Haroon Rasheed Harry is a retired Pakistani cricketer who played in 23 Tests and 12 ODIs from 1977 to 1983. As a child he attended the Church Mission School in Karachi. Product of the Muslim Gymkhana in Karachi, he was picked up for the squad but in 1978 he was exposed of the moving ball, but Rasheed showed grit in the Jamaica Test of 1976–77 where most of the top order feared the mighty West Indian attack. Is from one of the only two families in the world, apart from the Fosters of Worcestershire, to have seven siblings play first-class cricket In 1984, Haroon quit first-class cricket and joined United Bank. In 1988 he coached United Bank U19s, went on to be national U19s selector and coach and selected Shahid Afridi who lived near him, he was asked to send replacements for the injury hit Pakistan side in Kenya where Afridi was sent & he made historical 102. Harood Rasheed escaped a hit and run attack for not selecting a player advised on a phone in 1995. Harood was pulled out of the car near a Karachi Shopping Centre by youngsters for his slow batting in the 1979 Semi Final
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
The Gatorade Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks. Gatorade is manufactured by PepsiCo and is distributed in over 80 countries; the beverage was first developed in 1965 by a team of researchers led by Robert Cade. It was made for the Gators at the University of Florida to replenish the carbohydrates that the school's student-athletes burned and the combination of water and electrolytes that they lost in sweat during rigorous sports activities. Produced and marketed by Stokely-Van Camp, the Gatorade brand was purchased by the Quaker Oats Company in 1988, which, in turn, was bought by PepsiCo in 2000; as of 2010, Gatorade is PepsiCo’s 4th-largest brand, on the basis of worldwide annual retail sales. It competes with Coca-Cola's Powerade and Vitaminwater brands worldwide, with Lucozade in the United Kingdom. Within the United States, Gatorade accounts for 75% of market share in the sports drink category.
Gatorade was created in 1965 by a team of scientists at the University of Florida College of Medicine, including Robert Cade, Dana Shires, Harry James Free, Alejandro de Quesada. Following a request from Florida Gators football head coach Ray Graves, Gatorade was created to help athletes by acting as a replacement for body fluids lost during physical exertion; the earliest versions of the beverage consisted of a mixture of water, sugar, potassium and lemon juice. Ten players on the University of Florida football team tested the first version of Gatorade during practices and games in 1965, the tests were deemed successful. On the other hand, star quarterback Steve Spurrier said, "I don’t have any answer for whether the Gatorade helped us be a better second-half team or not.... We drank it, but whether it helped us in the second half, who knows?" Nonetheless, the football team credited Gatorade as having contributed to their first Orange Bowl win over the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets in 1967, at which point the drink gained traction within the athletic community.
Yellow Jackets coach Bobby Dodd, when asked why his team lost, replied: "We didn't have Gatorade. That made the difference."The University of Florida researchers considered naming their product "Gator-Aid". They settled on the name Gatorade, since the researchers wanted to create a commercial product, not a scientifically-validated one. Darren Rovell notes his history of Gatorade, First in Thirst, "the doctors realized that they shouldn't use the'Aid' suffix, since that would mean that if the drink were marketed, they would have to prove that it had a clear medicinal use and perform clinical tests on thousands of people." Gatorade co-inventor Dana Shires explained, "We were told that you couldn't use that because the Food and Drug Administration prohibited that. That would classify it as something other than a cola or soft drink, so we changed it to ade."For example, some were skeptical that the product's effect was anything more than a placebo effect. Cade mentioned, "If you told a football player that you were giving him Demerol to relieve pain and you gave him a placebo instead, there's about a 30% chance that the placebo will relieve the pain as much as taking Demerol would have."Shortly after the 1969 Orange Bowl, Robert Cade entered into an agreement providing Stokely-Van Camp, Inc. a canned-food packaging company, with the U.
