A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
The term narcotic referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex; the primary three are morphine and thebaine. Speaking, the term "narcotic" is imprecisely defined and has negative connotations; when used in a legal context in the U. S. a narcotic drug is one, prohibited, such as heroin, or one, used in violation of governmental regulation. In the medical community, the term is more defined and does not carry the same negative connotations. Statutory classification of a drug as a narcotic increases the penalties for violation of drug control statutes. For example, although federal law classifies both cocaine and amphetamines as "Schedule II" drugs, the penalty for possession of cocaine is greater than the penalty for possession of amphetamines because cocaine, unlike amphetamines, is classified as a narcotic.
The adoption of this Convention is regarded as a milestone in the history of international drug ban. The Single Convention codified all existing multilateral treaties on drug control and extended the existing control systems to include the cultivation of plants that were grown as the raw material of narcotic drugs; the principal objectives of the Convention are to limit the possession, trade, import, export and production of drugs to medical and scientific purposes, to address drug trafficking through international cooperation to deter and discourage drug traffickers. The Convention established the International Narcotics Control Board, merging the Permanent Central Board and the Drug Supervisory Board; the 1961 Convention seeks to control more than 116 drugs. These include: plant-based products such as opium and its derivatives morphine and heroin; the Convention divides drugs into four groups, or schedules, in order to enforce a greater or lesser degree of control for the various substances and compounds.
Opium smoking and eating, coca leaf chewing, cannabis resin smoking and the non-medical use of cannabis are prohibited. The 1972 Protocol to this Convention calls for increased efforts to prevent illicit production of, traffic in and use of narcotics as defined by the Convention, while highlighting the need to provide treatment and rehabilitation services to drug abusers; this document contains the current list of narcotic drugs under international control and additional information to assist governments in filling in the International Narcotics Control Board questionnaires related to narcotic drugs, form A, form B and form C. In medicine, a chemical agent that induces coma, or insensibility to pain. In the context of international drug control, “narcotic drug” means any drug defined as such under the 1961 Convention. 4. Assessment of the definitions of counterfeit medicines in Member States 4.2 The nature of legal definitions: the unambiguity requirement In order to avoid room for difference in interpretation, lawmakers sometimes deviate from etymological definitions.
In doing so, they approach the term from the law enforcement point of view. The best example is the definition of narcotics in the United Nations Conventions. Narcotics are substances and preparations that induce drowsiness, stupor, etc. and that these effects are complicated to prove, e.g. during litigation. Thus, the legal definition of a narcotic is whether or not it is listed on the Schedules of the Convention. If it is on some of the Schedules, it is narcotic; the term refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In common parlance and legal usage, it is used imprecisely to mean illicit drugs, irrespective of their pharmacology. For example, narcotics control legislation in Canada, USA, certain other countries includes cocaine and cannabis as well as opioids; because of this variation in usage, the term is best replaced by one with a more specific meaning. Section 1300.01 Definitions relating to controlled substances: As used in parts 1301 through 1308 and part 1312 of this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings specified: The term narcotic drug means any of the following whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis: Opium, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, ethers and salts of isomers and ethers whenever the existence of such isomers, esters and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation.
Such term does not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. Poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw. Coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed. Cocaine, its salts and geometric isomers, salts of isomers. Ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts and salts of isomers. Any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the
Law enforcement in Pakistan
Law enforcement in Pakistan is one of the three main components of the criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside the courts and the prisons. In Pakistan, law enforcement is jointly carried out by the federal and provincial police services and other law enforcement agencies who form a chain leading from investigation of suspected criminal activity to administration of criminal punishment; the court system is vested with the power to make legal determinations regarding the conduct of the other two components. Operated through the four provincial governments and the Islamabad Capital Territory, each police service has a jurisdiction extending only within the relevant province or territory. Apart from investigating crime scenes, criminal acts, suspected unlawful activities, detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action, the law enforcement agencies perform duties that include the service and enforcement of warrants and other orders of the courts; the law enforcement agencies are involved in providing first response to emergencies and other threats to public safety as well as protecting the infrastructure and maintaining order in the country.
