Kaivopuisto, or in spoken language, Kaivari or Brunsan, is one of the oldest and best known parks in central Helsinki, a neighbourhood of about 500 inhabitants where the park is located. To the south, Kaivopuisto borders the Gulf of Finland. To the north is a residential area containing the official private residences of several ambassadors of foreign countries to Finland, including the United States, Spain, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom. Kaivopuisto offers several hectares of parks, both on flat ground, on cliffs; the park includes traces of stone fortifications built in the 18th century. Every summer, thousands of Helsinkians come to Kaivopuisto to sunbathe, to have picnics, or to hold sport; the largest hill in the park is a favoured slope for tobogganing during the winter. The height of Kaivopuisto's popularity is on Vappu day after the preceding Walpurgis Night celebrations in the city centre. On Vappu, Kaivopuisto is packed with tens of thousands of Helsinkians, who come to have a picnic with their friends and families.
Fanciful costumes, loud music, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is the routine for a Vappu picnic. It is customary for all attendants who have graduated from the Finnish matriculation exam to wear their student caps at the picnic. A yellowed student cap is taken as a sign of prestige. Since the mid-1970s, it has been common to hold a few concerts in the park during the summer, with classical music, but more pop and rock music, featuring Finnish artists. Kaivopuisto includes Kaivohuone, a famous restaurant and nightclub dating from the 1830s, the Ursa Observatory, the Villa Kleineh, the oldest villa in the area
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Antero Vartia is a Finnish politician and former actor representing the Green League. He was elected to the Parliament of Finland in the parliamentary election in 2015, he was a candidate in the 2014 European Parliament election. Vartia is known from the Finnish soap opera Salatut elämät, he co-hosted the Finnish version of the Australian documentary series Find My Family. Vartia's mother is from Iceland, thus Vartia has dual citizenship of Finland and Iceland
Western major district of Helsinki
Läntinen suurpiiri is one of the seven major districts of Helsinki, Finland. It covers five subdistricts: Reijola, Haaga, Pitäjänmäki and Kaarela; as of 2005, western major district has 98,545 inhabitants living in an area of 30.4 km2. Each of the five districts has several subareas: Reijola district Laakso Ruskeasuo Meilahti Munkkiniemi district Niemenmäki Munkkivuori Talinranta Vanha Munkkiniemi Kuusisaari Lehtisaari Haaga district Etelä-Haaga Kivihaka Pohjois-Haaga Lassila Pitäjänmäki district Tali Pajamäki Pitäjänmäen teollisuusalue Reimarla Marttila Konala Kaarela district Kannelmäki Malminkartano Maununneva Hakuninmaa
Sub-regions of Finland
Finland is divided into 70 sub-regional units. The sub-regions are formed by groups of municipalities within the 19 regions of Finland; the sub-regions represent a LAU 1 level of division used in conjunction with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics. Eastern Lapland Kemi-Tornio sub-region Northern Lapland Rovaniemi sub-region Torne Valley Tunturi Lapland, i.e. Fell Lapland Koillismaa Nivala-Haapajärvi sub-region Oulu sub-region Oulunkaari Raahe sub-region Siikalatva sub-region Ylivieska sub-region Kajaani sub-region Kehys-Kainuu Central Karelia Joensuu sub-region Pielinen Karelia Inner Savonia Kuopio sub-region North Eastern Savonia Upper Savonia Varkaus sub-region Mikkeli sub-region Pieksämäki sub-region Savonlinna sub-region Järviseutu Kuusiokunnat Seinäjoki sub-region Suupohja Sydösterbotten Jakobstad sub-region Kyrönmaa Vaasa sub-region North Western Pirkanmaa South Western Pirkanmaa Southern Pirkanmaa Tampere sub-region Upper Pirkanmaa Northern Satakunta Pori sub-region Rauma sub-region Kaustinen sub-region Kokkola sub-region Äänekoski sub-region Jämsä sub-region Joutsa sub-region Jyväskylä sub-region Keuruu sub-region Saarijärvi-Viitasaari sub-region Loimaa sub-region Salo sub-region Turku sub-region Vakka-Suomi Åboland Imatra sub-region Lappeenranta sub-region Lahti sub-region Forssa sub-region Hämeenlinna sub-region Riihimäki sub-region Helsinki sub-region Loviisa sub-region Porvoo sub-region Raseborg sub-region Kotka-Hamina sub-region Kouvola sub-region Archipelago Countryside Mariehamn sub-region Media related to Sub-regions of Finland at Wikimedia Commons
Kari Hotakainen is a Finnish writer. Hotakainen started his writing career as a reporter in Pori. In 1986, he moved to Helsinki, he became a full-time writer in 1996. He has two children with his wife, sound technician Tarja Laaksonen, whom he married in 1983, he has worked as a copywriter and as a columnist for the Helsingin Sanomat. His father, Keijo Hotakainen, worked as a storekeeper and photographer while his mother, Meeri Ala-Kuusisto, worked as a sales clerk. Kari Hotakainen passed his matriculation examination in 1976 and graduated from Rautalampi High School the same year, he has a Bachelor of Arts. Hotakainen kicked off his career as an author in the beginning of the 1980s by writing poetry, his debut collection Harmittavat takaiskut was published in 1982. From poetry, Hotakainen moved on to writing books for children and young adults and on to writing novels for adults. Before he started writing full-time, Hotakainen worked as a news reporter, in the advertising department of WSOY, etc.