S. rights to production and sale of Gatorade as a commercial product. In the same year, a licensing arrangement made Gatorade the official sports drink of the National Football League, representing the first in a history of professional sports sponsorship for the Gatorade brand. A year after its commercial introduction, S-VC tested multiple variations of the original Gatorade recipe settling on more palatable variants in lemon-lime and orange flavors; this reformulation removed the sweetener cyclamate—which was banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 1969 - replacing it with additional fructose. In the early 1970s, legal questions arose regarding whether or not the researchers who invented Gatorade were entitled to ownership of its royalties since they had been working under a research grant from the federal government which provided financial stipends; the University of Florida claimed partial rights of ownership, brought to resolution in 1973 in the form of a settlement awarding the university with a 20% share of Gatorade royalties.
As of 2009, the university had received more than $150 million from its share and was receiving $12 million per year. The Quaker Oats Company purchased SVC and Gatorade in 1983 for $220 million, following a bidding war with rival Pillsbury. In its first two decades of production, Gatorade was sold and distributed within the United States. Beginning in the 1980s, the company expanded distribution of Gatorade, venturing into Canada in 1984, regions of Asia in 1987, South America and parts of Europe in 1988, Australia in 1993. In 1990, Gatorade introduced a lower-calorie version sweetened with saccharin. International expansion came at the cost of $20 million in 1996 alone. In 1997, distribution of Gatorade in an additional 10 countries prompted an 18.7% growth in annual sales. In 2001, the multinational food and beverage company PepsiCo acquired Gatorade's parent company, the Quaker Oats Company, for $13 billion in order to add Gatorade to its portfolio of brands. PepsiCo had recently developed All Sport, which it divested of shortly following the Quaker acquisition to satisfy antitrust regulations.
Worldwide development of Gatorade continued into the
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited known as PTCL, is the national telecommunication company in Pakistan. PTCL provides telephone and internet services nationwide and is the backbone for the country's telecommunication infrastructure despite the arrival of a dozen other telecommunication corporations, including Telenor GSM and China Mobile; the corporation manages and operates around 2000 telephone exchanges across the country, providing the largest fixed-line network. Data and backbone services such as GSM, HSPA+, CDMA, LTE, broadband internet, IPTV, wholesale are an increasing part of its business. A state-owned corporation, the share holding of Ptcl was reduced to 62%, when 26% of shares and control were sold to Etisalat Telecommunications while the remaining 12% to the general public in 2006 under an intensified privatization program under Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. However, the 62% of shares still remain under the management of government-ownership of state-owned corporations of Pakistan.
On 12th February 2019, PTCL announced that Rashid Khan would be its new CEO. Current chief executive Dr. Daniel Ritz would be stepping down from his position upon completion of his contract on March 1st. Rashid Khan will act as CEO of both PTCL, its subsidiary, Ufone effective from March 2nd. From the beginning of the Posts & Telegraph Department in 1949 and establishment of Pakistan Telephone & Telegraph Department in 1962, PTCL has been a major player in telecommunication in Pakistan. Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation took over operations and functions from Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph Department under Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Act 1991; this coincided with the Government's competitive policy, encouraging private sector participation and resulting in award of licenses for cellular, card-operated pay-phones and data communication services. Pursuing a progressive policy, the Government in 1991, announced its plans to privatize PTCL, in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would-be PTCL in two separate placements.
Each had a par value of Rs. 10 per share. These vouchers were converted into PTCL shares in mid-1996. In 1995, Pakistan Telecommunication Ordinance formed the basis for PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country; the provisions of the Ordinance were lent permanence in October 1996 through Pakistan Telecommunication Act. The same year, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock exchanges of Pakistan PTCL launched its mobile and data services subsidiaries in 2001 by the name of Ufone and PakNet respectively. None of the brands made it to the top slots in the respective competitions. However, Ufone had increased its market share in the cellular sector; the PakNet brand has dissolved over the period of time. Recent DSL services launched by PTCL reflects this by the introduction of a new brand name and operation of the service being directly supervised by PTCL; as telecommunication monopolies head towards an imminent end and infrastructure providers are set to face bigger challenges.