At the federal level there are a number of law enforcement agencies including the Federal Investigation Agency, Federal Board of Revenue, Intelligence Bureau, Anti Narcotics Force, National Counter Terrorism Authority, the National Highways and Motorway Police and the Railways Police. The four provinces each have their own police services such as the Punjab Police, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police, Sindh Police, Balochistan Police; the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police services are supported by paramilitary units such as the Frontier Constabulary and Frontier Corps. Each police force has a Commissioner of Police appointed as Inspector-General, the most senior officers from the Police Service of Pakistan— a component of the Central Superior Services of Pakistan. Airports Security Force, Prompts safety of Civil Aviation through development of legal framework, procedures and human resources to prevent/respond to acts of unlawful interference within airport premises. Director General: Maj Gen Sohail Ahmad Khan HI Deputy Director General: Brigadier Imran Ul Haq SI.
Anti-Narcotics Force, A Federal Executive bureau of the Government of Pakistan, tasked with combating the narcotics smuggling and use within Pakistan. Director General: Major General Nasir Dilawar Shah Federal Investigation Agency, A border control, counter-intelligence and security agency under the Ministry of Interior of Pakistan, tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations against terrorism, federal crimes, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific crimes. Director General: Bashir Memon, PSP Frontier Constabulary, is a paramilitary police force responsible for maintaining law and order in Pakistan and dealing with Situations out of the capabilities of Normal Police Force of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it was Founded in the British Indian Empire in 1913, it was named after the former North-West Frontier Province. Commandant: Moazzam Jah Ansari, CFC/ IGFC National Crises Management Cell is a primary domestic intelligence and management institution, operational under the Ministry of Interior Government of Pakistan.
Its other activities involve building efforts towards counter-intelligence, counter-proliferation, counter-insurgency as well as assisting the Government at all levels of commands, in managing intelligence. In Punjab it retains a Special Surveillance Unit, headed by a Director Pb. Director General: Tariq Lodhi PSP Director Islamabad: Dr. Tariq Ishaque PSP Director: Kashif Lali Pb National Highways and Motorway Police, NH&MP is a police force in Pakistan, responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws and recovery on Pakistan's National Highways and Motorway network; the NH&MP use SUVs, cars and heavy motorbikes for patrolling purposes and uses speed cameras for enforcing speed limits. Inspector General: Allah Dino Khawaja, PSP National Police Academy, a training centre for the senior officers of civilian police agencies Commandant: Amjad Javed Saleemi Pakistan Coast Guard, a paramilitary force operating along the coast of Pakistan Pakistan Railways Police, operating on the railway system of Pakistan Inspector General: Munir Chishti Pakistan Customs, operating on the Airports and Seaports of Pakistan.
Directorate General of Intelligence and Investigation - FBR. Gilgit Baltistan Scouts, a paramilitary force operating along the northern cities of Pakistan Pakistan Rangers, a paramilitary force operating along the eastern provinces and borders of Pakistan Frontier Corps, a paramilitary force operating along the western provinces and borders of Pakistan Balochistan Police, 38,000 strong operating in the Balochistan province. - Inspector General: Moazzam Jah Ansari Balochistan Constabulary, a reserve police unit of Balochistan police consisting of more than 10000 personnel. Balochistan Levies, a paramilitary police force of 23,000 personal operating in 23 of Balochistan's 30 districts. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police - Inspector General: Salah-Ud-Din Khan MehsudReserve Frontier Police, a 10,000 man force operating in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Khasadar Forces: Tribal security operating throughout the former FATA, now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Note that the Levies and Khasadar will now fall under the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police.
