service for checks, instructions were issued to the drivers to minimise further occurrences. By mid-January 2007, a total of 24 three-carriage trains had been impounded for testing after 20 further incidents of over-running stations since 22 December 2006. On 13 January 2007, Connex stopped running the Siemens Nexas trains as 3-car sets until the braking issue was resolved, with the result that all services were operated by 6-car trains. On 29 January 2007, Connex cancelled 37 peak-period services until further notice, due to the shortage of operational trains. By 1 February 2007, 38 three-car sets were withdrawn due to continuing braking failures, meaning that half of the Siemens Nexas fleet was out of revenue service.
Amidst the media reporting an escalating problem with the risk of the entire fleet having to be suspended, Siemens issued a statement on 31 January 2008 saying that they believed there had been no evidence during investigations of the braking failures that would require the entire fleet of trains to be withdrawn from service. Testing of affected trains was carried out on the Werribee line between Newport and Laverton, with soapy water sprayed onto the rails to increase the amount of wheel slip experienced, in an effort to replicate the brake fault; the entire fleet has now re-entered service, although with a restriction not to run single unit operations. In December 2008 train operator Connex commenced proceedings in the Supreme Court to claim damages from Siemens. Connex claims Siemens provided trains with a braking system, "defective and inadequate", the trains being "not fit for their purpose" and were not of "merchantable quality". In March 2009, it was reported that three Siemens Nexas trains had been impounded due to new braking incidents in the week prior.
By December 2010 sanding equipment was trialled on set 773M-2537T-774M in order to improve braking performance of the trains, by February 2011 a number of in-service trains had been fitted with the equipment. The sand boxes are fitted to the middle two bogies of each 3-car set. In June 2011 installation of sanding equipment was completed across the entire fleet. Speed restrictions have now been lifted on all Siemens Nexas trains. In September 2011 the Office of the Chief Investigator for transport safety found that “the high frequency of overruns involving Nexas trains was neither the result of individual train defects nor any deficiency in train maintenance”; the bodies of the Siemens Modular Metro trains evolved from the 1993 DT2 Series used in the Nuremberg U-Bahn whose design in turn came from production of the A Series built for the nearby Munich U-Bahn, but now used in Nuremberg. The version of Siemens metro train designed for Melbourne included several attributes similar to existing Melbourne suburban electric trains such as being single-deck and operating in M-T-M sets of three carriages, where the motor cars each have an overhead pantograph, two of these 3-car sets are coupled together to form a 6-carriage train when run in revenue service, though a single set may be run when demand does not merit a full train.
All were built by Siemens Transportation Systems, Vienna with the final fitout completed at Newport Workshops. There are several notable differences between the Siemens Nexas trains and other trains which operate in Melbourne; these include: 2+2 seating. All other trains had 2+3 seating, however X'Trapolis 100 trains ordered as part of the 2008 Victorian Government Transport Plans have the same 2+2 seating configuration, existing X'Trapolis trains had their seats modified to a 2+2 configuration as part of the franchise agreement. Two doors per carriage per side. Being wider they were theorised to be more efficient in loading and unloading passengers, although this is disputed by some sources, who believe the fewer doors lead to longer platform dwell times compared to the three smaller doors in other Melbourne trains. Plug-type doors - hinged outward and slide along the outside of the vehicle when opening. Extreme smooth, vertical walls. Open articulation. Passengers can move from carriage to carriage, within a 3-carriage set, without opening doors, the first such train with this configurati