The post-monopoly era came with Pakistan’s Liberalization in Telecommunication in January 2003. On the Government level, a comprehensive liberalization policy for telecoms sector is in the offering. In 2005, Government of Pakistan decided to sell 26 percent of this company to some private corporation. There were three participants in the bidding process for privatization of PTCL. Etisalat, an Abu Dhabi company was able to get the shares with a large margin in the bid. Government's plan of privatizing the corporation were not welcomed in all circles, they disrupted phone lines of institutions like Punjab University Lahore along with public sector institutions were blocked. Military had to take over the management of all the exchanges in the country, they put them behind bars. The contention between Government and the employees ended with a 30% increase in the salaries of workers. PTCL is a part of the consortium of four major Submarine communication cable networks: SEA-ME-WE 3, SEA-ME-WE 4 and I-ME-WE and AAE-1.
PTCL provides its fixed line telephone services in many cities of Pakistan. Voice services used to be provided through PTCL's CDMA2000 network, broadcast over the 1900 MHz WLL frequency under the'Vfone' brand name, however the network was shut down on 31 August 2016 nationwide. Being Pakistan's largest ADSL2+ provider, PTCL provides its customers with ADSL broadband, however as demand for higher bandwidth connections has increased, PTCL is upgrading its customers to VDSL2 and FTTH GPON in a few major cities, namely Karachi, Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. Wireless options are available under the'EVO Nitro' or'CharJi Evo' brand names; the former being based on EvDo Rev A and B, the latter using LTE technology. This is done using PTCL's 1900 MHz WLL frequency, used for their Vfone CDMA2000 network. There is seamless LTE coverage in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, whereas there is coverage for EvDo Rev B in the remaining 200+ cities. Ufone GSM is a wholly owned subsidiary of PTCL, it the fourth and the smallest cellular provider in the country.
It provides both HSPA + services over the 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz bands. In September 2014, for its corporate customers, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched an exclusive WiFi service called'Managed WiFi'. In addition to these services, PTCL offers digital TV services based on DVB-IPTV with the brand name of Smart TV. PTCL users can stream live TV using the Smar
Najam Aziz Sethi is a Pakistani administrator who served as Chairman of Pakistan Cricket Board. As a journalist he is a left-leaning political commentator who serves as the editor-in-chief of The Friday Times and serves as Chairman of Pakistan Super League, he has served as the caretaker chief minister of Punjab during the 2013 election. He used to host primetime current affairs show Aapas ki Baat on Geo News, he is the President of AAP Media Media Network / Indus News. Najam Sethi began his sociopolitical endeavours with the socialist movement working for the rights of Baluchistan, leading to his arrest in 1975 before being discharged in 1978, he left politics and established Vanguard Books, a progressive book publishing company. In 1989, Sethi along with his wife Jugnu Mohsin launched an independent English weekly, The Friday Times, he was arrested by the second Nawaz Sharif government in 1999 on trumped-up charges of treason before being released by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. In 2002, he founded the Daily Times of Pakistan and became its editor until leaving in October 2009.
He served as the Pakistan correspondent of The Economist from 1990 to 2008. Sethi won the 1999 International Press Freedom Award of the US-based Committee to Protect Journalists and the 2009 World Association of Newspapers' Golden Pen of Freedom Award. On 26 March 2013, his name was approved for the interim position of the chief minister of Punjab as a result of consensus between members of the selection committee comprising individuals from both the governing and the opposing political parties, he took the oath on 27 March 2013, left the office after the May 2013 elections on 6 June 2013. According to Sethi, he first conceived of the idea for an independent Pakistani newspaper out of frustration: while imprisoned in 1984 on trumped-up copyright charges, no newspapers had protested his arrest; the following year, he and Mohsin applied for a publishing licence under Mohsin's name, since Sethi was "too notorious an offender" to be approved. Called into Nawaz Sharif's office to discuss the application, Mohsin told him that she intended to publish "a social chit chat thing, you know, with lots of pictures of parties and weddings".