Punjab Police, operating in the Punjab province - Inspector General: M. Tahir Police Qaumi Razakars:aid the Punjab police in their duties. Punjab Prisons - Inspector General: Kokab Nadeem Warraich Sindh Police, operating in the Sindh province - Inspector General
The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. It came into its modern existence from the Royal Indian Navy that ceased to exist following the partition of British India through a parliamentary act that established the independence of Pakistan from the United Kingdom on 14 August 1947, its primary objective and mission statement is to ensure the defense of sealines of communications of Pakistan and safeguarding the maritime interests by executing national policies through the exercise of military effect and humanitarian activities in support of these objectives. In addition to its war service, the Navy has mobilized its war assets to oversee to conduct the humanitarian rescue operations at home as well as taking participation in multinational task forces mandated by the United Nations to prevent seaborne terrorism and privacy off the coasts; the Pakistan Navy is a volunteer force, in in conflict with neighboring India twice on its sea borders, has been deployed in Indian Ocean to act as a military advisory in the Arab states and other friendly nations during the events of multinational conflict as part of its commitment to the United Nations.
Overall manpower strength in the Navy is supported by the various branches within the Navy, including the Aviation and the Maritime Security Agency– the coast guard branch within the Navy. Since its commencement on 14 August 1947, the defensive role of the Navy has expanded from securing the sealines and becoming the custodian of Pakistan's second strike capability with an ability to launch underwater missile system to target enemy positions; the Constitution of Pakistan establishes the role of the President of Pakistan as an elected civilian Commander-in-Chief, the Navy is commanded by the appointed Chief of Naval Staff, by statue a four-star rank admiral, a senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is appointed by the Prime Minister and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Pakistan Navy is in command under Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi, in this command position on appointed on 7 October 2017. Existence and its constitutional role is protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role to serves as naval-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
In the Chapter 2: Armed Forces in the PartXII: Miscellaneous codified the mission and purpose of the army as alongside with the other parts of the Armed Forces as such: The Constitution of Pakistan establishes the principal land warfare uniform branch in the Pakistan Armed Forces as its states: The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so Today is a historic day for Pakistan, doubly so for those of us in the Navy. The Dominion of Pakistan has come into being and with it a new Navy – the Royal Pakistan Navy – has been born. I am proud to have been appointed to serve with you at this time. In the coming months, it will be my duty and yours to build up our Navy into a happy and efficient force The Pakistan Navy came into its modern existence on the Fourteenth of August in 1947 from the Royal Indian Navy with the establishment of Pakistan as an independent state from the United Kingdom.
The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee under British Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck divided the shares and assets of the Royal Indian Navy between the India and Pakistan with ratio of 2:1, as Pakistan receiving the assets of two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two naval trawlers, four harbour launches. The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee allocated about the two-thirds of the assets of the Royal Indian Navy to the India while one third was given to Pakistan despite Pakistan having inherited the high percentage of delta areas on its coast and the large maritime area covering the Arabian sea on West and the Bay of Bengal on East. In addition, India objected to transfer any machinery at the Bombay Dockyard to Pakistan and further refused to part the machinery that happened to be on its soil. Due to the absence of the Constitution, the Ministry of Defense ran under the government act of 1935 with British monarchy overseeing the armed forces development, leading the Pakistan Navy to fall under the Royal patronage until the Constitution was promulgated that established the Navy as a federal institution in 1956.
The Navy endured a difficult history— with only 200 officers and 3,000 sailors were inherited to the Navy– the most senior being Captain HMS Choudri who had little experience in the military staffing. Of the ~200 officers, twenty of these had come from the Executive Branch of the Royal Indian Navy, only six officers were the mechanical engineers while there were none electrical engineers or specialists to care for the electrical systems needed to be look after in the weapons systems or the powering up the machinery in the vessels as whole; the Navy suffered perennial problems with inadequate staff, lack of operational bases, lack of financial support, poor technological and personnel resources. Secondly, it grew out as the smallest military uniform branch that contributed in its lack of importance in federal budgets as well as the problems relating to its institutional infrastructure; the Army and the Air Force were the dominant forces where the defense planning were based wholly on army and air force point of view.