Hotakainen’s breakthrough came when he was nominated for the 1997 Finlandia Prize, for his semi-autobiographical work titled Klassikko. In 2002, Hotakainen received the Finlandia Prize for his book titled Juoksuhaudantie published the same year. On, the book was turned into a movie with the same name. In 2004, Hotakainen received the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the same book. In 2006, he received the Nordic Drama Award for his play Punahukka. Hotakainen has written children's plays, radio dramas, newspaper columns and the scripts for a 10-part TV series titled Tummien vesien tulkit. Hotakainen was injured in a car accident on 3 March 2012. Buster Keaton: elämä ja teot Bronks Syntisäkki Pariskunta, pukki ja pieni mies Klassikko Sydänkohtauksia, eli kuinka tehtiin Kummisetä Juoksuhaudantie – Finlandia Prize winner 2002 Iisakin kirkko Huolimattomat – nominated for the Finlandia Prize 2006. Ihmisen osa Harmittavat takaiskut Kuka pelkää mustaa miestä Hot Runokirja Kalikkakasa, kootut runot Lastenkirja Ritva Näytän hyvältä ilman paitaa Satukirja Puutteellinen Hurmaus Keihäänheittäjä Tulisuihku Sitten kun kaikki on ohi Hukassa on hyvä paikka Sydänkohtauksia Punahukka Tummien vesien tulkit Kari Hotakainen, Iisakin kirkko, WSOY, Juva 2004 Ismo Loivamaa, Kotimaisia nykykertojia 1-2, BTJ Kirjastopalvelu, Helsinki 2003 "Uudet Kirjat, WSOY:n kirjakerho."
28 December 2002. Archived from the original on 28 December 2002. Retrieved 31 January 2018. "Kari Hotakainen - Tuotanto Oy Säihky". 29 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2018. Kari Hotakainen on IMDb Kari Hotakainen at WSOY Presentation on the Nordic Council's Literature Prize site
Arto Kalervo Bryggare is a Finnish former hurdling athlete. He was a member of the Parliament of Finland, representing the Social Democratic Party of Finland from 1995 to 1999 and 2003 to 2007, his personal best time 13.35, made during trials in 1984 Los Angeles Games, is still the record time in Finland and in Nordic countries. Bryggare made Finnish history by becoming the first Finn to medal in a sprint event shorter than 400 metres. Undoubtedly, Arto was the finest Finnish high hurdler winning medals in every major championship he competed. In 1977, at only 18 years of age, he took the bronze over 60m hurdles at the European Indoor Championships and that year he became European Junior champion at 110m hurdles. After such start that rocketed him to the European hurdling elite, he continued to improve and next year he was for the first time amongst the top ten high-hurdlers in the World with a time of 13.56 secs, which earned him bronze medal at the European Championships held in Prague. Bryggare began 1979 finishing second at European Indoors beaten only by the best European high-hurdler in 70's, Thomas Munkelt from East Germany.
At 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow, Arto advanced in the final of 110mh, but was unable to produce fast time and finished far from medals at 6th place. He continued improving and started 1981 with winning his first European Indoor title when he was winner over 50m hurdles at championships held in Grenoble. Next year he showed some consistency when competing at his second European Championships at Athens where he again finished at bronze medal position and again behind Munkelt, cementing his position in high-hurdling elite. After becoming a real medal threat at the European level, Arto decided to get better and pick some major medals, he couldn't have better chance for that feat because inaugural World Championships were held on his home soil, at Helsinki in 1983. Bryggare was in fine form at championships setting new personal best prior to the final and in the final he finished close second, beaten only by great Greg Foster from USA. At the 1983 World lists, Arto was at fourth place with 13.44s reached at semi-finals at Helsinki.
Encouraged with that, he travelled to 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles as possible medal chance at 110mh. However the U. S. team consisted of three great high-hurdlers and Arto had to be at his best to win an Olympic medal. He started bravely setting new personal best in a time of 13.35s in the heats and advanced to the final. In the final, he didn't produce another PB, but finished at 3rd place, grabbing the bronze medal behind Kingdom and Foster, in another great time of 13.40secs. After he reached the only medal he missed, Arto continued to compete for a several more years and picked more medals, his third successive medal at the Europeans came in 1986, in Stuttgart, where he finished at second place taking the silver and at the European Indoor Championships held in 1987 in Lieven, he was the winner over 60m hurdles beating rising star, Colin Jackson from Great Britain. That year he tried to repeat his medal performance at the World Championships in Rome where he qualified for the final, but was unable to start the race while he injured himself in his semi-final.
Following that, Bryggare competed for several more seasons without success he enjoyed in previous years. Bryggare attended the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, which features a distinguished track program, he started his international career as a 20-year-old newcomer in the 1978 European Championships in Prague winning bronze by just 2/100 seconds. This started a chain of victories still unique for a Finnish hurdler, he ended his hurdling career in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, where he considered having been as a "tourist". 1Did not start in the final Official website