It was approved in 1987, but Mohsin requested a one-year delay to avoid the first issue coming out during the dictatorship of General Zia ul Haq. The paper's first issue appeared in May 1989. In early 1999, Sethi gave an interview to a team for the British Broadcasting Corporation television show Correspondent, planning to report on corruption in the Nawaz Sharif government. At the beginning of May, he warned by contacts that his co-operation with the team was being interpreted by the Nawaz Sharif government as an attempt to destabilise it, that officials were planning Sethi's arrest. On 8 May, he was taken from his home by personnel of Punjab Police. According to Sethi's wife Mohsin, at least eight armed officers broke into the house, assaulting the family's security guards. Mohsin was left locked in another room. Sethi was held for a month without charge, he was kept incommunicado at a detention center in Lahore. Amnesty International stated its belief that his arrest was connected with his investigations into government corruption, designated him a prisoner of conscience.
The US-based Committee to Protect Journalists sent a protest letter to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, noting the organisation's dismay "that the state continues its persecution of independent journalists", World Bank president James Wolfensohn called Sharif to urge Sethi's release. On 1 June, authorities charged Sethi with "Condemnation of the Creation of the State and Advocacy of Abolition of its Sovereignty" and "Promoting Enmity Between Different Groups" and transferred him to police custody. However, the following day, the Supreme Court of Pakistan ruled that the government had provided insufficient evidence to justify Sethi's detention, he was released, the charges against him were dropped. In June 1991, Mohsin and Sethi's publishing company, Vanguard Books, released Tehmina Durrani's My Feudal Lord, a "politically explosive" book about her marriage with leading politician Mustafa Khar. In the book, Durrani alleges that Khar abused her, it was an "instant sensation" and became the "hottest book in Pakistan's history".
Durrani signed a contract vesting foreign rights with Mohsin and giving her 50% of foreign royalties. On 19 May 1999, however—during Sethi's one-month incommunicado detention—Durrani called a press conference to denounce him as having stolen all of her earnings from the book, stating that his actions were "an bigger case of hypocrisy than my experience with the feudal system". Durrani sued Sethi for mental torture, he countersued for defamation. An earlier dispute over the foreign rights had been settled out of court in 1992. A review of the contracts by the UK newspaper The Independent described Sethi as acting in good faith and described him and Mohsin as "the injured party". In 2008, when Sethi's newspapers ran a series of editorials opposing religious fundamentalism, the Taliban threatened him with death, causing him to live under constant guard. Sethi received death threats in July 2008 for publishing an editorial cartoon showing Umme Hassaan, principal of a girls' school, encouraging young women in burqas to "kidnap Chinese masseuses".
The joke referred to Lal Masjid, the fundamentalist mosque at which her husband Abdul Aziz Ghazi was a cleric. Sethi is married to fellow journalist Jugnu Mohsin, the publisher of The
Shahryar Mohammad Khan is a former career Pakistan diplomat who became Foreign Secretary of Pakistan in 1990, remained so until his retirement from service in 1994. He served as UN SRSG to Rwanda. Since August 1999, he has intermittently served as the chairman of Pakistan Cricket Board, he is the current president of Asian Cricket Council. Nawabzada Shaharyar Muhammed Khan is descended from the royal family of former princely state of Bhopal where his ancestors, who belonged to the old Orakzai Pashtun tribe of Tirah, now Pakistan, had emigrated to during first quarter of the eighteenth century, he was born in the Qasr-e-Sultani, Bhopal State in British India. He is the only son and male heir of both Nawab Muhammad Sarwar Ali Khan, the ruler of former princely state of Kurwai and princess Abida Sultan Begum Sahiba, herself the Crown Princess and the eldest daughter of last ruling Nawab of Bhopal, Haji-Hafiz Sir Muhammad Nawab Hamidullah Khan, who reigned state of Bhopal after a prolonged era of Begums regime.