Additional problems relating to the Navy were the lack of facilities and maintenance machinery, as the only naval dockyard on the subcontinent was located in Bombay in India. To overcome these difficulties, the Navy had to launch a recruitment program for the young nation, starting in
The Bell 206 is a family of two-bladed, single- and twin-engined helicopters, manufactured by Bell Helicopter at its Mirabel, plant. Developed as the Bell YOH-4 for the United States Army's Light Observation Helicopter program, it was not selected by the Army. Bell redesigned the airframe and marketed the aircraft commercially as the five-place Bell 206A JetRanger; the new design was selected by the Army as the OH-58 Kiowa. Bell developed a seven-place LongRanger, offered with a twin-engined option as the TwinRanger, while Tridair Helicopters offers a similar conversion of the LongRanger called the Gemini ST; the ICAO-assigned model designation "B06" is used on flight plans for the JetRanger and LongRanger, the designation "B06T" is used for the twin-engined TwinRangers. On October 14, 1960, the United States Navy solicited responses from 25 aircraft manufacturers to a request for proposals on behalf of the Army for the Light Observation Helicopter. Bell entered the competition along with 12 other manufacturers, including Hiller Aircraft and Hughes Tool Co.
Aircraft Division. Bell submitted the D-250 design, which would be designated as the YHO-4. On May 19, 1961, Bell and Hiller were announced as winners of the design competition. Bell developed the D-250 design into the Bell 206 aircraft, redesignated as YOH-4A in 1962, produced five prototype aircraft for the Army's test and evaluation phase; the first prototype flew on December 8, 1962. The YOH-4A came to be known as "The Ugly Duckling" in comparison to the other contending aircraft. Following a fly-off of the Bell and Fairchild-Hiller prototypes, the Hughes OH-6 was selected in May 1965; when the YOH-4A was eliminated by the Army, Bell went about solving the problem of marketing the aircraft. In addition to the image problem, the helicopter lacked cargo space and only provided cramped seating for the planned three passengers; the solution was a redesigned fuselage and aesthetically appealing, adding 16 ft3 of cargo space in the process. A Bell executive contributed to this redesign by drawing on a sketch two lines extending the fuselage to where it meets the tail.
The redesign was designated Bell 206A, Bell President Edwin J. Ducayet named it the JetRanger, denoting an evolution from the popular Model 47J Ranger. On January 24, 2008, Bell Helicopter announced plans to end production of the Bell 206B-3 version after current order commitments were fulfilled in 2010 In 2011, used 206B-3s sold for around $1.4 million depending upon the equipment and configuration. Bell intends for the Bell 505 Jet Ranger X to replace the 206 five-seat versions from around 2015 and compete with the Robinson R66; the 206L LongRanger is a stretched variant with seating for seven. The fuselage, stretched a total of 30 inches, adds two rear-facing seats between the front and rear seats. Since 1975, Bell has produced more than 1,700 LongRangers across all variant types. In 1981, a military version, the 206L TexasRanger was released; the original 206L used an Allison 250-C20B engine, a series of model upgrades replaced this engine with more powerful versions. In both applications, the 250-C30P is derated from 650 hp for takeoff and 501 hp continuous.
The 206L-3 is transmission-limited to 435 hp for take-off, the 206L-4 is transmission-limited to 495 hp. The derating of the C30P produces an advantage in hot-day and high-altitude operations as it can produce the rated horsepower at higher altitudes and temperatures where applications that use the maximum rating of the engine at sea level suffer accelerated performance deterioration with increases in temperature and altitude; the 206L-3 and L-4 have not been offered in a twin configuration under those model designations. In 2007, Bell announced an upgrade program for the 206L-1 and 206L-3, designed to modify the aircraft to the 206L-4 configuration. Modifications include strengthened airframe structural components, improved transmission, upgraded engine for the L-1, all of which result in a maximum gross weight increase of 300 pounds and increased performance; as of 2018, production of the 206L-4 is ongoing. The TwinRanger name dates from the mid-1980s when Bell developed the Bell 400 TwinRanger, but it never entered production.
In 1989, Tridair Helicopters began developing a twin-engine conversion of the LongRanger, the Gemini ST. The prototype's first flight was on January 16, 1991, while full FAA certification was awarded in November. Certification covers the conversion of LongRanger L-3s and L-4s to Gemini ST configuration. In mid-1994 the Gemini ST was certificated as the first Single/Twin aircraft, allowing it to operate either as a single or twin engine aircraft throughout all phases of flight; the Bell 206LT TwinRanger was a new-build production model equivalent to Tridair's Gemini ST, was based on the 206L-4. Thirteen 206LTs were built, the first being delivered in January 1994, the last in 1997; the TwinRanger was replaced in Bell's lineup by the mostly-new Bell 427. The first Bell 206A flew on January 10, 1966, the aircraft was revealed that month at the Helicopter Association of America convention. On October 20, 1966, the JetRanger received FAA certification. Delivery of the JetRanger to customers began on January 13, 1967, with the first aircraft being purchased by Harry Holly, CEO of the Hollymatic Corporation and previous owner of a Bell Ranger.
In 1968, the United States Navy selected the 206A as the TH-57 Sea Ranger. The Army eventually selected the 206A for a light observation helicopter as the OH-58 Kiowa; the basic shape and design of the JetRang
The term brown-water navy or riverine warfare refers in its broadest sense to any naval force capable of military operations in river or littoral environments those carrying heavy sediment loads from soil runoff or flooding. It originated in the United States Navy during the American Civil War, when it referred to Union forces patrolling the muddy Mississippi River, has since been used to describe the small gunboats and patrol boats used in rivers, along with the larger "mother ships" that supported them; these mother ships include converted LSTs, among other vessels. Brown-water navies are contrasted with seaworthy blue-water navies, which can independently conduct operations in open ocean. Green-water navies are the bridge between blue-water navies. After losing its blue-water fleet in the Battle of Copenhagen, the kingdom of Denmark-Norway built a brown-water navy; the partial successes of the resulting Gunboat War were undone by land invasion. The term brown-water navy originated in the American Civil War, of 1861–1865.
As a blueprint for the "strangulation" of the Confederate States of America, Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan called for a two-pronged approach by first blocking the South's harbors and pushing along the Mississippi River cutting the Confederate territory in two while robbing the South of its main artery of transport. The U. S. Navy was assigned the blockade of the seaports, while a new force of gunboats and river ironclads, together with regular army units, would take, or at least lay siege to, the Confederate forts and cities along the Mississippi. In the early days of the war, U. S. Army built and crewed these boats, with the naval officers commanding them being the only direct connection to the U. S. Navy. By the autumn of 1862, the boats and their mission were transferred to the Department of the Navy; because of the river's murky brown water, the ships that participated in these Mississippi campaigns were referred to as the brown-water navy, as opposed to the regular U. S. Navy. After the end of the American civil war the next major military conflict in the world was the Paraguayan War.
In this the Brazilian brown-water navy, which comprised large ironclads as well as river monitors, had a crucial role. The natural highway to the Republic of Paraguay was the River Paraguay but this route was blocked by the formidable Fortress of Humaitá, it comprised a 6,000-foot line of artillery batteries overlooking a sharp concave bend in the river, at a point where the channel was only 200 yards wide. A chain boom could be raised to block the navigation; the fortress was exceedingly hard to take from the landward side for it was protected by impassible swamp, marsh or lagoons and, where not, by 8 miles of trenches with a garrison of 18,000 men. The river was shallow and capable of trapping large vessels if the water level should fall. In that environment the greatest threat to shipping was "torpedoes". Six vessels of the Brazilian ironclad squadron succeeded in dashing past Humaitá in an incident known as the Passage of Humaitá, an event considered as nearly impossible. Although it could not operate far beyond its military forward base Brazilian domination of the river meant that Paraguay could no longer resupply the fortress, it was starved out and captured by the land forces in the Siege of Humaitá.