His aunt Sajida Sultan became the Begum of Bhopal after her mother migrated to Pakistan, she was married to cricketer Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi, the 8th Nawab of Pataudi. He has the eldest being Faiz Mohammad Khan, father of Aalia Sultan Khan, he is the first cousin of the Nawab Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, who died on 22 September 2011. His nephew and niece Saif Ali Khan and Soha Ali Khan are film actors, the former of whom is married to actress Kareena Kapoor. Khan studied at the following institutes: Daly College, Indore Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, Dehradun University of Cambridge The Fletcher School–Tufts University He worked for a year with Burmah Shell Oil, in 1957, joined the Pakistani foreign service. In 1960, he was posted as a Third Secretary in the Pakistani High Commission in London, was promoted to Second Secretary in the Tunis embassy from 1962 to 1966. In 1976, Shahryar Khan became Pakistan’s ambassador to Jordan and the United Kingdom He stayed as Pakistan Ambassador to France and Chairman, Committee on Foreign Service Reforms, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
He is teaching Pakistan's Foreign Relations at the Lahore University of Management Sciences as part of the Social Sciences faculty. He teaches a course titled "Pakistan's Foreign Relations" in Fall semester and a senior level course titled "Critical Issues in Pakistan's Foreign Relations" in Spring semester. At LUMS, he is the patron of the LUMS Model UN Society. On 1 July 1994, he was appointed United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's Special Representative to Rwanda, succeeding Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh; as U. N. Special Representative, he represented the United Nations during the genocide and subsequent refugee crisis, he remained the Chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board from 10 December 2003 till he resigned on 7 October 2006. On 16 August 2014 he was again appointed as the Chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board. In 2005 he was made an honorary fellow of Cambridge. In his retirement, Shaharyar Khan has written a number of books; the Begums of Bhopal is a history of the princely state of Bhopal.
The Shallow Graves of Rwanda is an eye-witness account of his two-year stay in a country ravaged by what some might call genocide. Cricket – a Bridge of Peace, about India-Pakistan relations, is his third book, his most personal book has been the biography of his mother Princess Abida Sultaan – Memoirs of a Rebel Princess, translated into Urdu. In 2013 with his son Ali Khan he wrote Cricket Cauldron: The Turbulent Politics of Sport in Pakistan, he has co-authored a book titled as "Shadows across the playing field. He has been appointed Chairman after he was elected unanimously by the board of governors of Pakistan Cricket Board in the light of new constitution of the PCB 2014, approved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Khan served as the PCB chief in 2003, taking over with the board in turmoil, his tenure is remembered more for Pakistan's 2006 forfeit of the Oval test after being penalised for ball tampering. He was once again appointed the chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board on 18 August 2014.
He served as one of the founders of the Pakistan Super League. As of May 2016, he is still the chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board. In March 2016, Pakistan was eliminated from the 2016 ICC World Twenty20 after losing 3 matches against India, New Zealand and Australia and only winning against Bangladesh; this caused great controversy over. Khan was amongst those blamed and there were talks about him retiring from PCB after this. However, he spoke out and said he would not resign, he said it would be better to bring in a foreign coach, implying that Waqar Younis' coaching contract, which ends in June 2016, will not be renewed. Furthermore, he did not release any statements on who he thought was responsible for the loss Instead, he said before the match that he will not change Afridi's position because he has been'serving Pakistan for the last 20 years', he added that changes will happen after the tournament but added that the poor performance was from the whole team, except certain individuals.
Foreign relations of Pakistan Profile of Author Shaharyar M. Khan Musharraf appoints Shahryar new PCB chief Pakistan cricket in turmoil as Shahryar Khan resigns
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.