After Humaitá was captured − which took more than two years – the Paraguayans improvised further strongpoints along the river, further delaying the Allies. Save for an occasional river patrol boat, the United States' river ironclad navy was all but abolished at the end of the American Civil War, yet the concept of a river defense force lived on in countries and regions where rivers enabled the U. S. to project its military presence. U. S. river boats of the Asiatic Fleet operated in portions of Chinese rivers, sometimes referred to as the "Asiatic Navy" or "China Navy", during the turbulent 1920s, patrolling for insurgents and river pirates. Two of the most notable China gunboats were USS Panay, sunk in 1937 by Japanese military aircraft prior to World War II, USS Wake, captured by the Japanese in December 1941; the U. S. Navy of that era used the term for protecting U. S. foreign policy and its citizens abroad "gunboat diplomacy". The U. S. Navy, China gunboat, USS Asheville, was sunk by the Japanese in March 1942.
During the First Indochina War, the French Navy created the Dinassaut, in 1947, to operate in the waters of the Mekong and Red rivers, conducting search and destroy missions, against communist guerillas and river pirates. They succeeded the river flotillas created by the request of General Leclerc; the Dinassaut served until the end of the conflict in 1955, its concept would be latter adopted by the United States Navy in the Vietnam War. Ten Dinassauts were created, with five based in the others in Tonkin; each one was made of one Commandos Marine unit. The types of vessels operated by a Dinassaut included LCI, LCT, LCM, LCVP, LCS, LCA, LSSL and fire support vessels; the role of the Dinassaut was to transport and support the infantry, to patrol the watercourses and to assure the supply of the isolated posts. The sailors that served in the Dinassaut were referred as the "Navy in Khaki", in comparison with the sailors that served in the ocean that were referred as the "Navy in White". In Portuguese service, the
War on drugs
The war on drugs is a campaign, led by the U. S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade in the United States. The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal; the term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs". However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication and incarceration.
Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives. On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy —signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to alter drug enforcement policy, but that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive". ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe". In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."
The report was criticized by organizations. Morphine was isolated in 1805. Hypodermic syringes were first constructed in 1851. During the Civil War, wounded soldiers were treated with morphine; as a result, after the war, there were many addicted veterans. Until 1912, there had been products sold over-the-counter, such as heroin cough syrup, heroin cough syrup for children, stronger. Doctors prescribed heroin for irritable babies, insomnia, "nervous conditions," hysteria, menstrual cramps, "vapors." Millions of people became addicted. Laudanum, an opiod, was a common part of the home medicine cabinet. In fiction, Conan Doyle portrayed Sherlock Holmes, as a cocaine addict, he is rebuked by his physician. Citizens did not reach a consensus on dealing with the long-term affects of hard drug usage until towards the end of the 19th century; the first U. S. law that restricted the distribution and use of certain drugs was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. The first local laws came as early as 1860. In 1919, the United States passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale and transportation of alcohol, with exceptions for religious and medical use.
In 1920, the United States passed the National Prohibition Act, enacted to carry out the provisions in law of the 18th Amendment. During World War I many soldiers became addicts; the Federal Bureau of Narcotics was established in the United States Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14, 1930. In 1933, the federal prohibition for alcohol was repealed by passage of the 21st Amendment. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly supported the adoption of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act; the New York Times used the headline "Roosevelt Asks Narcotic War Aid". In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed. Several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, the Du Pont family; these scholars argue that with the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a cheap substitute for the paper pulp, used in the newspaper industry. These scholars believe. Mellon, United States Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested in the DuPont's new synthetic fiber and considered its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp.
However, there were circumstances. One reason for doubts about those claims is that the new decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. To produce fiber from hemp was a labor-intensive process if you include harvest and processing. Technological developments decreased the labor with hemp but not sufficient to eliminate this disadvantage. On October 27, 1970, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, among other things, categorized controlled substances based on their medicinal use and potential for addiction. In 1971, two congressmen released a report on the growing heroin epidemic among U. S. servicemen in Vietnam. Although Nixon declared "drug abuse" to be public enemy number one in 1971, the policies that his administration implemented as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 were a co